Subject of the Russian Federation
The oblast is located in southern Siberia on the west bank of Lake Baikal . However, it extends far north into the central Siberian mountainous region . The most important rivers are the Angara in the west and the upper reaches of the Lena , Lower Tunguska and Tschona in the north of the oblast.
The area used to be inhabited by Buryats and small Turkic peoples , but today the Russians make up the overwhelming majority. After Uighur and Mongolian rule, intensive Russian settlement began in the 18th century.
The most important branches of industry include mining (gold, coal, iron ore), energy generation ( Irkutskenergo ) through large river power plants ( Bratsk Reservoir , Irkutsk Reservoir , Ust-Ilimsk Reservoir ), aluminum production and the chemical industry.
Administrative division and largest places
On April 16, 2006, the integration of the Autonomous Okrug of the Ust-Ordynsk Buryats into the Irkutsk Oblast was decided in a referendum . The Autonomous Okrug, consisting of six rajons and completely enclosed by the oblast, formed an independent federal subject until the merger came into force on January 1, 2008.
The most important cities in the oblast, in addition to the major cities of Irkutsk , Bratsk and Angarsk, are Ust-Ilimsk , Usolye-Sibirskoje and Cheremkhovo . There are a total of 22 cities and 52 urban-type settlements .
October 14, 2010
The governor of Irkutsk Oblast is the head of the regional government and has been directly elected by the people since 2015, according to a Russian law from 2012 . In the gubernatorial election in 2015 won Sergei Levchenko of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation and is expected to remain five years in office. The legislature of Irkutsk Oblast is the Legislative Assembly of Irkutsk Oblast , which is also directly elected every five years. In the parliamentary elections in 2018 the party lost Russia its absolute majority . It even had to cede its status as the strongest party to the Communist Party of the Russian Federation. As of February 2019, Irkutsk Oblast is one of the few federal subjects with an oppositional governor and the only federal subject in which the United Russia party is not the strongest party in the regional parliament.
In the last Russian censuses in 2002 and 2010, there were a population of 2,581,705 and 2,428,750 residents respectively. The number of inhabitants thus fell by 152,955 people (−5.9%) in these eight years. The distribution of the different ethnic groups was as follows:
|nationality||VZ 1989||percent||VZ 2002||percent||VZ 2010||percent|
Note: the proportions refer to the total number of inhabitants. Including the group of people who did not provide any information about their ethnic affiliation (2002 11,035 and 2010 83,115 people)
The majority of the population in the area is now Russian. The Buryats, Ukrainians and Tatars are the most important ethnic minorities in Irkutsk Oblast. The percentage of Russians is stagnating at a high level. As the second largest ethnic group, the Buryats are stagnating in numbers, but increasing in percentage terms due to the high level of emigration. Since the end of the Soviet Union, the number of people from the Transcaucasus and Central Asia has also increased. Other ethnic groups such as the Ukrainians, Tatars and Belarusians have left the area in droves. Minorities that used to be significant, such as the Germans (1989: 7,616, 2010: 3,725), Jews (1989: 4,796, 2010: 1,594) or Poles (1989: 3,118, 2010: 1,364), have now shrunk significantly. The members of the Siberian peoples are small minorities (VZ 2010; Tuwins 1,674, Evenks 1,272, Yakuts 858 and Tofalars 678 people as the most important of these ethnic groups) and are numerically roughly on a par with the Chinese (1,118), Koreans (1,342) and Mongols (867).
- Administrativno-territorialʹnoe delenie po subʺektam Rossijskoj Federacii na 1 janvarja 2010 goda (administrative-territorial division according to subjects of the Russian Federation as of January 1, 2010). ( Download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)
- Itogi Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 goda. Tom 1. Čislennostʹ i razmeščenie naselenija (Results of the All-Russian Census 2010. Volume 1. Number and distribution of the population). Tables 5 , pp. 12-209; 11 , pp. 312–979 (download from the website of the Federal Service of State Statistics of the Russian Federation); Itogi Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 g. po Irkutskoj oblasti (Results of the All-Russian Census 2010 for Irkutsk Oblast). on-line
- About the project of integration of the Ust-Ordynsk district (Russian)
- Result of the referendum (Russian)