Subject of the Russian Federation
The Kaluga Oblast ( Russian Калужская область / Kaluschskaja oblast ) is a federal subject of Russia and belongs to the Central Federal District . It is located in the west of the European part of Russia.
In the 14th century, part of the Kaluga Territories was under the rule of Moscow ; Kaluga was first mentioned in the same century. The Kaluga governorate of the empire had existed since 1796 . It was disbanded in 1929 at the time of the RSFSR of the Soviet Union . The area around Kaluga then belonged to Moscow Oblast from 1929 and Tula Oblast from 1937 , before the Kaluga Oblast, which still exists today, was formed in 1944. It borders the city of Moscow , Moscow Oblast and the Tula , Bryansk , Smolensk and Oryol Oblasts . The area extends over 220 km from north to south and 220 km from west to east.
Administrative division and largest places
The Kaluga Oblast is divided into 24 Rajons and two urban districts , which are formed by the cities of Kaluga and Obninsk. Other larger cities are Lyudinowo , Kirow , Malojaroslawez and Balabanowo . There are a total of 22 cities and 6 urban-type settlements in the oblast .
(October 14, 2010)
The last Russian censuses in 2002 and 2010 showed a population of 1,041,641 and 1,010,930 residents, respectively. The number of inhabitants thus fell by 30,711 people (−2.9%) in these eight years. The distribution of the different ethnic groups was as follows:
|nationality||VZ 1989||percent||VZ 2002||percent||VZ 2010||percent|
Note: the proportions refer to the total number of inhabitants. Including the group of people who did not provide any information about their ethnicity (2002 3,479 and 2010 77,292 people)
The population of the area consists largely of Russians. The Ukrainians are the only significant ethnic minority in Kaluga Oblast. Their number - like the number of Belarusians - is falling sharply, however. By contrast, numerous people have immigrated from the Transcaucasus and Central Asia since the end of the Soviet Union.
The Kaluga area lies in the center of the Eastern European plain. The territory of the region is located between the Central Russian Ridge (with the mean heights within the region of higher than 200 m and the maximum height of 275 m in the southeast of the area), the Smolensk-Moscow Heights and the Dneprian-Desnian Province. A large part of the area is covered by plains, fields and forests with a diverse flora and fauna. The center of the area lies on the Baryatinsk-Sukhinichier ridge.
The Spas-Demensker range of hills rises in the western part of the area within the glacier plain. A sand plateau adjoining it to the south belongs to the Brjansk-Schisdraer Polessje, whose mean heights rise up to 200 m. In the northwest of the area there is a moraine plain with the grand peaks.
From north to south the Kaluga area extends more than 220 km from 53 ° 30 'to 55 ° 30' north, from west to east approx. 220 km. The area of the territory is approx. 29,777 thousand km².
The main international railway and highway lines run across the territory of the region: Moscow - Kaluga - Bryansk - Kiev - Lvov - Warsaw. The Kaluga region borders on the Brjansk, Smolensk, Moscow, Tula, Oryol regions, the city of Moscow (from July 1, 2012). The area has 303 municipal structures, including 24 rayons, 2 urban districts, 26 urban and 251 rural settlements. In terms of area, the Ulyanovsky Rayon is the largest, while the Tarussky Rayon is the smallest.
The cities of Kaluga region are Kaluga , Balabanovo , belousovo , Borovsk , Jermolino , Zhizdra , Zhukov, Kirov , Kozelsk , Kondrovo , Kremenki , Lyudinovo , Maloyaroslavets , Medyn , Meshchovsk , Mosalsk , Obninsk , sosensky , Spas-Demensk , Sukhinichi , Tarusa , Juchnow.
Relief, geological structure and mineral resources
The current relief of the Kaluga area was formed in the pre-glacial period: hilly, with river valleys, gorges and valleys. Some glacial lakes have been preserved to this day, for example the deepest lake in the Kaluga region, Lake Besdon.
The region lies between the Central Russian Ridge and the Smolensk-Moscow Heights. On the territory of the area there are the low plains with a height of up to 200 m above sea level, as well as the high plains with a height of over 200 m above sea level. d. The Central Russian Ridge stretches in the southeast of the area and the Spas-Demensk range of hills rises in the far northwest. These hills are separated from each other by the Ugraisch Protwaische Plain. In the high southwest of the area is the Bryansk-Shizdraer Polessye and in the center extends the Baryatinsk-Sukhinichier plain. The highest relief point of the area is at the height of 279 m within the Spas-Demensk range of hills (Sajzewa Mountain), the lowest point is in the valley of the Oka River (120 m above sea level). The amplitude of the relief amounts to 160 m.
The Kaluga area lies in the center of the Eastern European plain. The thickness of the upper sediment layer increases from 400 to 500 m in the south to 1000 to 1400 m in the north. Most of the sedimentary cap is composed of sediments from the Devonian formation. Their share in the south of the area exceeds 80% of the thickness of the entire deposit formation (including the Quaternary formation). In the territory of the Kaluga area, four geological-economic areas are distinguished: north-eastern, central, southern and north-western areas.
The specific value of deposits in the Kaluga region is more than 8 million rubles / m². 550 occurrences with 19 types of hard mineral raw materials as well as 131 occurrences of sweet underground waters and 13 occurrences of underground mineral waters have been explored on the territory of the area.
The mineral resources of the area are represented by phosphorites, lignite, earth colors, gypsum stones, building blocks, chalk for construction work, carbonate stones for lime fertilization and use in the pulp and paper industry, fire-resistant and difficult-to-melt clays, easily fusible clays for the production of bricks and Keramsit, Tripolite for the production of decolorizing earth and thermolytic pebbles, clays for drilling fluids, sand gravel material, glass sands, molding sands, sands for construction work and the manufacture of silicate products as well as peat, sapropel and mineral water.
