The region was settled by Frisian settlers in two waves of immigration around 800 and 1100. These were to be distinguished from the other Friesland as North Frisians . The region consists of the North Frisian Islands and Halligen as well as the coastal strip between the Eider and the German-Danish border . Historically, the region includes the Uthlande , adjacent parts of the Goesharden and Karrharde and the island of Helgoland .
For a long time the region had no real center and until 1864 it was under either the Kingdom of Denmark or the Duchy of Schleswig . It was not until 1970 that North Friesland was given its own legal personality in the form of the Nordfriesland district , although the district and region are not congruent. The region is about a third smaller than the district area, which also includes parts of the Jutian - Danish settled Schleswig Geest and parts of Stapelholm . Heligoland, on the other hand, came to the Pinneberg district as a Frisian island .
The North Frisian mainland has a share of the Geest and - above all - the fertile marshland , especially on the Eiderstedt peninsula and between Husum and the Danish border. The marshland are diked. The geest areas are mostly further east; At Schobüll, however, it reaches as far as the surf zone of the North Frisian Wadden Sea. Attached to the mainland is the Hamburger holm that a holm character has, however, (in normal and underlying tidal course can be achieved foot) on the foreshore. To the north of Eiderstedt there are numerous islands in the Wadden Sea. The island of Helgoland, which is far from the rest of North Frisia, is also part of the North Frisia region.
Four types of islands can be distinguished:
- The Geest core islands of Sylt , Föhr and Amrum . Geest is understood to mean ice age deposits as they occur in the Schleswig-Holstein central ridge from north to south; they are badly washed out and less fertile than the marsh. The Geestkerne are remnants of the great "Westland", which has been removed and washed up to the present day.
- The marshland island Pellworm and the former marshland island Nordstrand consist of diked marshland, which is built up from deposits of the sea. Nordstrand is now a peninsula.
- The Halligen Langeneß , Hooge , Oland , Gröde , Habel , Norderoog , Nordstrandischmoor , Süderoog and Südfall . The Halligen, like the subsoil of the Köge and marshland islands, consist of marine deposits, but are not diked or only surrounded by low summer dykes . As a result, they are exposed to flooding and as a result can only be used for livestock farming. In contrast, arable farming can also be practiced on the diked marshland of the Köge and marshland islands.
- The rocky island of Helgoland differs geologically significantly from the other islands.
The history of North Frisia as a political unit actually only begins with the district reform of 1970, because before that there was no politically uniform structure. Up until 1864, the history of today's district as part of the Duchy of Schleswig was closely linked to that of the Kingdom of Denmark . At times the Dutch also exerted great influence, albeit almost only in the marshland.
Stone Age and Bronze Age
Especially on the Sylt Geest, but also on the mainland, numerous large stone graves and various small finds reveal early settlement. In the Neolithic Age , Sylt, cut off from the mainland by rising sea levels, was particularly densely populated.
In the Bronze Age , North Frisia profited from trade. Amber was a preferred commodity , for which North Frisia probably had a kind of monopoly. Rich grave supplements on the islands speak for great wealth, at least of the upper class, a highly developed culture and considerable craftsmanship. Even luxury items from the southern German Hallstatt culture found their way to Amrum. The simple population lived from agriculture and animal husbandry.
The Iron Age began a thousand years later in Northern Europe than in the Middle East. The iron was extracted with the help of charcoal from lawn iron stone, which occurs, for example, on the Stollberg .
At that time, from 500 BC. The north became more and more culturally isolated. Trade came to a standstill, the deterioration of the climate and the increase in storm surges forced the population of the marshland to emigrate (compare the trains of the Cimbri and Teutons ).
During the migration period , there was further depopulation. It can be assumed that the population of North Friesland at the time contributed to the conquest of England together with the fishing rods. In any case, there are no properly secured settlement finds from the 6th and 7th centuries.
