In politics, parity is an even ratio of votes in a body ( Latin : paritas "equality, equal strength"). The aim of parity is to prevent committees from being dominated by narrow majorities or from minorities being excluded by simple majority acquisitions. The term parity is used politically to create an equal distribution between the sexes according to the distribution in the population.
Depending on the number of groups represented in the committee, there is what is known as third parity (three groups) or quarter parity (four groups). The latter is a distribution frequently requested in university committees and means dividing the seats into equal parts between the four groups of students , professors , academic staff and technical-administrative staff. Since the higher education ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court of May 29, 1973 , there has been a majority of professors in Germany as a deviation from parity .