The area has 24 deposits with industrial clay reserves of more than 220 million m³, 14 of which are currently being developed intensively. The occurrence of fire-resistant and ceramic “Ulyanovskoye” clays is one of the largest in Russia and the industry has not yet been opened up. Its share accounts for 16.2% of all stocks of difficult-to-melt clays in the Central Federal District. Such clays are used for the manufacture of refractory products for applications in metallurgy, cement and glass industries and other branches of industry in which production processes are associated with high temperatures. If the development of the construction industry in the Central Federal District is stable, the need for clays from the “Ulyanovskoye” deposit will be 600–700 thousand tons per year. The “Ulyanovskoye” deposit has every chance of becoming the main raw material base for the companies in the building complex and the refractory industry, and not just for the Kaluga region. The total balance reserves from the lignite deposits of the Moscow coal basin amount to 1240 million t, including deposit sections such as Vorotynskoye (410 million t), Severo-Agejewskoye (151 million t), Seredeyskoye (150 million t), Studenowskie sections (103 Million t) and others. Although the quality of coals is not very high, the raw materials are of interest due to their proximity to large consumers. The balance stock of peat is approx. 24 million t.
The raw material potential of the area can meet the needs of the companies for the main types of mineral ore resources (building stones, sand gravel material, building sand, silicate sand, easily melting clay and loam soil for the production of bricks and ceramics). In 2013, 109 licenses on the right to use mineral resources to extract building materials are valid in the territory of the Kaluga Region.
According to information for 2013, the annual permitted volume of wood extraction is approx. 3,136,900 m³. The total logging is 30% of the planned cut rate. The annual increase in plantings is 4.8 million m³.
The forest zone of the region has two sub-zones: the coniferous forest and broad-leaf forest sub-zone and the broad-leaf forest sub-zone. Various types of spruce forest dominate the coniferous and broad-leaf forest sub-zones. The layer of trees in such forests is made up of common spruce mixed with pine , birch , aspen , linden , pedunculate oak . In the broad-leaf forest sub-zone, the primary forest occupies a small area in the area between the rivers Wytebet, Schisdra and Oka .
In these forests mainly tree species such as pedunculate oak , stone linden , common ash and elm serve as edifiers . In contrast to the coniferous forest, these forests are polydominant, have up to 7 to 8 layers and are usually mixed with birch and aspen in the second layer, bush maple , smooth-leaved apple trees , mountain ash in the third layer. The shrub layer is well developed. In the herb layer, the early spring ephemeroids and perennial plants dominate.
The non-zonal vegetation on the territory of the area is represented by pine forests and small-leaved forests, swamps and meadows. The white pine forms the forests on the sand beds of ancient alluvial plains, the sand terraces of river valleys, the peaty swampy soils. These are pine forests with blankets of white moss or green moss heaths, sphagnum heaths and complex pine forests . The tree layer of small-leaved forests and derivative mixed forests is formed by hanging birch, winter birch, aspens, goat willow, spruce, pine and oak. The meadows are divided into valley meadows and mainland meadows.
The swamps are unevenly distributed over the territory of the area. The north-western and western parts (river basin of the Ugra) and the Bryansk-Shizdra Polessye are the most swampy areas.
In the course of two hundred years of exploration, several thousand species of invertebrates and 396 species of vertebrates have been discovered in the territory of the Kaluga region. There are 132 vertebrate species on the Red List of the Kaluga Region, 36 of which are also included in the corresponding list of protected objects of the Russian Federation.
There are 68 species of mammals in the area . These include typical forest animals such as the brown bear , lynx , elk , wolf , mountain hare, squirrel , as well as the following animals that are characteristic of the steppes: hamsters , great horse jumpers, pearl pebbles, Russian marmots . In the last decades the employees of the local hunting farms carried out the settlement of the animals in the territory of the area, which have a small number. These include such animals as Russian desman , beaver , wild boar , deer , which have settled in well and increased their numbers. The following animals were also acclimatized, which previously did not live on the territory of the area: raccoon dog , muskrat , red deer and sika deer , in a relatively short time they reached a huntable number. European bison are beginning to come to the southern parts of the area after they were recently released into the Orlovskoye Polessye National Park.
Two species of lamprey and 41 species of bony fish have been identified among the freshwater inhabitants of the area. The diversity of the fish fauna is associated with great differences in living conditions. The brook lamprey (Lampetra planeri) lives in the river basin of the Oka, and the Ukrainian brook lamprey (Eudontomyzon mariae) lives in the Desna and its tributaries. Gold and silver crucians, tench and many other species are native to the reservoirs. Carp, silver carp, grass carp and sometimes peled salmon are raised in the pond farms. Most of the valuable farm fish fall into the lead. Rare species include sterlete, tailor fish and rags that are on the Russian Red List.
Among 11 species of amphibian there are crested and pond newts, red-bellied toads, common and green toads, and there are numerous sea, pond, moor and grass frogs. The reptiles are represented by 7 species, including snakes: Adders are found in poisonous snakes, and water snakes and smooth snakes are native to non-poisonous snakes. The lizards found here in the area are represented by blindworms and nimble sneaks, in which the limbs are missing, so they are often mistaken for snakes.
267 species of birds are registered on the territory of the area, of which 177 species have their breeding grounds here, 58 species were only noticed when they were flying by, 32 species flew into here irregularly. With 93 bird species today, there was an increase in the number of wintering birds, which is linked to the anthropogenic transformations of the landscapes. The most important habitats of the birds of prey are on the territory of the nature reserve "Kaluschskije Saseki" (Kaluga Forest Verhau) and in the area between the Wytebet and the Resseta. Mallards are particularly numerous among swimming birds; in semi-aquatic birds - seagulls; forest dwellers - finches and warblers; on river banks - sand martins; in the settlements - rock doves, terns, rooks, tree sparrows.
Conservation and environmental status
According to the state report "On the State of the Environment and Environmental Protection in the Russian Federation" published annually by the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of the Russian Federation, the Kaluga Region is one of the purest regions in the Central Federal District in ecological terms. According to the results of 2012, Kaluga is in the top 10 list of 85 cities in Russia according to the state of the air environment.