Settlement by Frisians and Jutes and relations with Denmark
From around 700 onwards, the Frisians coming across the North Sea settled on the North Frisian islands of Sylt, Amrum and Föhr and, in a second wave of settlements around 1100, the largely deserted marshland between Eider and Vidå (Wiedau). The Geest areas were settled by Danish Jutes after the Great Migration . Also on the later islands, at least on Amrum and Föhr, a Nordic portion of the population must be expected, which however was largely assimilated after the Frisian immigration. Finds that point to close connections to the core area of the Frisians at the mouth of the Rhine and to Frisian settlement in North Frisia date from the 8th century and are mainly limited to the Geest Islands and Eiderstedt. The sources indicate numerous contacts between Frisians and Danes during this period, but only allow indirect conclusions to be drawn that this also meant residents of North Frisia.
Around 1100 the traces of settlement expanded significantly and also reached larger areas of today's district. Apparently, numerous Frisians fought with the Danish kings. The first written mention of the North Frisians goes back to the year 1200, when Saxo Grammaticus gave a detailed description of "Kleinfriesland". This was related to the conflict between the Danish King Sven II and his rival King Knut, in which the Frisians supported Knut and built a castle south of Husum, which Sven was able to storm. After the great storm surges in the 14th and 15th centuries, Frisians also settled on the edge of the Schleswig Geest.
The following centuries were marked by cooperation and conflict. While Frisians served in the Danish army and supported, for example, Waldemar II. In the 1227 lost battle of Bornhöved against Holstein and Hanseatic cities, there were numerous conflicts over taxes and duties. The Frisians themselves considered themselves largely independent from Denmark. The Frisian settled Harden were united in the Uthlands in the Middle Ages and had an independent legal practice based on customary law and only set in writing in 1426 with the Siebenhardenbelieben and the Crown of Right Truth . In the Harden on the Geest, codified Jutian law has been in effect since 1240 . Already in the middle of the 12th century was legally between the Uthlanden settled King Friesen and on the Geestrand within the Idstedter Syssels distinguished settled ducal or Sysselfriesen. In the later royal enclaves, Danish law was increasingly applied from 1435. The force in North Frisia dyke law , as Spadenland law , emerged gradually since 1459 and was codified 1556th
In the 13th century, North Frisia was a comparatively rich country. The Frisians built dikes and farmed. But the most important economic good was salt , which was obtained by burning peat in the Uthlanden. The Schleswig city law of 1150 regulated the import duty on salt from the Uthlands.
Immigration from the Netherlands
A significant wave of immigration from the Netherlands took place between the Reformation and the end of the Thirty Years' War . The Netherlands rose to sea power at this time; the rich marshland of the west coast of Schleswig-Holstein attracted traders and settlers. At the same time, religious tensions and the effects of the Thirty Years' War caused many Dutch people to leave their homeland. In Schleswig-Holstein they were given generous edicts of tolerance ; the war itself only grazed the country. Catholics settled on Nordstrand, Mennonites (Anabaptists) on Eiderstedt and in the newly founded Friedrichstadt, in addition to the first-mentioned groups, especially Remonstrants .
The Dutch brought a multitude of technical innovations with them. They revolutionized dyke construction and drainage and made large stretches of land usable again for living and agriculture. They introduced cheese production on a large scale with significant economic consequences ; At times it was said that there is more silver than iron on the Eiderstedt peninsula and that people eat there with gold cutlery from gold plates. The main reason for this was the three million pounds of cheese that left Eiderstedt in good years in the 17th century via the port in Tönning.
The Haubarg house type and the Dutch windmills originally come from the Netherlands. The foundations of all modern sea dikes also came with the Dutch: The embankments became much flatter and thus offered better protection against dike breaches. The lower edge was secured by straw and no longer by wood.
North Frisia in modern times
After the division of the duchies in 1544, the Nordergoesharde remained with the Danish king as a royal share, while the Südergoesharde and the Eiderstedt region went to Duke Adolf I , who resided in Gottorf , and Nordstrand, Sylt, Osterland-Föhr and the northern part of the North Frisian mainland belonging to the Tondern office fell to Duke Johann the Elder , who lived in Hadersleben . After his death, his shares in North Frisia also came to the Gottorf ducal house in 1581. Amrum, Westerland-Föhr and Listland on Sylt remained directly subordinate to the kingdom as royal enclaves .
