Chukchi Autonomous Okrug
Subject of the Russian Federation
The Autonomous District of the Chukchi ( Russian Чукотский автономный округ / Tschukotski awtonomny okrug , Chukchi Чукоткакэн автономныкэн округ short too), Chukotka called, is an administrative unit ( Autonomous District ) in Russia . In the sparsely populated Chukotka, which is located in the far north-east of Russia, less than 50,000 people live in an area more than twice the size of that of the Federal Republic of Germany .
Chukotka covers the extreme northeast of Russia. It is separated from Alaska by the Bering Strait, which is only 82 km wide at its narrowest point . The surface is predominantly mountainous and has the character of a low mountain range . On the coasts there are more or less extensive lowlands (e.g. the Tschaun lowlands). The mountainous countries are counted as part of the East Siberian mountainous country . They include, among others, the northern part of Korjakengebirges that Anjuigebirge that Anadyrgebirge to the Chukchi Peninsula , where in Cape Dezhnev the easternmost point of Russia or Asia is. The circle also includes several larger islands, such as the UNESCO World Heritage Site Wrangel Island and the island of Aion .
The circle lies almost entirely north of the tree line and is covered by tundra . In the higher mountain regions it turns into a frost rubble desert . Only in the southernmost areas of the district can you find low-growing trees in protected locations.
The climate is harsh. The annual average temperatures are between −5 and −10 ° C. Winter starts in September and doesn't end until May. The warmest month is July with around 9 ° C, the coldest in January with −25 ° C, and lowest temperatures of under −40 ° C are possible. Storms are possible at any time of the year and often reach hurricane strength.
Chukotka is remote and extremely sparsely populated. As a result of the decline in gold mining, since 1989 it has lost almost 70% (1989–2010: −69.2%) of its inhabitants, mainly Russians , due to emigration to central Russia. The previously well represented groups of immigrants, the Ukrainians , Belarusians and Tatars, have also moved away in droves. The indigenous ethnic groups , however, as in most areas of Siberia and the Far East, still in the minority.
The following table shows the development over time of the total population and its composition by nationality:
|Ethnic group||VZ 1939||VZ 1959||VZ 1970||VZ 1979||VZ 1989||VZ 2002||VZ 2010 1|
|Eskimos 3||k.Ang.||? %||1,064||2.3%||1,149||1.1%||1,278||0.9%||1,452||0.9%||1,534||2.9%||1,529||3.0%|
|Jukagiren 4||k.Ang.||? %||k.Ang.||? %||k.Ang.||? %||109||0.08%||144||0.09%||185||0.3%||198||0.4%|
|1 2,770 people could not be assigned to any ethnic group. These people are probably distributed in the same proportion as the ethnically assigned residents. 2 Counted among the Chukchi from 1939–1979. 3 1939 under other Siberian peoples . 4 1939–1970 under other Siberian peoples .|
From 2008 to 2015, the Autonomous District was in a city district and six Rajons divided after May 30, the former Rajons Iultin and Schmidtowski (with the Wrangel Island ) for Rajon Vostochny ( "Ostrajon") and Rajons Anadyrski and Beringovsky for Rajon Zentralny ( "Zentralrajon") were united. On November 18, 2008, the two Rajons were each given the name of one of the old Rajons: the Ostrajon became the Rajon Iultin and the Central Rajon Anadyr. As of 2008, a total of 7 urban and 37 rural communities were subordinate to the Rajons; In 2010 two rural communities were dissolved.
In 2015, three of the Rajons were converted into city districts, each named after their administrative seat: the Iultinski rajon in the city district Egwekinot, the Prowidenski rajon in the city district Prowidenija and the Tschaunski rajon in the city district Pewek. All urban and rural communities of these Rajons were dissolved and their localities and the localities previously located on community-free territory were directly subordinated to the respective urban districts. The remaining three Rajons have been subordinate to a total of 3 urban and 20 rural communities since 2015.
