Subject of the Russian Federation
The Republic of Buryatia is located in the Far East Federal District on the border with Mongolia . It covers the eastern shore of Lake Baikal and extends to the Jablonowy Mountains . The most important rivers of the republic are the Selenga , the Barguzin and the Upper Angara .
The Buryats are the titular ethnicity of the Republic of Buryatia. In the 2010 census, 972,021 inhabitants were determined. Of these, the Buryats made up 30% and the Russians 66%. Other larger ethnic groups are the Ukrainians and the Tatars . Of the "indigenous peoples of the Russian north" , the Evenks with 2,974 inhabitants live mainly in the north of the republic . In Eastern Sayan on the upper reaches of the Oka in the extreme southwest of the republic is the settlement area of the small Turkic-speaking people of the Soyots , of whom 3,579 live in this part of the country.
|Ethnic group||VZ 1926 3||VZ 1939||VZ 1959||VZ 1970||VZ 1979||VZ 1989||VZ 2002||VZ 2010 4|
|Soyotes 2||161||0.0%||k. Ang.||?,?%||k. Ang.||?,?%||k. Ang.||?,?%||k. Ang.||?,?%||k. Ang.||?,?%||2,739||0.3%||3,579||0.4%|
1 1939–1989 including the Soyotes
2 1939–1989 counted among the Buryats
3 In 1926 Buryatia was larger. The area included regions which today belong to the Transbaikalia region and Irkutsk Oblast.
4 17,019 people could not be assigned to any ethnic group. These people are probably distributed in the same proportion as the ethnically classified inhabitants.
The Buryats profess themselves mainly to Buddhism ( Vajrayana or Lamaism ). Buryatia is one of the centers of Tibetan Vajrayana Buddhism in Russia , along with Kalmukia and Tuva ; there are some monasteries.
Buryatia is divided into two city districts and 21 Rajons (districts).
Cities and urban settlements
(October 14, 2010)
The Buryats belonged to the Mongol empire of Genghis Khan , which continued to exist there even after his death. The originally Russian city of Verkhne-Udinsk emerged from the construction of a Cossack fortress in 1666 between the two rivers Uda and Selenga, which was later renamed Ulan-Ude . The region's economic growth began with the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway . In 1923 the Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR) was established. Before that there was a strong movement in Buryatia to unite the area with Mongolia. With the end of the Soviet Union, Buryatia declared itself sovereign and became an autonomous republic within Russia in 1992. President of the republic is Alexei Zydenow.
When the parliament dissolved the Supreme Court "to save costs", a party spoke up which spoke of a Russian occupation and was striving for independence from Buryatia. At the same time, the representation of Buryatia in Mongolia was abolished in 2018, obviously to prevent the establishment of closer relations between the Mongol peoples; the official Russian representation at the embassy was carried out by a person in charge who was averse to Buryat national affairs.
Transport and economy
The Trans-Siberian Railway runs through Buryatia . The largest airport is Baikal Airport near Ulan-Ude. The region is one of the well-developed within Siberia and is rich in natural resources. Mining, the wood industry, but also agriculture are among the most important branches of the economy.
- Administrativno-territorialʹnoe delenie po subʺektam Rossijskoj Federacii na 1 janvarja 2010 goda (administrative-territorial division according to subjects of the Russian Federation as of January 1, 2010). ( Download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)
- Itogi Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 goda. Tom 1. Čislennostʹ i razmeščenie naselenija (Results of the All-Russian Census 2010. Volume 1. Number and distribution of the population). Tables 5 , pp. 12-209; 11 , pp. 312–979 (download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)
- Nacional'nyj sostav naselenija po sub "ektam Rossijskoj Federacii. (XLS) In: Itogi Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 goda. Rosstat, accessed on June 30, 2016 (Russian, ethnic composition of the population according to federal subjects , results of the 2010 census).
- Population of the Russian territorial units by nationality 2010 (Russian) http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus_etn_10.php?reg=65
- Olaf Leiße : Politics beyond the Baikal. Multiethnicity in Buryatia. In: Eastern Europe . Vol. 56, No. 9, 2006, pp. 73-84.
- Pan-Mongol Sentiments Re-Surfacing among Buryats , Window on Eurasia, May 20, 2018