The North Frisian marshland were of great economic importance, especially for the Gottorf people. Among them, numerous embankment measures were carried out and representative castles were built in Husum and Tönning. A regional peculiarity in North Friesland was the customarily recognized Stavenrecht . However, the country also suffered from the many wars in the 16th and early 17th centuries and the corresponding billeting of foreign troops. After the Great Northern War in 1721, the Gottorf shares fell back to the Danish king.
A decisive turning point in the history of North Friesland was the Second Grote Mandränke in October 1634, which claimed thousands of lives and, among other things, tore the island of Strand into several parts. From the middle of the 17th century onwards, whaling and later also commercial shipping made itself felt economically. North Frisians hired mainly on Dutch ships, but also on ships from Altona, Hamburg and Copenhagen. Tönning and Husum in particular emerged as trading cities. In 1621 Friedrichstadt was also founded at the confluence of Treene and Eider on the edge of Stapelholm. A wave of emigration also began in the early 17th century .
In terms of denomination, North Friesland was almost uniformly evangelical-Lutheran in the early modern era. The reformer Hermann Tast from Husum had a particularly significant influence . Religious minorities were found exclusively in Eiderstedt (Anabaptists / Mennonites), Nordstrand (Catholics) and in Friedrichstadt, which was founded in 1621 (especially Remonstrants, Mennonites, Catholics and Jews). At times, enthusiastic or pietistic trends existed, such as with Anna Ovena Hoyer or the so-called Bordelumer Rotte .
North Friesland as part of Prussia
In 1864 Schleswig-Holstein became Prussian . The administration on the west coast north of the Eider was divided into the districts of Eiderstedt , Husum and Tondern . Emigration, especially to the United States , peaked, so that today almost every native family has relatives in the United States or other emigrant countries .
After the First World War , there was a referendum in 1920 on the territorial affiliation of the northern and central parts of Schleswig, as a result of which the Tondern district was divided and the northern main part came to Denmark . Südtondern remained with Schleswig-Holstein , as did the small northern part of the Husum district, in which the voting took place.
The rural people's movement shaped the political climate at the end of the 1920s.
Like all of rural Schleswig-Holstein, North Friesland had been a stronghold of the NSDAP since the early 1930s . The blood-and-soil ideology of the National Socialists appealed to the rural population. In the last free elections in the Weimar Republic , the NSDAP achieved above-average election results.
time of the nationalsocialism
Takeover and conformity
The exceptionally good election results of the NSDAP continued in the local elections in 1933. In the districts of Südtondern and Husum-Eiderstedt, the party achieved overwhelming majorities of more than 60% of the votes. It achieved similar results in most communities. According to Husumer Nachrichten , Adolf Hitler accepted honorary citizenship in the village of Wittbek , as the village had voted for the NSDAP five times in a row with all votes. The only notable exception was Tönning , in which the NSDAP only won 3 out of 15 seats and thus did not exceed the results of the SPD or KPD .
In a short time, however, this had become meaningless. The synchronization also worked in North Friesland; not only the municipal representatives were disempowered, but all associations from the church to the poultry farmers. Actual and alleged opponents of the regime were expelled from their offices, publicly humiliated, and not infrequently tortured or sent to early concentration camps . With a few exceptions, the population received the public abuse and humiliation with indifference or enthusiasm. At its general assembly in March 1933, for example, the district farmers' association of Südtondern passed the resolution:
“The Kreisbauernbund Südtondern has an ardent love for the Reich government of Hitler. He asks to take immediate action against murderers and traitors to the country with the death penalty. "
Minorities and resistance
The attitude of the National Socialists to the Frisians was marked by instrumentalization. On the one hand, all racial researchers agreed that the Frisians were “primitive Germanic” and “a living source of strength for the Nordic attitude and Nordic desire”: Frisian houses became fashion far beyond Friesland, the Nazis promoted innocuous customs such as the Biikebrennen . Films like Schimmelreiter, shot in 1933, glorified Frisianism. On the other hand, any attempt to maintain the actual Frisian culture was fought. Tuition in Frisian was severely restricted; only the reference to the political competition of the Danish Frisians prevented that it was completely abolished. Contacts with the Frisians in the Netherlands were massively hindered.
The small Danish minority itself was worked with a policy of pinpricks. They profited from the ideological enthusiasm of National Socialism for "Nordic races", so that their organizations remained legal; they were exempt from the Hitler Youth and labor service themselves. However, they had to go to war for a system with which they had nothing in common. The group itself had to live with numerous disabilities, harassment and attempts to poach them, so that the number of organized Danes fell sharply after 1933.
