Subject of the Russian Federation
The Kurgan Oblast ( Russian Курганская область / Kurganskaja oblast ) is an oblast in Russia and part of the Urals Federal District . It was formed on February 6, 1943 as part of the RSFSR from parts of the Chelyabinsk and Omsk oblasts .
The oblast is located in the southwest of the West Siberian lowlands and has an approximately triangular shape, with the capital Kurgan in the middle. It borders Kazakhstan in the south , Chelyabinsk Oblast in the west , Sverdlovsk Oblast in the north and Tyumen Oblast in the east . It extends from north to south over 290 km and from west to east over 430 km. Flat steppe characterizes the land that is used for agriculture today, around one fifth is forested, and there are more than 3000 lakes and 400 rivers in the area. The largest rivers are Tobol and Isset . Kurgan Oblast is the smallest in the Urals Federal District .
Nature and pollution
The animal world consists of elks, deer, wolves, wild boars, foxes, badgers, hares, muskrats and squirrels as well as ducks, geese, partridges and black grouse. There are a total of 64 species of mammals, more than 250 species of birds, 6 species of reptiles, 8 species of amphibians and 27 species of fish. The forests consist mostly of birch, poplar, pine, linden and fir.
Some parts of the oblast, like many other areas of the former Soviet Union, are polluted:
- Air pollution in Kurgan and Shadrinsk because of the high proportion of industry.
- Industry in Sverdlovsk and Chelyabinsk Oblasts polluted the Tetscha , Isset and Miass rivers .
- Tetscha was also contaminated with radioactive waste (see Mayak nuclear facility ).
- Around 700 tons of pesticides from 1972–1975, which are now banned, are stored in the oblast.
- About 5,400 tons of nerve agents ( sarin , soman , VX ) are stored in Shchuchye district .
The region's climate is strongly continental with cold winters and hot summers. The average temperature in January is −18 ° C, in July +19 ° C. The amount of precipitation per year is about 400 mm, the vegetation period 160 to 165 days.
The Russian colonization of the region began in the 17th century. The first settlements were Dalmatowo (1644), Kataisk (1655), Kurgan and Schadrinsk (1662). Parts of the oblast belonged at different times to the Tobolsk governorates (in which the capital was last located), Perm and Orenburg , and during the Soviet Union to the Ural , Omsk and Chelyabinsk oblasts . After the German attack on the Soviet Union in 1941/42, a total of 16 large companies were evacuated from the west of the country to the area of the future oblast.
On October 30, 1959, Kurgan Oblast received the Order of Lenin .
In the last censuses in 2002 and 2010, there were populations of 1,019,532 and 910,807 respectively. Thus the number of inhabitants decreased by 108,725 (−10.66%) in these eight years. In 2010, 548,820 people lived in cities. This corresponds to 60.26% of the population (in Russia 73%). By January 1, 2014, the population continued to decrease to 877,362. The distribution of the different ethnic groups was as follows:
|nationality||VZ 1989||percent||VZ 2002||percent||VZ 2010||percent|
Note: the proportions refer to the total number of inhabitants. So including the group of people who did not provide any information about their ethnic affiliation (2002 391 and 2010 20,017 people)
The area's population is over 90% Russian. The Tatars, Bashkirs, Kazakhs, Ukrainians and Belarusians were important ethnic minorities in Kurgan Oblast at the end of the Soviet era. However, their numbers are falling sharply. By contrast, thousands of people have immigrated from the Transcaucasus and Central Asia since the end of the Soviet Union.
The legislature is the Oblast Duma with 34 deputies. It is elected every four years. The executive branch is the administration of the oblast. The governor of the oblast is the head of administration and is elected every four years. Alexei Kokorin has held this position on an interim basis since February 2014.
