As specialization (including specialization and as the logical nonallocator importance of closely related concept of specification ), the differentiated approach is very commonly referred to, the individual aspects, zuwendende particularity, training and paying attention to differences and logically associating division into subdivisions, starting from a same Origin.
The adjective special is derived from the Latin specialis = “especially worth”, “familiar”, “separated”, “ selected ” or “[from] special”, this adjective again belongs to the meaning of Latin species = appearance, beauty, reputation, subdivision of a genus - and from Latin spectare = "to see".
In vocational training, specialization refers to the orientation or restriction to a certain subject area in order to acquire more precise knowledge. In some cases, any activity that is limited to a narrowly defined area is also understood as a specialization in general usage. A higher social status is achieved through professional training and competitive processes . However, this should not be done at the expense of general education .
In biology , specialization usually takes place via the differentiation of less specialized ancestral forms through the formation of a certain form of niche , such as the delimitation / limitation to a certain habitat or the change to a way of life that focuses on special functions, such as the Clothes moth caterpillar. One specialization is a. also possible through a certain organization between differently differentiated cells of an organ system, cf. → Centralization . This gain and increase in specialization is bought at the cost of a loss or reduction in the ability to react to environmental changes. The gradual epigenetic development of such differentiations in tribal history is to be viewed as a specialization. For example, the development of the two sexes that are clearly complementary to one another. Hermaphrodites seem to be more flexible, but this pattern often leads to particularly ruthless forms of male (combative) function.
The logical division and systematic differentiation of these differentiations into genus and species names , as introduced by Carl von Linné (1707–1778), is called specification or determination (for example “ Panthera leo ” ).
Also in Business Administration specialization plays a special role: by appropriate specialization measures within companies to improve the functionality and productivity of each company are guaranteed, which among other things, an appropriate organizational structure ( company structure is reached). Specialization takes place within the framework of the division of labor by dividing work content over several workplaces .
Gymnastics and sports
The gymnastics ideal is versatility, which at the end of the 19th century in Germany was opposed to the sporting ideal of specialization. This resulted in a clean divorce between gymnastics and sport at times , in which the athletes or their clubs had to decide which association they wanted to start for. Even in the compromise sport, the decathlon , there was a struggle for the scoring: The sporting scoring is open to the top for each discipline (i.e. top performance is rewarded), the gymnastics is covered in every discipline, i. H. you cannot achieve more than a maximum and you have to put the additional training into the other disciplines. The same argument took place when the modern pentathlon was introduced into the program of the Olympic Games . In Germany, the discussion was only ended in the times of National Socialism , because the Reichsbund wanted to win many medals for physical exercises at the Olympic Games and that was not possible without specialization.
Since top-level athletic performance usually requires seven years of targeted training, this often leads to specialization in sports with a very early peak in performance (e.g. gymnastics , swimming , figure skating ) in kindergarten or primary school age. Due to the one-sided orientation, this is extremely problematic from an educational point of view. Recent research results show that there is no damage to physical health and no increased risk of injury.
- Specification. and differentiation. In: Georgi Schischkoff (Hrsg.): Philosophical dictionary. 21st edition. Alfred-Kröner, Stuttgart 1982, ISBN 3-520-01321-5 , p. 656 and p. 129.
- Günther Drosdowski: Etymology. Dictionary of origin of the German language; The history of German words and foreign words from their origins to the present. 2nd Edition. Dudenverlag, Volume 7, Mannheim, 1997, ISBN 3-411-20907-0 ; on Wb.-Lemma “special” with subsection “specialize”, p. 690.
- Specialization - entry in Duden (accessed on: March 3, 2014).
- Specialization - entry in Duden (accessed on: March 3, 2014).
- special - entry in Duden (accessed on: March 3, 2014).
- Specification - entry in the Duden (accessed on: January 26, 2015).
- The Great Brockhaus. Compact edition in 26 volumes. 18th edition. FA Brockhaus, Wiesbaden 1983, ISBN 3-7653-0353-4 ; (Position: p. X / y = page / volume), (a) on Lemma “Specialization”, p. 323/20; (b) on Lemma “General Education”, p. 197/1; (c + d) see (a); (e) on Lemma “Specification”, pp. 324/20.
- Social status. In: Johannes Siegrist : Textbook of Medical Sociology. 3. Edition. Urban & Schwarzenberg, Munich 1977, ISBN 3-541-06383-1 , p. 228.
- Centralization. In: Alfred Kühn : Outline of general zoology. 15th edition. Georg Thieme, Stuttgart 1964, p. 7, 55 f., (151 ff.)
- in Scinexx, http://www.scinexx.de/wissen-aktuell-6714-2007-06-26.html
- Species. In: Zetkin-Schaldach: Dictionary of Medicine . dtv, Munich 1980, ISBN 3-423-03029-1 , p. 1319.
- specialization. In: Gabler Wirtschaftslexikon. 14th edition.
- Arnd Krüger : Is there any sense in competition, specialization and the striving for records? The struggle between Turnen, sports and Swedish gymnastics in Germany, in: Guy Bonhomme (Ed.): La place du jeu dans l'éducation. Histoire et pédagogie. Paris: FFEPGV 1989, 123-140.
- Sandra Heck: From playing soldiers and fighting athletes. The genesis of the modern pentathlon. V & R Unipress, Göttingen 2013, ISBN 978-3-8471-0201-4 .
- Karl Krümmel: Athletics: a manual of vital physical exercises. Munich: Lehmann 1930.
- Kyung-Won Kim ,: Competition pedagogy: Pedagogy of athletic performance in children's competitive sports. Berlin: Tischler, 1995. ISBN 3-922654-39-8
- Arnd Krüger (2019): Jugendsport, in: Leistungssport 49 (4), 29–30.