Before 1933 around 60 Jews lived in the North Frisian districts, a good half of them in Friedrichstadt . The city has been a place of special tolerance since its foundation. However, numerous Jews traveled to the area on vacation, and some also owned seasonal shops on the North Frisian Islands. Here, too, businesses were boycotted, “ Aryanized ” over time, and Jews were gradually deprived of all rights. In 1934 the Westerland bathing and municipal administration decided not to accept any more Jews. On Föhr, school classes were taken to the port after the Reichspogromnacht to spit on Jewish children who were expelled from the island.
During the Reichspogromnacht, SA men set fire in the Friedrichstadt synagogue and set off an explosive device. The city's Jews were arrested, some of them sent to Sachsenhausen concentration camp . A larger part of the North Frisian Jews sought protection in the anonymous city of Hamburg, many of them were murdered in concentration camps in the following years. In 2005 not a single Jew lived in Friedrichstadt, which once housed one of Denmark's largest Jewish communities with 500 members.
Resistance was very rare. Individual men like the Frisian functionary and the former DVP member Julius Momsen consistently rejected National Socialism. The Frisian poet Jens Emil Mungard initially welcomed the Nazis' seizure of power, but gradually turned away and died in 1940 in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp . The Confessing Church was active in the district, but largely limited its actions to obtaining a certain ecclesiastical autonomy. In their stronghold, the mission establishment in Breklum , some Jews were saved during the Nazi era. Isolated communist resistance was active for a short time in 1934/1935 by a group in Friedrichstadt or by Hein Kommunist (Heinrich Carstensen) in Husum, by 1936 the communist and social democratic camp in North Friesland was broken up at the latest.
Sylt fortress and Friesenwall
The Nazi leadership tackled large land reclamation projects with a great deal of propaganda . By 1939, the workers had created eight 4,000-hectare kays, including National Socialist “model settlements” such as the Hermann-Göring-Koog (today: Tümlauer-Koog ) or the Horst-Wessel-Koog (today: Norderheverkoog ). The work was deliberately carried out with the simplest means in order to artificially increase the need for manual labor and labor.
Sylt as the northernmost point of Germany and the German Bight, also viewed by Hitler as the northernmost "spearhead" of the German Reich, played a relevant role in the planning of the war. After the seizure of power, the island was massively expanded as an airport and fortress, and numerous bunkers and artillery were dug into the island's dunes. The Rantum Basin was created as a landing pad for flying boats. The population of List rose from 449 to 2,870 between 1933 and 1939, while that of Hörnum rose from a double-digit number to 1,519. Sylt was therefore the only place in North Friesland that was exposed to major air raids by British bomber groups during the war and also suffered certain destruction of civil buildings.
At the end of 1944, in fear of an invasion across the North Sea, the Nazi leadership had the Friesenwall built. 25,000 men were supposed to erect multiple anti-tank and invasion barriers here. Some young people, Volkssturm and Reich Defense Units, but mostly concentration camp prisoners and prisoners of war had to move the heavy and wet clay soil with primitive means ten to twelve hours a day, seven days a week, in the constant rain . Within the few weeks of the enterprise, around 600 prisoners worked their way to death in the Ladelund concentration camp and in Schwesing , two satellite camps of the Neuengamme concentration camp . The wall remained unfinished and militarily useless due to the rapidly collapsing German Empire.
As part of the district reform in Schleswig-Holstein, on April 26, 1970, the three districts of Eiderstedt , Husum and Südtondern (except for six communities) and three communities in the Schleswig district were combined to form the new "District of North Friesland" based in Husum. In the district elections in 1978 in the district of North Friesland and in the Steinburg district, Green Lists , the forerunners of Alliance 90 / The Greens , passed the five percent hurdle for the first time in Germany .
