Subject of the Russian Federation
The Altai Republic ( Russian Республика Алтай / Respublika Altai , Altaic Алтай Республика ) - not to be confused with the adjacent larger Altai region in the northwest - is a republic in the Asian part of Russia .
The republic is located in south-western Siberia in the northern Altai Mountains (Russian or High Altai). It borders Kazakhstan , China and Mongolia . Due to the picturesque location in the mountains with many lakes and rivers, the region was given the name "Russian Tibet". In the Belucha massif , the mountains on the border with Kazakhstan reach an altitude of . The two source rivers of the Ob have their origins in the republic, the Katun , which flows from the glacier of the same name on the southwest flank of the Belukha, and the Bija as an outflow of Lake Teletsk , one of the deepest lakes in Russia.
The climate of the Altai Republic can be classified as temperate continental . The Altai summers are usually short and hot while the winters are long and very cold.
After a checkered history, the area came under the rule of the Russian Empire in 1756 .
On June 1, 1922, the Oirotic Autonomous Region (Oblast) was founded (after the then name Oiroten for the Altai ethnic group), which was later subordinated to the Altai region and renamed the Gorno-Altaisk Autonomous Region on January 7, 1948 . On October 25, 1990, the area was directly subordinated to the Russian SFSR and received the status of an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR), from July 3, 1991 only under the designation of the Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR) , but still as part of the RSFSR. Since May 1992 the area has been called the Republic of Gorny Altai (Mountain Altai) , and since December 12, 1993 it has had its current name.
The main central belt asteroid (2232) Altaj was named after the area in 1981.
Alexander Berdnikow (* 1953) has been the president of the Altai Republic since January 20, 2006 .
The republic is predominantly agricultural; this situation resulted from the reforms of the Soviet state and party leadership who wanted to increase Soviet grain production. The sheep and goat skin production there is well known . The main industries are food processing and light industry . Tourism plays an important role . There are now many tourist infrastructure projects in the region, especially in the winter sports sector.
The mountainous republic is sparsely populated. The last census on October 14, 2010 showed a population of 206,168 inhabitants. More than a quarter of these live in the capital Gorno-Altaysk . The titular nation of the republic are the Altaians , a Turkic people whose language Altaish is one of the Turkic languages . However, they only make up a minority of the population. The Russians form the (slowly dwindling) majority . The only other noteworthy minority are the Kazakhs with 12,524 members (= 6.2%) . The official languages are Russian and Altaic. In 2002, a third of the population lived below the poverty line.
|Ethnic group||VZ 1926||VZ 1939||VZ 1959||VZ 1970||VZ 1979||VZ 1989||VZ 2002||VZ 2010 2|
|Altaians 1||42,213||42.4%||39,285||24.2%||38.019||24.2%||46,750||27.8%||50.203||29.2%||59,130||31.0%||68,027 2||33.6%||69,963 3||34.5%|
|1 1926 including 3414 Telengites, 1384 Cumandians and 344 Teleuts, 2002 including 2368 Telengites, 1533 Tubalars , 931 Cumandians, 830 Chelkans, 141 Schors and 32 Telengites and 2010 including 3648 Telengites, 1891 Tubalars, 1062 Cumandians, 1113 Chelkans and 87 Schoren. 2 3,432 people could not be assigned to any ethnic group. These people are probably distributed in the same proportion as the ethnically classified inhabitants.|
The population belongs to different religions. Most Altaians practice natural religious cults or profess Tibetan Buddhism , some also Christianity . A common phenomenon is multiple beliefs, since book religions and natural cults are not mutually exclusive among many Altai people. The majority of Russians are Russian Orthodox Christians, the Kazakhs are Sunni Muslims . The German minority, most of whom have moved to Germany in the last few decades , are Protestant .
The Altai Republic is subdivided into an urban district, which is formed by the single town of Gorno-Altaisk with 56,933 inhabitants, and ten Rajons with now exclusively rural settlements (the former urban-type settlements Aktasch , Sjoika and Chemal lost this status in the 1980s to 1990s). The total of 245 localities in the Rajons of the Republic are grouped into 91 rural communities (selskoje posselenije) (as of April 2015). By far the second largest town is Maima with 16,174 inhabitants (all population figures as of October 14, 2010)
(inh / km²)
|Administrative headquarters||Number of
- number (in alphabetical order of names in Russian )
- Stadtkreis, formed by the municipality of the same name; enclosed by Maima Rajon (2)
- Official website of the Altai Republic
- Altai portal
- Database on Altaic inscriptions in the Altai Republic
- Alexander Berdnikow (born April 8, 1953), President of the Altai Republic.
- Sergei Voronin (March 11, 1946 - October 18, 1997), number theorist.
- Administrativno-territorialʹnoe delenie po subʺektam Rossijskoj Federacii na 1 janvarja 2010 goda (administrative-territorial division according to subjects of the Russian Federation as of January 1, 2010). ( Download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)
- Itogi Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 goda. Tom 1. Čislennostʹ i razmeščenie naselenija (Results of the All-Russian Census 2010. Volume 1. Number and distribution of the population). Tables 5 , pp. 12-209; 11 , pp. 312–979 (download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)
- Nacional'nyj sostav naselenija po sub "ektam Rossijskoj Federacii. (XLS) In: Itogi Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 goda. Rosstat, accessed on June 30, 2016 (Russian, ethnic composition of the population according to federal subjects , results of the 2010 census).
- Lutz D. Schmadel : Dictionary of Minor Planet Names . Fifth Revised and Enlarged Edition. Ed .: Lutz D. Schmadel. 5th edition. Springer Verlag , Berlin , Heidelberg 2003, ISBN 978-3-540-29925-7 , pp. 181 (English, 992 pp., Link.springer.com [ONLINE; accessed October 29, 2017] Original title: Dictionary of Minor Planet Names . First edition: Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg 1992): “Named by the discoverer for the place of residence of her mother ”
- Population of the Russian territorial units by nationality 2010 (Russian) http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus_etn_10.php?reg=64
- 2010 population figures from the Federal Service for State Statistics of Russia (calculation as of January 1; Excel file; 562 kB)