The ecological expertise, standardization, licensing and state control in the area of environmental protection are carried out by a number of authorized authorities in the Kaluga region. The so-called Territorial System for Monitoring the State of the Environment (TSÜ) has been operating on the territory of the area since 2008.
The territorial information resource with data on the state of the environment is publicly available and is located on the official website of the Kaluga region.
In 2013, the Investment Council of the Governor of the Kaluga Region passed a resolution on the establishment of an eco-technology park. When planning the park, the best technologies that ensure hygienic safety and environmental sustainability will be used. The priority is to solve the problem of protecting surface water and underground water from sources of pollution, storing and recycling industrial and household waste, protecting against radiation and reducing pollutant emissions into the outside air.
The share of the Kaluga region in the total volume of pollutant emissions into the outside air and the discharge of sewage into the water objects of the Central Federal District is insignificant. According to the indicator for the separation and disposal of pollutants, the area takes third place, leaving the Brjansker and Belgorod areas in front. Most of the pollutant emissions into the air fall on the share of Kaluga, Kirov, Obninsk, Lyudinov and Dzerzhinsky district.
As a result of the Chernobyl disaster, the south and south-west parts of the area were contaminated by radioactive elements. Radiological monitoring is carried out in 9 districts of the area. The background radioactivity corresponds to the radiation situation that has arisen.
On the territory of the area, the collection, storage, relocation and processing of ferrous and non-ferrous metal scrap, waste glass, waste paper is actively being worked on. Waste-free technologies are being introduced in the operations in the area. The primary sorting of waste takes place in the small business "Polygon" (Obninsk) u. at the
Several ecological settlements have been established in the Kaluga region and they are developing successfully: the “Kalushskije Saseki” nature reserve, the “Ugra” nature reserve, the “Tarussa” nature reserve, the “Kalushskij Bor” natural monument.
The territory of the Kaluga region has been inhabited since the earliest times. The oldest storage places of prehistoric humans, examined by archaeologists, date from the Mesolithic (6th - 10th millennium BC). The Kaluga cities were first mentioned in connection with the events of the 12th century, namely with the feudal war between the Olegovichi and Monomachovichi clans (Koselsk - in 1146, Serensk - in 1147, Vorotynsk - in 1155, Mosalsk - mentioned in 1231).
In the 14th century, the Kaluga region was a place of constant antagonism between Lithuania and Moscow. In 1371, the Lithuanian Prince Olgerd named Alexius Kaluga for the first time in his complaint to the Patriarch of Constantinople Filofej about the metropolitan of Kiev and all of Russia, among the cities that Moscow had taken from him. Traditionally, it is believed that Kaluga was created as a border fortress to protect the Moscow principality from attacks by Lithuania.
In 1480/81 a very important event for the whole of Russian history happened on the Kaluga earth, known as the standing on the Ugra . The result was the liberation of Russian soil from the Tatar-Mongolian tribute rule and the transformation of Moscow into a sovereign state.
In the 16th to 17th centuries Kaluga was not only a defensive point, trade and handicrafts developed actively in the region. The sources attest that wood carving and jewelry were highly developed in the rich city. After the reunification of Russia and Ukraine in 1654, Kaluga became an intermediary in trade between Moscow and Ukraine, which greatly contributed to further economic development.
Through the decree of Catherine II of August 24th, 1776, the Kaluga Lieutenancy was founded, which united the Kaluga and Tula governorates. The center of the Lieutenancy took on a new design, the settlement plan and the building of Kaluga still present a brilliant achievement of Russian urban planning art at the end of the 18th century, beginning of the 19th century. In the reign of Pavel I was 1796 the Kaluga Lieutenancy converted into a governorate.
The end of the 18th century to the first three decades of the 19th century was the period of economic stability in the region. Kaluga also plays an intermediary role in trade with Moscow, St. Petersburg, Ukraine, Siberia, Poland and the German cities. During the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945, the units and units of the 10th, 16th, 33rd, 43rd, 49th, 50th, 61st armies, the 20th tank brigade, took part in the liberation of the region from the Nazi occupiers. the 1st Air Army, the 1st Cavalry Corps, the "Normandy" squadron.
In 1944, by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the Kaluga Region was established, which included 27 Rayons of the Smolensk, Oryol and Tula regions. Kaluga became the regional center. After the liquidation of the USSR, the Kaluga Region became a subject of the Russian Federation. On March 27, 1996 the Statute of the Kaluga Region and on June 6, 1996 the Law of the Kaluga Region “On Local Self-Government in the Kaluga Region” was passed.
The Kaluga region is one of the most economically developed regions in the RF. The region has the highest growth rates in industry in all of Russia, the largest per capita investment volume, the highest growth rates in real income of the population and the innovative technologies that are used annually in industry. The growth is based on a high quality administration, a sensible investment policy and a properly structured support program for the traditional industrial sectors. Production locations in industrial parks and in the commercial-industrial special economic zone (SEZ) "Kaluga", tax preferences and the promotion of development institutes guarantee the best conditions for the respective business activity.
The largest international groups implement their projects in this region: Volkswagen, Volvo, Peugeot, Citroën, Mitsubishi, GE, Samsung, Continental, Berlin-Chemie / Menarini, Novo Nordisk, STADA CIS and others. a. Companies that are active in the traditional economic sectors are actively developing. These include manufacturers of turbo generators and gas turbine engines, railway technology, building materials, electronics, optics, etc. New high-tech production facilities are emerging that deal with research and development in various areas: from core technologies, aerospace to nanomechanics and water treatment.
With its economic results for 2015, the Kaluga region ranks on:
- 2nd place in the national rating of the state of the investment climate in the subjects of the RF. First place in the category «Support for small and medium-sized enterprises».
- Rank 1 in the Central Federal District (ZFO) and rank 2 in the RF with the volume of delivered products of the processing industry per capita.
- Rank 1 in the ZFO and rank 12 in the RF with the volume of industrial production per capita.