The Duma is currently composed as follows (last elected on March 14, 2010):
- United Russia - 22 MPs
- Communist Party of the Russian Federation - 5 MPs
- Fair Russia - 5 MPs
- Liberal Democratic Party of Russia - 2 MPs
Administrative divisions and cities
The Kurgan Oblast is divided into 24 Rajons and two districts , formed by the Kurgan administrative center and the only other larger city, Schadrinsk . There are a total of nine cities and six urban-type settlements in the oblast .
|City * / City settlement||Russian||Rajon / urban district||Residents
(October 14, 2010)
(January 1, 2012)
|coat of arms||location|
|Dalmatowo *||г. Далматово||Dalmatovsky||13,911||13,817|
|Kataisk *||г. Катайск||Kataiski||14.003||13,603|
|Krasny Oktyabr||пгт. Красный Октябрь||Kargapolski||4.234||4,270|
|Kurgan *||г. Курган||Kurgan (city district)||333606||327,898|
|Kurtamysch *||г. Куртамыш||Kurtamyschski||17,099||17.112|
|Makuschino *||г. Макушино||Makuschinski||8,338||8,229|
|Mixed cinema||пгт. Мишкино||Mishkinsky||8,034||7,949|
|Petuchowo *||г. Петухово||Petuchowski||11,292||11,124|
|Schadrinsk *||г. Адринск||Schadrinsk (urban district)||77,756||77,034|
|Shchuchye *||г. Щучье||Shchuchansky||10,973||10,793|
|Shumicha *||г. Шумиха||Shumichinsky||17,819||17,678|
Economy and Infrastructure
The Trans-Siberian Railway connects the Oblast with the economic centers of the European and Asian parts of Russia, but the Kurgan Oblast has become a peripheral location due to the independence of Kazakhstan . The most important branches of the economy are mechanical engineering (agricultural, road construction, chemical industrial machines), food processing and agriculture. Pipelines traverse the area, which, in contrast to the surrounding regions, does not have large oil deposits.
In the oblast there are relatively large deposits of building materials such as sand, clay and mineral paints, in places gypsum and peat. Iron ore occurs in the south of the oblast.
- Alexander Adrianow (1854–1920), scholar
- Yuri Balaschow (* 1949), world class player in chess
- Leonid Khabarov (* 1947), Colonel
- Filipp Golikow (1900–1980), Marshal of the Soviet Union
- Evgenia Grekova (* 1974), opera and concert singer
- Gavriil Ilisarov (1921–1992), physician
- Vsevolod Ivanov (1895–1963), writer, began to work in Kurgan
- Weniamin Jakowlew (1932–2018), lawyer and politician
- Fedot Jelissejew (1915–2004), officer, hero of the Soviet Union
- Leonid Krassin (1870–1926), revolutionary
- Dmitri Loskow (* 1974), professional footballer
- Terenti Malzew (1895–1994), agricultural scientist
- Alexander Ogarkow (* 1987), biathlete
- Leonid Polowinkin (1894–1949), composer
- Viktor Potanin (* 1937), writer
- Mikhail Ryumin (1913–1954), Deputy Minister for State Security
- Jana Romanowa (* 1983), biathlete
- Sergei Rublevsky (* 1974), world class player in chess
- Yevgenia Sedova (* 1986), biathlete
- Dmitri Sokolow (1924–2009), biathlete , clay pigeon shooter and shooting coach
- Jelena Temnikowa (* 1985), singer in the girl band Serebro
- Alla Waschenina (* 1983), weightlifter
- Jakow Witebski (1919–1992), gastroenterologist
- Oblast Administration website (Russian)
- Geography and Nature (Russian)
- Current data from the Statistics Committee (Russian)
- Administrativno-territorialʹnoe delenie po subʺektam Rossijskoj Federacii na 1 janvarja 2010 goda (administrative-territorial division according to subjects of the Russian Federation as of January 1, 2010). ( Download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)
- Itogi Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 goda. Tom 1. Čislennostʹ i razmeščenie naselenija (Results of the All-Russian Census 2010. Volume 1. Number and distribution of the population). Tables 5 , pp. 12-209; 11 , pp. 312–979 (download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)
- Ukas of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of February 6, 1943 (Russian)
- Федеральная служба государственной статистики РФ. Численность населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2012 года ( Memento of the original dated August 22, 2012 at the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link is automatically inserted and not yet tested. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.