- Number of the Rajons / District (in alphabetical order of the names in Russian )
- cities in bold, urban-type settlements in italics; * also the town hall
- Parish in Rajons (town council seats in italics), all inhabited places in urban districts
- does not belong to the Rajon itself, but to the urban district of the same name
- including Wrangel Island (not shown on the map)
Cities and urban settlements
|City * / City settlement||Russian||Rajon||Residents
(October 14, 2010)
|Anadyr *||Анадырь||Urban district||13,045|
|Mys Schmidta||Мыс Шмидта||Iultin||492|
|Ugolnye Kopi||Угольные Копи||Anadyr||3,368|
The urban settlements that still existed in the 1990s (mainly miners' settlements) Aliskerowo , Baranicha, Iultin , Komsomolski, Krasnoarmeiski, Leningradski, Shakhtyorsky, Walkumei and Wstretschny have now been abandoned by their residents and have thus become ghost towns .
The Russian settlement began in the 17th century against fierce resistance from the Chukchi, which lasted until the early 20th century. In 1930 the National Chukchi Circle was established. It was under the Far Eastern Krai until 1934, the Kamchatka Oblast until 1951, the Khabarovsk Krai until 1953 and then the Magadan Oblast until 1992 . In 1980, due to the Constitution of 1977 in the National District of the Chukchi of the Autonomous District of the Chukchi .
In December 2000 Roman Abramowitsch was elected the new governor with 92% of all votes and was confirmed in this office in October 2005. He began shipping self-financed groceries, prefabricated houses from Canada, and fuel to the autonomous county. While Abramowitsch enjoyed great popularity among the local population due to these measures, his office secured the oligarch, who lived in London, protection from criminal prosecution ( political immunity ). In new Russian press reports about the richest man in the country, it is also often said that the then President Vladimir Putin asked him to take care of the backward region in this way. Abramovich's annual taxes alone would exceed the regional budget many times over. In July 2008 Abramovich resigned as governor of Chukotka; Roman Kopin was appointed as his successor .
As a border area with the United States , foreigners can only travel to Chukotka with a special permit. This must be issued by the governor.
The most important industry is still gold mining , although this has declined in recent years. Current investments by Kinross Gold , a Canadian mining company, are likely to see gold production spike again over the next several years. The traditional branches of the economy of the Chukchi and other indigenous ethnic groups are reindeer herding , fur trapping and also the hunting of marine mammals .
The main inner belt asteroid (2509) Chukotka was named after the Chukchi Autonomous Okrug.
- Official website of Chukotka
- Factbytes: Chukotka
- Photo tour through Siberia: White Hell in the sunset , article by Michael Martin in Spiegel Online , April 24, 2012
- Photo trip to Siberia: Cooking with a blowtorch , article by Michael Martin in Spiegel Online , May 3, 2012
- Photo trip to Siberia: Fishing with tanks , article by Michael Martin in Spiegel Online , May 17, 2012
- Administrativno-territorialʹnoe delenie po subʺektam Rossijskoj Federacii na 1 janvarja 2010 goda (administrative-territorial division according to subjects of the Russian Federation as of January 1, 2010). ( Download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)
- Čislennostʹ naselenija gorodskich naselennych dotov, selʹskich naselennych dotov po Čukotskomu avtonomnomu okrugu. (Population of urban settlements, rural settlements in the Chukchi Autonomous Okrug.) Download from the website of the Chukchi Autonomous Okrug of the Federal Service of State Statistics of the Russian Federation
- Population of the Russian territorial units by nationality 2010 (Russian; lines 1118–1130) http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/population/demo/per-itog/tab7.xls
- Lutz D. Schmadel : Dictionary of Minor Planet Names . Fifth Revised and Enlarged Edition. Ed .: Lutz D. Schmadel. 5th edition. Springer Verlag , Berlin , Heidelberg 2003, ISBN 978-3-540-29925-7 , pp. 186 (English, 992 pp., Link.springer.com [ONLINE; accessed on August 19, 2019] Original title: Dictionary of Minor Planet Names . First edition: Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg 1992): “1977 NG. Discovered 1977 July 14 by NS Chernykh at Nauchnyj. "