- Rank 1 in the RF with the birth rate. In 2015, the highest birth rate was set in 26 years.
- Rank 4 in the ZFO and rank 9 in the RF with the number of new homes per thousand inhabitants.
- Rank 2 in the ZFO and rank 16 in the RF with the amount of construction work performed per inhabitant.
- 1st place - «Nikola Lenivets» landscape park in the category «The best location for the development of event tourism - natural recreation areas». (Russian Event Awards).
- 1st place - Regional tourist information center «Kaluga region» in the category «The best tourist information center - Regional tourist information center». (Russian Event Awards).
The volume of investment in industrial production from 2006 to 2015 was 452.8 billion rubles. (according to investment contracts). During this time, 86 new businesses were founded in the area, 9 of which started operations in 2015. A total of 155 investment projects are being implemented in the region. In 2015, the investment portfolio was supplemented by 18 contracts.
The economic policy that permeates the Kaluga region has changed the structure of the industrial sector and created the conditions for the emergence of high-tech production facilities. There are 2747 different companies in the area. They result in approx. 40% of the gross regional product and secure over half of all tax income in the regional budget. Almost a third of the area's population is employed in production.
Mechanical engineering forms the industrial basis in the region. Since 2006, the volume of industrial production in the Kaluga region has increased by two and a half times.
129.9% - increase in the production of rubber and plastic products;
121.2% - increase in the production of non-metal mineral products;
107.6% - increase in production volume in the pharmaceutical industry;
109% - increase in food production, including. Beverages and tobacco;
114.3% - increase in iron and steel production.
Structure of industrial production - 2015 (in%)
Development of industrial volume (billion rubles)
- 2006 - 78.2
- 2007 - 100.2
- 2008 - 162.9
- 2009 - 173.3
- 2010 - 275.5
- 2011 - 372.5
- 2012 - 438.8
- 2013 - 470.4
- 2014 - 478.1
- 2015 - 496.3
Mechanical engineering and metalworking
Mechanical engineering and metal processing form the basis for industrial production in the Kaluga region. Mechanical engineering in the Kaluga region differs through a wide diversification of finished products:
- Personnel vehicles and trucks (ООО Volkswagen Group RUS, ООО PSMA Rus, ZAO Volvo Vostok);
- Electrical systems for vehicles (ОАО KZAE, ОАО Autoelektronika, ООО Continental Automotive Systems Rus);
- Iron bars, L and U profiles (OOO NLMK-Kaluga);
- Turbines and turbo generators (ОАО Kaluga turbine plant);
- Gas turbine engines and small tractors (ОАО KADVI);
- TVs and washing machines (ООО Samsung Electronics Rus Kaluga);
- radio-electronic and switching devices for telecommunication systems as well as special systems in the field of telecommunications (ОАО Kalugapribor, ОАО KEMZ, ОАО KNIITMU);
- Products for the defense industry (ОАО Taifun, AO ONPP Tekhnologiya, KNIRTI, ОАО KZRTA, OAO KZTA);
- Electronic fluorescent tubes and quantum technology (OAO Voskhod-KRLZ);
- Devices and systems for nuclear power plants and radiochemistry (ОАО PZ Signal);
- Diesel locomotives, machines and mechanized tools for the repair and operation of railroad tracks (OAO Lyudinovo Diesel Locomotive, OAO Kalugaputmash, OAO Remputmash concentration camp, OAO Kalugatransmash);
- Measuring devices (AO NPO Prompribor, ООО NPP Metra);
- Kitchen fume cupboards (ОАО Elmat);
- Steel pipes, aluminum profile systems, greenhouses (ООО Agrisovgaz);
- Metal structures and components for sandwich construction (ООО Ruukki Rus);
- Cast iron, steel and non-ferrous metal products (ZAO Krontif Center, ОАО Kirovski zavod, ОАО Spetslit);
- Cable products (ЗАО Zawod Lyudinovkabel, ZAO Transvok) etc.
The chemical industry, especially pharmaceuticals, has good prospects in the Kaluga region in the development of the industrial complex. In the “Development Strategy of the Russian Pharmaceutical Industry by 2020”, the Kaluga region is described as a Russian region in which the bundling of research, educational centers and production facilities can be used most efficiently for the development of the pharmaceutical industry.
A pharmaceutical cluster is emerging in the Kaluga region, the basis of which is formed by companies involved in the development of scientific ideas and the implementation of new technologies. The pharmaceutical cluster includes 62 companies. Business partners in the region are the largest foreign pharmaceutical groups. The research center is Obninsk, the first Russian city of scientists.
Production of finished products:
- Chemopharm (STADA Group, Germany), active in the Kaluga area since 2007. The company was the first in Russia to export drugs not only to Europe but also to the USA;
- Berlin Chemie / Menarini - Menarini Group (Italy);
- Novo-Nordisk (Denmark);
- Nearmedic PHARMA (Russia);
- AstraZeneca (Sweden / Great Britain) - sample production of pharmaceutical substances and development of technologies for biopharmaceuticals:
- OOO BION - chemical and pharmaceutical company;
- ООО Research and production company Medbiopharm;
- ZAO MIR-PHARM - Services for the decontamination of pharmaceutical substances, finished drugs and waste from the pharmaceutical industry in companies belonging to the Kaluga Biopharma Cluster;
- OOO NPP Omitex.
- ООО Nestle Russia;
- ZAO Moscow-Efes Brewery (until October 1, 2013 ZAO SABMiller RUS );
- ОАО Meat Factory Obninsk;
- ООО Invest Alyans;
- ООО Zuegg Russia;
- Obninsk Milk Factory - branch of OAO Wimm-Bill-Dann;
- ОАО MosMedynAgroprom - manufacturer of dairy products;
- OOO Agro-Invest - growing vegetables all year round;
- OOO F-TROUT - fish farm for salmon farming;
- OOO EkoNiva-APK Holging - dairy and meat breeding, plant breeding, professional seed breeding;
- OOO Verny puty - mushroom growing company.
