Subject of the Russian Federation
It is located in the Volga Federal District in the southern part of the Eastern European Plain on the Volga Plateau . In the north it borders on the Republic of Mordovia , in the east on the Ulyanovsk Oblast , in the south on the Saratov Oblast and in the west on the Tambov Oblast .
The surface of the oblast is mainly hilly and the climate is temperate continental. The average monthly temperatures fluctuate between −10.0 ° C in February and +19.2 ° C in July. The annual average temperature is 4.7 ° C. From May to August, daytime temperatures usually fluctuate between 21 ° C and 26 ° C.
Russian colonization of the area began in the 17th century. At that time, for example, the border fortress Penza (today the city of Penza) was built as a defensive settlement against the Tatars and other peoples hostile to the Tsarist Empire. In 1718 the area became part of the Kazan Governorate . On September 15, 1780, the region became an independent administrative unit under the name Penza Gouvernement . From March 5, 1797 to September 9, 1801, the area belonged to the Saratov Governorate . Until 1928, the area was again called Penza Governorate. With the reorganization of the administrative units within the Soviet Union, there was the Middle Volga Oblast (May 14, 1928 to October 20, 1929), then its successor Region (Krai) Middle Volga (until January 27, 1935). On that day the krai was given the new name Kuibyshevsky krai . This became on December 6, 1936 the Kuibyshev Oblast (today Samara). From 1937 to 1939 the territory of what is now Penza Oblast belonged to Tambov Oblast . On February 7, 1939, the Penza Oblast was created by splitting off from Tambov in its current size.
In the last Russian censuses in 2002 and 2010, there were a population of 1,452,941 and 1,386,186 residents, respectively. The number of inhabitants thus fell by 66,755 people (−4.59%) in these eight years. In 2010, 930,102 people lived in cities. This corresponds to 67.10% of the population (in Russia 73%). By January 1, 2014, the population decreased further to 1,360,587 people. The distribution of the different ethnic groups was as follows:
|nationality||VZ 1989||percent||VZ 2002||percent||VZ 2010||percent|
Note: the proportions refer to the total number of inhabitants. Including the group of people who did not provide any information about their ethnicity (2002 1,705 and 2010 43,283 people)
The area's population is around 85% Russian. The Tartars and Mordvins are the only significant ethnic minorities in Penza Oblast. The number of Mordvins - as well as the number of Ukrainians, Belarusians and Jews - is falling sharply, however. On the other hand, numerous people have immigrated from the Transcaucasus and Central Asia since the end of the Soviet Union. In addition to the nationalities listed above, there are also many Tajiks (1989: 283; 2010: 1,028 people), Turkmens (1989: 148; 2010: 455) and Yazidis (1989: none; 2010: 237).
The most important branches of industry include mechanical engineering, wood processing and the textile industry.
Administrative divisions and cities
The Penza Oblast is divided into 27 Rajons and 3 urban districts. The city districts are formed by the largest city and administrative center Penza by far , the closed city (SATO) Saretschny and the city of Kuznetsk . There are a total of eleven cities and 16 urban-type settlements in the oblast .
(October 14, 2010)
|Nizhny Lomov||Нижний Ломов||22,678|
- Administrativno-territorialʹnoe delenie po subʺektam Rossijskoj Federacii na 1 janvarja 2010 goda (administrative-territorial division according to subjects of the Russian Federation as of January 1, 2010). ( Download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)
- Itogi Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 goda. Tom 1. Čislennostʹ i razmeščenie naselenija (Results of the All-Russian Census 2010. Volume 1. Number and distribution of the population). Tables 5 , pp. 12-209; 11 , pp. 312–979 (download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)