Nordstrand (/ nɔɐtˈʃtʁant /, North Frisian : di Ströön ) is a diked peninsula in the district of North Friesland in Schleswig-Holstein . It is located in front of Husum and was a marsh island until 1987 .
With the exception of the independent Elisabeth-Sophien-Kooges and including the Hallig Nordstrandischmoor, Nordstrand forms the municipality of the same name, Nordstrand .
As one of the remains of the island of Strand , which was partially submerged in the 17th century , the western part of which forms today's Pellworm , Nordstrand was originally an island. In 1906/07, Nordstrand was connected to the mainland for the first time by a 2.6 kilometer long low dam. This dam was used exclusively for coastal protection and was not navigable. However, pedestrians could cross it at low tide. The flood-free expansion of the Nordstrander dam took place in 1933/35: a 4.3 kilometer long road (including the access ramps) has since connected Nordstrand to the mainland. The car-friendly expansion of the dam fulfilled a long-cherished Nordstrander wish. From then on, it made the islanders independent of tide and weather-dependent ship connections to the mainland and since then has made a lasting contribution to the economic development of the island that was made land-based.
Since the completion of the Beltringharder Kooges in 1987, Nordstrand has had a much larger mainland connection and is therefore a peninsula surrounded by the sea on three sides. The area of the former island was 48.6 km² (including the municipality of Elisabeth-Sophien-Koog, but without the Hallig Nordstrandischmoor belonging to the municipality of Nordstrand). From Beltringharder Koog with a total area of 35.41 km², 12.17 km² were added to the municipality of Nordstrand.
North beach is in the following Köge divided:
|Koog||former name||Embankment||Area km²||population|
|Beltringharder Koog 2||1987||35.41 3||...|
|North beach (peninsula)||46.60 4||2257 5|
3 thereof 12.17 km² to the municipality of Nordstrand and 0.10 km² to the municipality of Elisabeth-Sophien-Koog
5without the Hallig Nordstrandischmoor belonging to the municipality of Nordstrand
Until the Burchardi flood
Around the year 1200, today's north beach belonged to a large diked peninsula, the main town of which was Rungholt , which was later submerged . It was north of the three islands Utholm , Everschop and Eiderstedt, which were now united to form the Eiderstedt peninsula , and filled most of today's Husum Bay. According to Waldemar II's book of earth , this peninsula had 59 churches and chapels in five hares .
The floods of the 14th century and especially those of the 15th and 16th centuries January 1362, the Second Marcellus Flood or “First Mandränke”, led to the design of the horseshoe-shaped island of Strand , whose distance from the mainland increased as the Hever Current deepened . The two ends of the horseshoe formed the later islands of Nordstrand and Pellworm , while today's Nordstrandischmoor lay as a desert, uninhabited high moor in the middle. The old north beach was breached by the flood of November 11, 1436, but the gap closed again in the quiet following years and was diked again in 1551.
It stayed that way until October 11, 1634: on that day, the storm surge, later called the Burchardi flood, caused considerable destruction in a single hour of the night . The islands of Nordstrand and Pellworm as well as the Hallig Nordstrandischmoor remained from the beach. In a short time 20 parishes with 19 churches, 1,332 houses and 30 windmills were destroyed, more than 6,400 people died; only 2,633 people survived the disaster. Before this flood, the beach had an area of around 22,000 hectares; by 1905/06 the diked area was only 9,000 hectares in size.
After the Burchardi flood
After the flood, the population on the remaining islands was greatly reduced; Nordstrand was economically ruined. The inhabitants fled to the higher-lying Nordstrandischmoor, settled on the mainland or emigrated to the Netherlands or the Uckermark , while the remains of old Nordstrand were exposed to the sea without protection. The inhabitants of the equally affected Pellworm quickly succeeded in protecting their island again and re-damming it. The survivors of the eastern part of the island, who were more severely hit, would have had to rely on government assistance, but this did not materialize because the Thirty Years' War tied up all means. The sea current of the Norderhever finally destroyed the land bridge between Nordstrand and Pellworm in the following decades. The old dikes and terps, which can still be seen on the map from 1650, crumbled. Cultivated land became watt. Only three parishes, the two Pellwormer and Odenbüll on today's north beach, remained with their churches.
1652 signed the Gottorf Duke Friedrich III. a license so that the island of Nordstrand can be diked again. With this October the Brabant entrepreneur Quirinus Indervelden obtained extensive rights as dikemaster on the island, which he was supposed to protect from the sea. He granted Indervelden and his fellow participants, most of whom came from Jansenist circles, the right to own the entire land, which led to bitter protests from the remaining North Frisian islanders, who now also lost the rest of their property. Instead of taking part in the construction of the new dike as day laborers, many left the country. Their language, the Strander Frisian , died out. The Catholic dyke builders, mainly from Flanders and Brabant, enjoyed religious freedom , a temporary exemption from taxes and were allowed to organize the island's judiciary, police, administration and foreign trade themselves. Forced military billeting was excluded.
The immigrant dyke construction workers were able to win the first new Koog, the Friedrichs- or Alterkoog, in 1654. Although a heavy storm surge in 1655 destroyed several newly built dams and dykes, it was possible to develop further areas in the following years: in 1657 the Maria-Elisabeth-Koog, today's Osterkoog, 1663 the Trindermarsch-Koog and 1691 the Neue Koog. In 1739 the Christianskoog was won. However, the dike was destroyed again in 1751. Deichgraf Indervelden, the grandson of Quirinus Indervelden, had to leave the island financially ruined. Jean Henri Desmercières took over the Octroy . He had the Christianskoog re-embanked in 1768 and named after his wife Elisabeth-Sophien-Koog . The Oktroy itself remained in force for over two hundred years. It only lost its validity in 1866, when Prussia introduced the Prussian land law in the newly founded province of Schleswig-Holstein and thus also in North Frisia after the German War .