The light industry in the Kaluga area comprises approx. 250 companies and entrepreneurs of various legal forms, 11 of which are large and medium-sized companies. The most important types of light industry are represented by the following large companies:
- ОАО Ermolino, textile industry
- ОАО Runo, textile industry
- ОАО Sukhinichi sewing factory, manufacturer of clothing
- ООО Lyudinovo sewing factory, manufacturer of clothing
- ООО Yuchnowsk sewing factory, manufacturer of clothing
- ОАО KALITA, shoe factory
- ООО Kaluschskaya obuv, shoe factory
- ООО Forio, shoe factory
In terms of economic diversification, the Kaluga Region administration pays great attention to the development of various industrial sectors. At present, paper, cardboard packaging, flat pressed and fibreboard, parquet boards, bricks, sanitary facilities made of ceramics, reinforced concrete components, rubber and plastic products, pipes, profiles and much more are manufactured in the factories in the Kaluga region.
The Kaluga region is a leader in the use of foreign investments in the regional economy. A clear investment strategy has been developed in the Kaluga region and a favorable investment climate has been created.
The investment strategy focuses on the construction of production facilities in industrial parks and SEZs, low investment risks, tax preferences and legally secured administrative support from official authorities and specially established development institutes (development corporation of the Kaluga region, agency for regional development, agency for innovative development and industrial logistics).
The main product that the Kaluga region offers investors is the construction of production facilities in 12 industrial parks and at one of the two locations of the special economic zone. The A-Park and B-Park projects offer brownfields. A total of 155 investment projects are being implemented in the region.
In 2015, 9 new industrial companies started operations.
|Rosva Industrial Park|
|ZAO Biotechnological Complex Rosva||June||Wheat processing complex|
|Special Economic Zone Kaluga (location Ljudinowo)|
|OOO Agro-Invest||October||year-round vegetable cultivation|
|Grabzewo industrial park|
|OOO Novo Nordisk Production Support||April||Insulin production plant|
|ООО Volkswagen Group RUS||September||Engine factory|
|Vorsino industrial park|
|OOO Omega Liz-Kaluga||March||Second construction phase of the production and logistics complex|
|OOO AstraZeneca Industries||October||Drug factory|
|ZAO Triada-Impex||December||Manufacturer of special funds for construction|
|Obninsk industrial park|
|OOO NEARMEDIC PHARMA||June||Drug factory|
|City of Kaluga|
|OOO SMK (project by Cellino SRL)||April||Auto component manufacturer|
1. Approx. 1,800 new jobs have been created.
2. The actual volume of investments in the investment projects in 2015 was estimated at around 40 billion rubles.
3. The negotiation portfolio includes 61 investment projects.
4. In 2015, 8 agreements of intent were signed. 18 new investment projects are entered in the register of investment projects of the Kaluga region.
5. In 2015, three industrial parks (Grabzewo, Rosva, Kaluga South) were audited, in 2016 they will be certified according to the Government of the Russian Federation Order No. 794.
6. Together with the AG “SEZ” an expansion of the SEZ was carried out through the incorporation of territories of the Borowski region of the Kaluga region.
7. In 2015, three investors passed an examination at the Expert Council of the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation in order to obtain the status of a resident of the special economic zone (OOO EkoDSK Lyudinowo, OOO Wodostop and OOO Krasin pencil factory respectively had resident status in February 2016 of the special economic zone officially received). The implementation of these projects will start in 2016.
8. In 2015, the new Meshchovsk industrial park was created on the territory of Meshchovsky District of Kaluga Oblast with an area of 58 ha.
A motor vehicle, a pharmaceutical, a transport and logistics, an agricultural and an IT cluster are actively developing in the Kaluga area.
Automotive and automotive accessories clusters
The Kaluga car manufacturers produced over 1,146,000 vehicles between 2007 and 2015, including 1,127 thousand passenger cars and 19.4 thousand trucks. In the Kaluga region, the share of vehicle production in the total production volume of the region is 33.1% according to the results for 2015.
3 plants of ОЕМ manufacturers: Volkswagen, PCMA RUS, Volvo
Volkswagen . ( VW ) In February 2016, the 1,000,000th car rolled off the assembly line of the Volkswagen Group Rus - a Volkswagen Polo Allstar in the exclusive Copper Orange color with a 1.6-l petrol engine with 110 hp made in Kaluga.
The plant was opened in Kaluga in 2007. Full cycle production started in 2009. The Volkswagen Polo, Volkswagen Tiguan and Škoda Rapid models are currently manufactured here.
PCMA RUS . The car plant is located in Kaluga in the Rosva industrial park. The investments in this project amounted to approx. 550 million euros. The company used to produce its vehicles using the semi-knocked-down process; the Peugeot 408 has been produced using the full cycle process since July 2012 and the Mitsubishi Outlander since November 2012. In April 2013, the production of the Citroën С4 began, in July - Mitsubishi Pajero Sport. The production capacities allow the plant max. Produce 125,000 vehicles per year.
Volvo . Several Volvo Group projects are being implemented in the Kaluga area (Kaluga Süd industrial park):
- VOLVO TRUCKS - Volvo and Renault truck production plant, is one of the most modern VOLVO TRUCKS plants in the world (according to Volvo experts);
- Volvo Truck Center Kaluga - service center for trucks;
- Customs Department Volvo;
- Volvo Construction Equipment Dredging Plant;
- Volvo Group Cab Factory - factory for the production of cabs for trucks Volvo and Renault.