Cultural identity of North Frisia
People and sea
North Friesland has been shaped by the North Sea since it was settled : the coastline is in constant motion, the current state is only an intermediate state: the sea destroyed land and turned it into tidal flats; often with disastrous consequences for residents. The people tried to protect themselves and their land, since the 14th century they have been purposefully reclaiming land . The area of the North Frisian coast is subject to transgression ; The trend at the moment is that more and more coastal land is being lost to the sea - unlike, for example, in Dithmarschen to the south. The North Frisian Islands and Halligen were all originally part of the mainland. Pellworm and Nordstrand are the remains of the old island of Strand , which was first partially destroyed during two storm surges in 1325 and 1634 and then torn in two. The mainland coast, however, consists of 171 Kögen : Eiderstedt as well as Dagebüll , Klanxbüll were islands and Halligen until the early modern times, which only became mainland through human influence. The interaction between man and the North Sea is expressed in the Frisian motto: God created the sea. The Frisian coast.
Several large storm surges caused tens of thousands of deaths and profoundly changed the coastal landscape. During the Second Marcellus Flood ( Grote Mandränke ) in 1362, large stretches of land disappeared permanently in the sea and the town of Rungholt went under.
While the struggle of the people against the sea was limited to protecting themselves first by terps , later by ring dikes and later by long dike lines on the coast, the offensive dikes and reclamation of new land in the Wadden Sea began with the Second Marcellus Flood . At first only the residents of the neighboring Harden were responsible for the new dike and were able to occupy the land. After Alt-Nordstrand was largely destroyed in the Burchardi flood, the inhabitants lacked the strength and resources to save at least the remains of the island. Only when the Gottorf Duke left the land and extensive freedoms in an octroy dike farmer from the Netherlands could today's north beach be secured. Later, the Gottorf dukes and later Danish kings expanded the Oktroy system and also used it to reclaim new land - most prominently through the various kings that the Danish nobleman and banker Jean Henri Desmercières had dammed.
The last Schleswig-Holstein Koog that was used to reclaim land for settlement was Friedrich-Wilhelm-Lübke-Koog , which was diked in 1954 . Later cows like the Hauke-Haien-Koog or the Beltringharder Koog (Deichschluss 1987) were used for coastal protection and could only be won after a violent dispute with nature conservationists . They are uninhabited.
Despite a total of nine different Frisian dialects , North Frisia formed a cultural unit. The North Sea , whose storm surges threatened people and whose possibilities for seafaring determined people's lives, is formative for the country and its people.
The special cultural diversity of North Frisia is also reflected in the languages . In addition to the aforementioned to the Frisian languages belonging Frisian is standard German , Low German (or Low German), Sønderjysk and (partly, partially described as a Danish dialect as a regional language, influenced by Low German, older Nordic forms included) Danish ( Standard Danish usually in the form of Sydslesvigdansk ) spoken.
Some of the North Frisian dialects are still spoken on the islands and on the northern mainland. In many areas, however, North Frisian has been replaced by Low and High German. The Eiderstedter and Strander Frisian have died out since early modern times. Nevertheless, the application and maintenance of North Frisian is very important in the region and is supported by several Frisian associations and the Nordfriisk Instituut . This also includes singing North Frisian songs . The Nordfriisk Instituut works scientifically with the North Frisian language, history and culture, regularly publishes specialist literature and publishes the magazine Nordfriesland . Today around 10,000 people still speak one of the North Frisian dialects. In this context, the railway companies installed additional station signs with the Frisian place name at individual stations a few years ago.
Danish was historically spoken in the form of Sønderjysk, especially on the Geest north of a line between Husum and Schwabstedt (Mellemslesvigsk) and in the north of Sylt. Sometimes there were also localities in which both Frisian and Sønderjysk were spoken. Like Frisian, however, Sønderjysk has also been replaced by Low and High German in the course of modern times. Today Sønderjysk is still spoken near the border in northern North Friesland. Among the Danish minority, a variety of standard Danish has developed, which is influenced by the northern German colloquial language, which is known as southern Schleswig-Danish . The preservation of the Danish language in North Friesland is supported, among other things, by the cultural work of the Sydslesvigsk Forening and several Danish schools and day-care centers run by the Danish School Association.
Diversity in art
The major artists of North Friesland include the painter Jürgen Ovens and the composer and organ virtuoso Nicolaus Bruhns . A number of important artists and scientists came from the area in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The paintings by Emil Nolde and in particular the stories of Theodor Storm , here above all Der Schimmelreiter, are considered to be the identity of the landscape . The sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies , the historian Theodor Mommsen and the pedagogue Friedrich Paulsen also came from North Frisia .