In 1952, a Danish island school was built on Nordstrand , which was later abandoned.
During the Reformation , Nordstrand was one of the first areas in Schleswig-Holstein in which Lutheran teaching prevailed. As early as 1526 there were several evangelical preachers.
The Oktroy issued after the Burchardi flood was linked to the permission to found a Catholic community for the Dutch Catholics employed in building the dike. On May 26, 1662 the foundation stone for the St. Theresa Church was laid. The Catholic community was cared for by priests from the Archdiocese of Utrecht . At the same time, the main Catholic participants were patrons of the last remaining Evangelical-Lutheran parish, the St. Vinzenz Church in Odenbüll.
After the Archdiocese of Utrecht was excommunicated from Rome in 1723, the Catholic community split up. The Theresienkirche remained with the diocese of Utrecht by order of the government. It was not until 1920 that the congregation gave up its membership of the Old Catholic Church in the Netherlands . Since then it has belonged to the Old Catholic Church in Germany as the northernmost and at the same time oldest congregation . The Roman Catholic community was only allowed to build its own church in 1868.
Today there is a Protestant parish (St. Vinzenz), a Roman Catholic (St. Knud) and an old Catholic parish (St. Theresia) on Nordstrand .
Economy and Transport
The main industries on Nordstrand are agriculture and tourism.
The public transport is performed by buses, which mostly run on the Nordstrander boulevard and Husum. The port of Strucklahnungshörn is of economic and tourist importance, from which there are regular ferry connections to the neighboring island of Pellworm with ferries from Neue Pellwormer Dampfschiffahrts-GmbH as well as seasonal connections with excursion boats to the North Frisian island and Hallig world. There is also a speedboat connection with the Adler Express between Strucklahnungshörn, Pellworm, Hooge , Amrum and Sylt . The DGzRS (German Society for the Rescue of Shipwrecked People) has a station in the port of Strucklahnungshörn . At the beginning of November 2008, the rescue cruiser Vormann Leiss , which had been stationed there until then, was replaced by the Eiswette , a latest class rescue cruiser with a draft of just 1.30 meters.
to eat and drink
According to tradition, Nordstrand is the place of origin of the alcoholic drink Pharisee .
Sons and daughters of the island
- Anton Heimreich (1626 – before October 1685), pastor on Nordstrandischmoor and author of the North Frisian Chronicle
- Ludwig Ingwer Nommensen (1834-1918), German missionary who, through his work among the Batak of Sumatra was known
- Max Christiansen-Clausen (1899–1979; until 1946: Max Gottfried Friedrich Clausen), German communist and radio operator at the headquarters for reconnaissance in the General Staff of the Red Army
- Anke Gravert (* 1935), German politician (CDU)
- Peter Harry Carstensen (* 1947 in Elisabeth-Sophien-Koog ), former Prime Minister of Schleswig-Holstein
- Hans-Peter Strenge (* 1948), administrative lawyer, from 1984 to 1995 district office manager in Hamburg-Altona
Other people connected to Nordstrand
- Christian de Cort , also Chrétien de Cort (* 1608/1609 in Hilvarenbeek (North Brabant), † 1669 on Nordstrand), was a Catholic priest and builder of the St. Theresa Church on Nordstrand.
- Hannes Nygaard , actually Rainer Dissars-Nygaard (* 1949 in Hamburg), is a German writer, author of detective novels and business consultant. He lives on North Beach.
- Peter Schmidt-Eppendorf: From the Propstei Strand to the Seeheilbad: Nordstrand. In: Thomas Steensen (ed.): The great North Friesland book. Hamburg 2000, pp. 462-467.
- North Beach Peninsula
- Island walk on the web by Klaus Bölling
- Character and origin of the cultural landscape of Northern Strands (English)
- ^ Map of North Friesland. Nordfriisk Instituut, Bräist / Bredstedt 2011, ISBN 978-3-88007-371-5 .
- ↑ Holger Sethe: The construction of the dam - the creation of the shaft. In: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Wobbenbüller Chronik: Nordstrander Damm, Wobbenbüller Schacht. Bredstedt 1993.
- ^ "North Friesland - then and now", Ingenieurbüro Strunk-Husum, printed by Bogdan Gisevius, Berlin West (with maps of North Friesland around 1240, 1634 and today, which the Husum cartographer Johannes Mejer created in 1649).
- ↑ Georg Quedens : The Halligen. 21st edition. Breklumer Verlag, Breklum 2010, ISBN 3-7793-1114-3 , p. 20.
- ^ Ernst-Wilhelm Heese: The Jansenism and north beach ; Nordstrand 1982 (without page numbers)
- ^ Catholic parish of St. Knud, north beach
- ↑ Nordstrand danske Skole (with photo) . In: Vilhelm La Cour (ed.): Grænsevagten . March 1, 1954, p. 72-73 .
- ↑ Erik Pontoppidan : Kurtz chamfered Reformation history of the Danish Church / from proven documents / initially compiled in Danish, itzo, communicated to the German reader as a sample of the expected ANNALIUM ECCLESIÆ DANIC ; Lübeck 1734; P. 159
Coordinates: 54 ° 30 ' N , 8 ° 53' E