27 auto parts factories
1. ООО FUCHS OIL - production of lubricants;
2. ООО Continental Kaluga - manufacture of car tires;
3. ContiTech (subsidiary of ООО Continental Kaluga) - manufacture of air conditioning systems and reinforcement systems for steering systems in vehicles;
4. ООО Continental Automotive Systems RUS - of electronic systems for vehicles;
5. ООО Faurecia Automotive Development - production of exhaust systems;
6. ООО Faurecia Automotive Development - production of interior components;
7. ZAO Becema-Kaluga - manufacture of suspension equipment for trucks;
8. ООО Merkator Kaluga - manufacture of suspension equipment for trucks;
9. ООО Gestamp-Severstal Kaluga - manufacture of stamped parts for car bodies;
10. ООО Severstal-Gonvarri-Kaluga - Service Metal Center;
11. AO Magna Automotive Rus branch - production of impact absorbers and front modules;
12. ООО YAPP Rus Automotive Systems - manufacture of plastic fuel tanks;
13. ООО Benteler Automotive - manufacture of suspension components;
14. OOO Raydel Automotive Rus - production of interior components;
16. OOO MAHLE RUS - logistics center and manufacture of filters, thermostats, turbochargers and engine elements for trucks;
17. ООО HP Pelzer Rus - production of soundproofing;
18. ООО Scherdel Kaluga - manufacture of seat frames;
19. Toyota Tsusho RUS - design of logistics processes;
20. ООО Lear - manufacture of seats;
21. OOO CIE- AVTOCOM Kaluga - manufacture of windscreen wipers, windscreen washers, air conditioners.
22. OOO HT & L FITTING RUS - assembly of car wheels;
23. ООО Bosal - production of exhaust systems;
24. ООО AD Plastik Kaluga - manufacture of plastic car parts;
25. OOO Gervasi Vostok - manufacture of bodies for trucks;
26. ООО SMK (Cellino Srl project) - production of fuel tanks for trucks;
27. AIS Automotive Interior Systems GmbH - Manufacture of plastic car parts.
Skilled workers for the automotive cluster are trained in the training center founded in 2007 for personnel in the automotive industry. The center is fully equipped with modern technology. Around 100 training programs have been created there. Over 30 laboratories and workshops have been created. In the meantime, around 10,000 specialists have been trained for the car factories, of which over 1,000 in 2013 alone. The interactions and joint projects with suppliers of systems and technologies as well as with European educational institutions are important for the activities of the center.
As part of the Kaluga vehicle cluster, the logistics infrastructure is also developing, research and development work is being carried out which is aimed at upgrading the technical data of existing products and goods that are being brought onto the car market for the first time.
Cluster for pharmacy, biotechnology and biomedicine
The development program for the innovative regional cluster for pharmacy, biotechnology and biomedicine won the 2012 competition of the Ministry of Economic Development of the RF, under which pilot programs for the development of innovative regional clusters were selected.
The "core" of the pharmaceutical cluster is being built at two locations:
- Kaluga (industrial parks Grabzewo and A-Park) - production;
- Obninsk (industrial site, Obninsk high-tech park, Vorsino industrial park) - innovative projects, including the development of small and medium-sized enterprises. The federal institution MNRZ of the Russian Ministry of Health and Social Affairs, financed from the budget, is of great importance, on the basis of which a federal innovation center for medical radiology is being created.
The pharma cluster is developing in three directions:
- Manufacture of pharmaceuticals
- Manufacture of substances
- Research in the fields of pharmacy, biotechnology and biomedicine
- ООО Chemopharm (structural unit of STADA CIS, belongs to the international group of companies STADA AG, Germany) - Manufacture of pharmaceuticals;
- ООО Novo Nordisk Production Support (subsidiary of Novo Nordisk A / S, Denmark) - production of insulin;
- ООО NEARMEDIC PHARMA (Russia) - manufacture of original pharmaceuticals;
- ZAO Berlin Pharma (branch of Berlin-Chemie AG (Germany), belongs to the international Menarini Ind (Italy) group) - production of solid pharmaceutical forms;
- ООО Astra Zeneca Industries (subsidiary of Astra Zeneca Ind (Great Britain)) - manufacture of innovative pharmaceuticals;
- ООО Sfera-Pharm (Russia) - production of medical infusion solutions;
- Small and medium-sized companies (as of January 2016: 38 companies) working on the development and manufacture of new bio and pharmaceutical preparations:
- ООО Mir-Pharm;
- ZAO Chemical-Pharmaceutical Company Obninsk (ZAO OChPhK);
- Medbiopharm Group;
- BION group of companies;
The factories of the pharmaceutical cluster produce 109 drug names. Finished drugs make up over 80% of production.
- Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Pushchino (Pushchino. 9 RAW research institutes in the fields of molecular biology, biotechnology and biomedicine);
- Non-commercial partnership ORCHIMED (14 leading Russian institutes of RAW in the fields of chemistry and biochemistry);
- Faculty of Fundamental Medicine, Lomonosov Moscow University;
- Management company of the biotechnological incubator of Moscow's Lomonosov University.
Research and education
- Center of practical training on the basis of the medical faculty of the Obninsk Institute of Nuclear Energy - branch of the Federal Autonomous State Educational Institution of Vocational Higher Education “National Research University MIFI”;
- Educational innovation center based on the Federal State Budgetary Institution for Vocational Higher Education «Kaluga State K. E. Ziolkovsky University»;
- Branch of the State Research Center of the RF - Karpov Research Institute of Physics and Chemistry;
- Federal State Budget Institution «Medical Radiological Research Center» of the Russian Ministry of Health;
- Federal State Unified Enterprise - Hematological Science Center of the RF «Leipunski Institute for Physics and Energy»;
- Educational science center based on the “Active Molecules Park” competence alliance
- Regional medical base college u. a.
- Training center for specialists in the pharmaceutical industry. This project aims to provide pharmaceutical companies in the region with well-trained staff for modern GMP production facilities. The training is based on the German "dual" training model for technical schools, which is adapted to Russian conditions.
In the interests of the cluster participants on the basis of medical faculties, chairs for pharmaceutical and radiopharmaceutical chemistry, general and special chemistry, radionuclide medicine, biology, materials science, nuclear physics and ecology, 859 people are being trained (as of January 2016).