Architecturally representative secular buildings were and are mainly in the cities of Husum , Tönning and Garding . The castle in front of Husum , for example, is impressive . Destroyed was the Tönninger Castle after the Great Northern War .
In the field of architecture, in most cases the sea and agriculture shaped both the style and form of the building. There are numerous lighthouses in the district (including the well-known Westerheversand lighthouse ). In the rural villages, the architecture followed a functionalist model necessary for agriculture. According to the different landscape areas, the Geesthardenhaus and the Uthlandfriesische Haus can be distinguished here; the oldest still preserved, belonging to the first type, is the Olesen house on Föhr , built in 1617 . The Eiderstedter took over the Gulfhaus from the Dutch immigrants in the 17th century , which was further developed into Haubarg on Eiderstedt . Numerous Dutch mills also spread with the immigrants . Friedrichstadt , which lies outside the actual Frisian settlement area, was built by the Dutch, so that the city looks more like a Dutch city than a north German or Danish city.
To this day, North Friesland has been shaped by identity-creating cultural customs. The Biikebrennen , which is celebrated annually on February 21 on the eve of Petri Day, is of particular importance today . Are also spread the Rummelpott running at the end of which regionally as Hulken (on Amrum), the Omtaakelten mask pass (on Sylt) or Ütj tu kenknin is known (Foehr). A Jöölboom (Friesenbaum) is traditionally set up during the Advent and Christmas season . As in the neighboring northern German and Danish regions, ring riding is also widespread in North Friesland . Boßeln and club jumping are still practiced on Eiderstedt in particular . On the islands, for example Föhr and Amrum , wearing traditional costumes in particular is still of a high degree of identity. There is also the tradition of Hualewjonken here . Especially for tourism, however, there is also a folklore of Frisianism, which is met with criticism.
Several legends have come down to us from the North Frisian region . A well-known legendary figure who is also known in the rest of Schleswig is Nis Puk . Ekke Nekkepenn is a legendary figure from Sylt . The gonger is also known from the islands as a revenant figure.
to eat and drink
Fish dishes have a long tradition in North Frisia. North sea prawns, mostly called “crabs”, are among the specialties, but some have long processing routes behind them. The meat of the salt meadow lambs is one of the typical dishes . Halligbrot is a hearty bread with shrimp, fried egg and Hallig butter . "Föhrer mussels" are mussels harvested on the mussel banks around Föhr , but they are processed on the mainland near Dagebüll. Typical desserts are Frisian cakes - made from puff pastry , whipped cream and plum jam - and "Frisian waffles" made from shortcrust pastry .
A number of alcoholic beverages are native to North Frisia. The Pharisee is a coffee drink with rum with a cherry on top. The equivalent of cocoa instead of coffee is known as the dead aunt . Are popular Kom - to the north of North Friesland "yellow" in the south "white" - and produced therefrom tea punch . A popular variation of the grog is the Eiergrog that without the addition of egg liqueur is made.
Well-known North Frisians
- The painter Oluf Braren , born in Oldsum on the island of Föhr in 1787 , was a representative of naive painting .
- Christian Feddersen was the founder of the Frisian movement in the 19th century.
- Peter Christian Grünberg , born in Drelsdorf in 1901 , was a local researcher, linguist, writer and translator.
- The painter Carl Ludwig Jessen , who was born in today's Niebüller district of Deezbüll , is considered the Frisian painter .
- Nis Albrecht Johannsen the Younger , a poet and teacher from Deezbüll, campaigned for the North Frisian language.
- Theodor Mommsen , born in Garding in 1817 , winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature , is the most important German archaeologist of the 19th century.
- Tycho Mommsen , born in Garding in 1819, was a classical philologist and high school director
- Hans Momsen , born in Fahretoft in 1735 , was a mathematician and astronomer
- Jens Emil Mungard , a poet who cultivated the Sylt Frisian , was born in Keitum on Sylt
- Ludwig Nissen , born in Husum in 1855 , founder of the Ludwig Nissen House , was a diamond dealer and patron who emigrated to New York
- The painter Emil Nolde (actually Emil Hansen), whose biography in today to the municipality Buhrkall belonging Nolde began, his father called a North Frisians. He lived the longest part of his life in his Frisian homeland in Seebüll near the Wiedau.
