The work area ( field of work , business area , business area , business area , division ) is understood in the work organization to mean the area of activity in business and science that is limited to a specific subject area .
The terms work area , field of work , business area , division or division are used very inconsistently. A work area can consist of several business areas and these consist of several business areas; conversely, a business field can be composed of several work areas as the smallest organizational unit. What the terms have in common is that each of them combines identical or related activities in an organization into an organizational unit. The term content is usually the same, while the scope of the term can be different.
The division of labor in the economy (in companies , authorities , employees ) means that economic subjects such as companies and employees specialize and bundle their specialist skills in narrowly limited areas. As a result, work areas are formed in companies or authorities in whose area identical or at least similar activities or activities occur. These are precisely delimited from one another in job descriptions . In this sense, the job description is a catalog of work content in a specific work area.
The area of work in a company is derived from the specified corporate purpose . The management organization is optimally made up if one board member is responsible for one area of work and one specialist area. The departments for organization and planning are usually reserved for the CEO . The technological and business-related peculiarities of the work areas should still be related and limited in their breadth so that the management organization also remains technically efficient. In the hierarchy levels below the board of directors , the departments must be grouped together according to a uniform work area as part of the organizational structure .
The composition of the individual areas of work can take place under market aspects ( customer orientation ) or according to technical-economic aspects ( product types ). Companies often differentiate between core areas and specialty areas . Core areas (also core business ) are work areas that represent the main success factors for the company's results and its technical competence. Special areas, on the other hand, have hardly any relation to the core areas, but produce a permanent and reasonable return. Innovation or diversification ensure the development of new, outsourcing the abolition of previous areas of work. As part of the divisional organization , the work areas can be organizationally separated from one another. The segmentation systematically divides the work areas into multi-product companies in order to provide the public with better market transparency .
The economist Hans H. Hinterhuber understands a business field to be the organizational unit for relatively autonomous product lines or areas of work. Only when it comes to the concept of the strategic business area is there broad agreement in the specialist literature on the use of the term business area.
In connection with employees, the field of work is closely linked to the profession . As early as 1926, the educationalist Georg Kerschensteiner pointed out that technical progress , economy and trade created numerous areas of work for which there could be no inner occupation. In 1956, the business educator Wolfgang Stratenwerth defined the job description as “the summarized, systematic representation and description of the characteristics that are relevant for a particular job in a factual and personal relationship”. The field of work, on the other hand, includes the objective professional requirements that are placed on a career starter. The job description is sometimes also referred to as a field of work.
In terms of tax law , the term work area is also used spatially as an exception if the place of work is a regionally contiguous area such as a forest district , factory premises or the post office district of an employee.
The fields of work of an individual science are predetermined by its knowledge object . The research possibilities resulting from the object of knowledge are usually so extensive that they have to be divided into work areas. Work areas are methodically limited subject areas. A work area has to develop its own methods and questions, because otherwise it remains within the framework of the universal branch of knowledge. The specific field of biostratigraphy developed in paleontology , which deals with the structuring and relative chronological determination of rock units with the help of fossils .
- Herbert A. Henzler, Handbuch Strategischeführung , 1988, p. 138
- Reinhold Sellien, Dr. Gabler's Economic Lexicon: First Volume A-B, keyword division structure , 1977, Sp. 65
- Dietger Hahn, planning and control, planning and control systems , 1994, p. 990
- Hans H. Hinterhuber, Strategische Unternehmensführung , Volume II, 1989, p. 271
- Georg Kerschensteiner, Theory of Education , 1926, p. 200
- Wolfgang Stratenwerth, The professional demarcation in the craft as an economic educational problem , 1956, p. 70 f.
- Günter Hobbensiefken, Occupational Research: Introduction to Traditional and Modern Theories , 1980, p. 184
- Reinhold Sellien, Dr. Gabler's Wirtschafts-Lexikon: First Volume A-B, keyword Bürokaufmann , 1977, Sp. 909
- BFH, judgment of February 2, 1994, BStBl. II, 422 - delivery district
- Anton Fischer, The philosophical foundations of scientific knowledge , 1967, p. 94
- Erich Thenius, Versteinerte Urkunden , 1963, p. 74