- Center for innovative pharmaceuticals “Park of Active Molecules” (based on the Medbiopharm group of companies and network partners);
- Regional Engineering Center (REZ) for Pharmaceuticals;
- A universal full-cycle GMP operation for biomedical original nanopreparations, which is based on the ООО NEARMEDIC PLUS together with the ОАО ROSNANO (ООО NEARMEDIC PHARMA in Obninsk);
- Innovative laboratories as well as research and production facilities of the companies ООО Mir-Pharm, ООО BION, ООО chemical-pharmaceutical company Obninsk.
At the beginning of 2016 there are 31 new projects in the innovation portfolio of the Kaluga pharmaceutical companies. Over 15 preparations have advanced to the pre-clinical and clinical trial phase. Over the next 3 years, the companies in the pharmaceutical cluster will bring 2 to 3 new drugs to the Russian market every year.
Transport and logistics cluster
The modernization of the logistics infrastructure, the establishment of new centers and terminals and road construction are priorities for the government of the Kaluga region. a successful development of the traffic and logistics cluster, the region has many advantages. This is particularly true of its geographical location: the area borders on Moscow and has considerable transit potential, which means that it has a good chance of developing into the most important logistics center for the entire ZFO. Second, it has reliable business partners: the region cooperates with the largest logistics companies: GEFCO, Green Logistics, Rhenus Logistics, TransContainer, etc. Third, it has a clear development strategy for the cluster. In the region, multimodal transport and logistics terminals, customs and storage facilities are being built, and road, rail and airport infrastructure is being developed, i. H. The entire infrastructure required for uninterrupted work processes is created - from the delivery of raw materials to the delivery of finished products to the end customer.
Freight Village Rosva , founded to optimize the logistic processes of companies located in the industrial parks of the Kaluga region (Grabzewo, Rosva, Kaluga South). Today the FV Rosva is one of the main objects in the distribution network of the entire ZFO.
The vehicle terminal with a total area of 5 hectares is equipped with specialist charging technology, weighing equipment, radioactivity control and X-ray systems. The terminal area is divided into two areas: the Kaluga customs post of the Kaluga Customs Office and the consumption tax post of the Central Consumption Tax Office.
The container terminal with a total area of 3 ha includes a freight park (6 operating railway tracks with a total length of over 10 km), a container storage area, a customs post, access roads, etc. The terminal's production output is up to 150,000 TEU p. a. (with Kalmar container loaders).
Freight Village Vorsino , located in the north of the Kaluga region 70 km from the Moscow ring road and 90 km from Kaluga, in the immediate vicinity of the М-3 Ukraine federal highway and the Moscow-Kiev railway line. The FV Vorsino has been included in the general development scheme of the Moscow railway junction and in the development program of the Moscow transport junction. FV Vorsino has been recognized by the Russian government as a strategically important logistics object. The total area of the logistics center is 450 ha. The total length of the access tracks is 838.19 running meters. The total length of the internal railroad tracks is 9193 running meters. The production output of the container terminal in the first phase is 300,000 TEUs p. a. and subsequently up to 1,500,000 TEUs annually. Investment volume: EUR 1.2 billion, of which approx. EUR 250 billion was invested in the construction of the logistics park.
Since January 2016 года Freight Village «Vorsino» became part of the infrastructure project «New Silk Road». The transit of goods from northeast China and South Korea takes place through the port of Dalian on the Chinese Eastern Railway and Trans-Siberian Railway.
Advantages of the route:
- Increasing exports of Russian goods to Asia;
- Creation of a large distribution center;
- Expansion of existing production facilities and creation of new productions;
- Entry of Asian companies into the Russian and European markets.
Kaluga International Airport , in close proximity to the Grabzewo industrial park. The major shareholder, who owns 99.99% of the shares, is the Kaluga Region, represented by the Ministry of Economic Development of the Kaluga Region.
- 200 ha - airport area
- 2200х45 m - dimensions of the runway
- Status - international
- Take-off weight of landing aircraft - class 2
- Passability - 100 passengers per hour
- Passenger flow - up to 500,000 passengers p. a. in 2030
- The facility is designed for landing and take-off of aircraft, including the А-319, Boeing-737 and similar (64 t).
Emolino Airport , 95 km from downtown Moscow, 60 km from Vnukovo international airport , 5 km from the М-3 Ukraine federal highway and 5 to 6 km from the nearest railway station Balabanovo. The airport is owned by the internal forces of the Russian Interior Ministry. The Federal Aviation Agency and the Russian Ministry of Transport have already approved the construction of the international civil airport Ermolino with joint stationing with the internal forces of the Russian Ministry of the Interior.
Among the ZFO regions, the Kaluga area ranks fourth in the area of housing construction per capita. In 2015, the state planning code for the commissioning of residential buildings, set by the Ministry of Construction, Housing and Communal Services of the Russian Federation, in the amount of 750,000 m² of living space, was fulfilled and formed an unprecedented figure for the region of 795,000 m². According to this key figure, Kaluga is the leader in the area - in the regional center approx. 356 thousand m² of living space are put into operation on the plan of 264 thousand m², which is 152% compared to 2014. Among the main objects put into operation are the regional infection hospital in Kaluga, the children's and adult polyclinic in Balabanowo, the Kaluga airport, the building of the state regional archive, a number of sports complexes.
The region leads the RF in terms of gas supply. The gasification level in the area is over 81%, including 66% in the countryside. For the gas supply of the Kaluga region in 2015 over 1.7 billion rubles. from the funds of the PAO Gazprom, the regional budget and other sources. Over 432 km of gas pipelines have been built. For the first time, the blue fuel is being supplied to 34 rural locations with a population of around 3.5 thousand.
In 2015, companies invested over 2.5 billion rubles in the electrical energy sector. Over 8,000 technological connections have been made to the electrical networks, including over 5,500 connections for privileged consumer groups. According to the program "Saving energy and increasing energy efficiency in the Kaluga region", three boiler rooms in Peremyshlsky and Ulyanovsky districts have been modernized from the regional budget, and 27 boiler rooms have been repaired in Malojaroslavets. 1200 apartments are connected to individual heating for each apartment. The first nuclear power plant in the world is located in the Kaluga region - the Obninsk nuclear power plant, which was commissioned in 1954.
