|List of cities in Russia|
Penza ( Russian Пенза , scientific transliteration : Penza) is a Russian city about 550 kilometers in a straight line south-east of Moscow on the river Sura . It has 517,311 inhabitants (as of October 14, 2010). the largest city in Penza Oblast and its administrative center.
Penza was founded in 1663 as part of the fortification to secure the Russian Empire on the southeastern border against attacks by the Crimean Tatars by ukase from Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich . In 1716 Penza became provincial capital within the Kazan Governorate and in 1796 later the capital of the Penza Governorate . When, on February 7, 1939 by splitting off Oblast Tambov the Oblast Pensa came, the city was determined to be the administrative center.
Note: census data
The city is an important railway junction with five train stations (the most important are the central station Penza I and the marshalling yard Penza V) and has an airport that has been open to civil traffic since 2004. Penza is located on the M5 trunk road , which is part of European route 30 . The city is connected to Nizhny Novgorod , Saransk and Saratov by the R158 trunk road . At the same time, the city is the end point of the R208 , which leads east from Tambov .
The German Felix Schoeller Group operates the Mayak-Technocell paper mill in the city. The historically important computers of the Soviet Union of the Ural type were manufactured in Penza between 1956 and 1964 .
Seventeen kilometers south-east of Penza is the Leonidowka chemical weapons warehouse , in which almost 7,000 tons of nerve gas are stored. From the Second World War , the area repeatedly served as a regional, but also an international hub in the chemical weapons business. As early as 1993, soil samples showed that the limit values for arsenic and dioxins were massively exceeded . In 2001, the rehabilitation of the contaminated surrounding area began.
The city consists of four city rajons :
- Железнодорожный район (Railway City District)
- Ленинский район (Lenin Municipality)
- Октябрьский район (October Municipality)
- Первомайский район (May Day District)
Further educational institutions
- Faculty of the All-Russian Distance Institute of Finance and Economics
- Branch of the International Independent Ecological and Political University
- Branch of the Moscow Public Social University
- Penza State Agricultural Academy
- Penza State Pedagogical University
- Penza State University
- Penza State University of Architecture and Construction
- Technical artillery Institute Penza (ПВАИУ: П ензенское В ысшее А ртиллерийское И нженерное ордена Красной Звезды У чилище имени Главного маршала артиллерии Н. Н. Воронова - Penza Artillery Engineering College "NN Voronov," awarded the Order "Red Star")
- Sawizki School of Art in Penza
- Penza State Technological University
The Penza planetarium is located in the city park and is a locally significant historical and cultural monument, which was installed in an older hydrometeorological facility in 1954.
The ice hockey club HK Disel Penza participates in the game of the second highest Russian league . In football , the city is represented by the FK Zenit Pensa club . The rugby team Imperija Pensa is based in Penza . From 2006 to 2012, an annual tennis tournament Penza Cup took place in Penza .
Pensa lists the following twelve partner cities :
|Békéscsaba||Southern Great Plain, Hungary||1970|
|Lanzhou||Gansu, People's Republic of China|
|Ramat Gan||Tel Aviv, Israel||2007|
|Tambov||Central Russia, Russia||2004|
|Yibin||Sichuan, People's Republic of China|
sons and daughters of the town
The sons and daughters of the city of Penza include the publisher Alexei Khovansky (1814–1899), who published the first Russian linguistic journal Philological Notes ( Russian Филологические Записки ), social revolutionary and politician Nikolai Awksentjew (1878–1943), film director with his own resources and actor Vsevolod Pudowkin (1893–1953), air force officer, parachutist and space pioneer Pyotr Dolgow (1920–1962), actress and agent Larissa Kronberg (1929–2017), marksman and Olympic champion from 1980 Alexander Melentjew (1954–2015), the Russian- Ukrainian ice hockey goalkeeper and coach Yuri Schundrow (1956-2018), cosmonaut Alexander Samokutjajew (* 1970), ice hockey player Vitaly Atjuschow (* 1979), German volleyball player Michael Neumeister (* 1985) and gymnast and multiple winner of Olympic medals Denis Ablyazin ( * 1992).
Celebrities who lived and worked in Penza
- Aristarch Lentulow (1882–1943), painter, set designer and teacher; studied painting at the Art School in Penza
- Andreï Makine (* 1957), French writer; grew up in Penza
- Egor Kreed (* 1994), Russian singer; born in Penza
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Penza
- Itogi Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 goda. Tom 1. Čislennostʹ i razmeščenie naselenija (Results of the All-Russian Census 2010. Volume 1. Number and distribution of the population). Tables 5 , pp. 12-209; 11 , pp. 312–979 (download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)
- Maschke, Erich (ed.): On the history of the German prisoners of war of the Second World War. Verlag Ernst and Werner Gieseking, Bielefeld 1962–1977.
- Places of custody of German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union (1941-1956): Findbuch . Saxon Memorial Foundation, Dresden 2010, ISBN 978-3-934382-22-0 , p. 133-134 .
- State Technological University. Retrieved April 10, 2018 (Russian).
- Старая Версия Официального сайта администрации города Пензы - Города-побратимы. Retrieved June 10, 2019 .