- Frederik Paulsen , founder of FERRING Pharmaceuticals and the Ferring Foundation.
- Friedrich Paulsen was a German educator and philosopher.
- Friede Springer , b. Elfriede Riewerts, born in Oldsum on the island of Föhr in 1942, is a German publisher and widow of Axel Springer .
- Thomas Steensen , born in Bredstedt in 1951, headed the Nordfriisk Instituut for more than three decades and wrote basic books on Nordfriesland.
- Theodor Storm is the most famous writer from North Frisia, he was born in Husum .
- Ferdinand Tönnies , born in Oldenswort , was a co-founder of scientific sociology.
- Oskar Vogt , born in Husum, was one of the pioneers of modern neuroscience .
- Stella Sommer , born in Husum and raised in St. Peter-Ording , is a German singer, songwriter and musician.
- Albert Bantelmann , Rolf Kuschert, Albert Panten, Thomas Steensen: History of North Friesland . 2nd edition, Westholsteinische Verlagsanstalt Boyens, Heide in Holstein 1996 (= Nordfriisk Instituut, No. 136), ISBN 3-8042-0759-6 .
- Andreas Ludwig Jakob Michelsen: North Friesland in the Middle Ages: a historical sketch . In the royal deaf-mute institute, Schleswig 1828.
- Gregor Gumpert, Ewald Tucai (ed.): North Friesland and its islands. A literary portrait . Wachholtz, Neumünster 2011, ISBN 3-529-06116-6 .
- LC Peters: Nordfriesland Heimatbuch for the districts Husum and Südtondern . 1929 (reprinted 1975)
- Nicolas Peters, Mathias Peters: Kaart van Noord-Friesland in Sleeswijk (Duitsland) in 1651 (left) en 1240 (right) . Historical map from the holdings of the Nederlands Scheepvaartmuseum , Amsterdam. Husum 1664 ( Kaart van Noord-Friesland in Sleeswijk [accessed May 24, 2010] Dutch: FRISIA BOREALIS IN DVCATV SLESWICENSI sive FRISIA CIMBRICA Anno 1651; FRISIA BOREALIS IN DVCATV SLESWICENSI Anno 1240. Frisia Cimbrica Antiqu .). .
- JA Petersen: Hikes through the duchies of Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg . tape 3 . Printed by C. Wäser, 1839.
- K. Sönnichsen: The Husum district Small local history for school and home . Husum 1909.
- Thomas Steensen: The great North Friesland book . Ellert & Richter Verlag, Hamburg 2000, ISBN 3-89234-886-3 . (Pages: 560)
- Thomas Steensen: History of North Frisia from 1918 to the present . New edition, Nordfriisk Instituut, Bräist / Bredstedt 2006 (= History of North Friesland, Part 5; Nordfriisk Instituut, No. 190), ISBN 3-88007-336-8 .
- Thomas Steensen: Nordfriesland and the Frisians, Verlag Nordfriisk Instituut, Bräist / Bredstedt 2010, ISBN 978-3-88007-360-9 .
- Thomas Steensen: home of North Friesland. A canon of Frisian culture (= Nordfriisk Instituut No. 211 ). 1st edition. Verlag Nordfriisk Instituut, Bräist / Bredstedt 2011, ISBN 978-3-88007-364-7 , p. 192 .
- History of North Frisia at the North Frisian Association ( Memento from July 15, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- interfriesischerrat.de (PDF; 981 kB) in relation to the boundaries of the district of North Friesland
- Nils Århammar: History of the North Frisians and the North Frisian . In: Volkert F. Faltings, Alastair GH Walker and Ommo Wilts (eds.): Frisian Studies II . Odense University Press, Odense 1995, ISBN 87-7838-059-6 , pp. 68/69 .
- Albert Panten: History of the Frisians in the Middle Ages: North Friesland Medieval Law . In: Handbook of Frisian . Max Niemeyer Verlag, Tübingen 2001, ISBN 3-484-73048-X , p. 554 .
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