Agriculture has a special place in the region's economy. The share of agricultural products in the gross regional product is more than 8.1%. The number of the rural population of the Kaluga area is 242.6 thousand people and thus 24% of the total number of inhabitants of the Kaluga area.
The volume of agricultural production in farms of all categories was around 26.2 billion rubles in 2012. The total agricultural area in the Kaluga area is 1.821 million hectares, of which 1.145 million hectares are used for agricultural purposes, including arable land of 857.1 thousand hectares.
The operational focus of agriculture is on dairy and meat farming. Modern pig farms supply pork to the domestic market by supplying refrigerated meat and semi-finished products for retail. These companies include the joint Russian-Thai company OOO “Charoen Pokphand Foods” of the Dzerzhinskij district, OOO KFH “Khachevnikov” of the Ulyanovsky district, KFH “Tonojan” of the Babyninsky district. As of January 1, 2013, the total number of cattle on farms in all categories was 132.4 thousand animals, including cows - 57.4 thousand animals, the pig population was 74.1 thousand animals, and the poultry population in 3.8 million animals.
In 2012, around 234 thousand tons of milk were produced on farms in all categories. The average milk yield per cow in the agricultural companies was 4,700 kg. According to the daily average milk yield per cow, the Kaluga region ranks 8th among the 17 regions of the Central Federal District of the Russian Federation. On an industrial scale are automated systems for milking cows (AMS) in the company OOO "Aleschinskoje" the circle Meschtschowskij , OOO "Bebelewo" the circle Fersikowskij, OOO "Lespuar" the circle Suchinitschskij introduced. In addition to the above Poultry farming is also developing as the main branch in the Kaluga region. The largest producers of bird meat are the OAO "Kalushskaya Poultry Factory", the "Radon Poultry Factory" OOO in the Dzerzhinsky District and the "Belousovo Poultry Factory" OOO in the Zhukovsky District. Guinea fowl are kept in the “Samson Farm” in the Medynsky district.
Arable and crop production
The share of arable and crop production in agricultural production in the Kaluga area is 10.2%. Among the branches of arable and crop cultivation, the largest share falls to the grain industry as well as the vegetable and potato cultivation. In 2013 the farms of all categories produced 165.7 thousand tons of grain (weight after post-processing). The grain yield was 21.5 Ztr./ha. Large grain producers include the Lenin collective farm (“Kolkhos imeni Lenina”) of the Zhukovsky district, the “Moskva” agricultural cooperative (Kolkhoz) of the Borovsky district, the OAO “Plemsawod imeni VNZwetkowa” of the Maloyaroslavetsky district, the collective farm Peremyshlsky, OOO “Agricultural Resource” of Sukhinichsky district. The highest gross grain harvest of 10,764 tons was achieved in the OAO "MosMedynAgroprom" in the Medynsky district. In 2013 the farms of all categories were able to harvest 335.4 thousand tons of potatoes, 98.0 thousand tons of outdoor vegetables, and 6.6 thousand tons of greenhouse vegetables.
The potato yield is 144.0 quintals per hectare, the yield of outdoor vegetables is 178.0 quintals per hectare. The largest potato producer the following farms include: OOO "Aurora" the circle Babyninskij, OOO "Slawjanskij potato" of the circle Duminitschskij , ZAO "kolkhoz imeni Ordzhonikidze" the circle Koselskij , FGUSP "Rodina" the circle Malojaroslawezkij , "SPK imeni K. Marx ”and SPK“ Rus ”of the Chwastowitschskij district, Kolkhoz“ Mayak ”and OOO“ Kalushskaya Niwa ”of Peremyslsky. The leading producers of greenhouse vegetables include the OAO "Teplitschnyj" of the city of Kaluga , the OOO " Obninski Teplitschnyj Kombinat", the OOO "Malojaroslavetski Teplitschnyj Kombinat". The OOO "Plodoowoschtschnoje chosjajstwo - Monastyrskoje podworje" from the suburb of Kalugas supplies the townspeople of Kaluga with outdoor vegetables.
The agricultural industry of the Kaluga region is represented by 332 industrial farms, 45 large and medium-sized companies in the food and processing industry, 2248 farmers and farms, and 117.8 thousand personal ancillary farms. The total investments of the large and medium-sized enterprises in the food and processing industry in 2012 amounted to 283 million rubles.
Infrastructure and logistics of the agro-industrial complex
This area is represented by the following promising projects of the agro-industrial complex:
- “Kagro” is an agro-industrial park that is geared towards processing the agricultural products produced in the area;
- "Dettschino" is an agrotechnological center in which the following branches of 5 large European companies from the agribusiness sector have their headquarters: "Grimme", "Lemken", "Big Dutchman", * "Wolf System" and the Russian-German holding company "EkoNiwa";
- “SME Park” is an agro-industrial park for small and medium-sized enterprises, set up as a center for effective distribution of agricultural production with secure storage conditions.
State support measures
State support is given to all agricultural goods producers under the state programs. The Kaluga Region Agricultural-Industrial Complex Development Center operates as an operator of free consulting services for agricultural goods producers. The total volume of state support as of October 1, 2013 was Rbl 339.2 million, of which Rbl 136.9 million. from the federal budget and RUB 202.3 million. from the area budget.
- Administrativno-territorialʹnoe delenie po subʺektam Rossijskoj Federacii na 1 janvarja 2010 goda (administrative-territorial division according to subjects of the Russian Federation as of January 1, 2010). ( Download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)
- Itogi Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 goda. Tom 1. Čislennostʹ i razmeščenie naselenija (Results of the All-Russian Census 2010. Volume 1. Number and distribution of the population). Tables 5 , pp. 12-209; 11 , pp. 312–979 (download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)