Chukchi language

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Spoken in

RussiaRussia Russia
speaker 7,740
Language codes
ISO 639 -1


ISO 639 -2


ISO 639-3


Chukchi (proper name ԓыгъоравэтԓьэн йиԓыйиԓ / ļyg'orawetļ'en jiļyjiļ [ ɬəɣʔɔrawɛˌtɬʔɛn jiɬəjiɬ ], dt. "Language of real people" from lygi- "real," 'orawetl'an "man" and jilyjil "tongue, language", Russ. Чукотский язык ) is a paläosibirische language , which is spoken by about 10,000 speakers, the Chukchi , in the northeastern corner of the Russian Far East in the Chukotka region.

The closest related language, Korjak , has around 3,500 speakers. Together with Itelmen, Aliutor and Kerek, both languages ​​form the group of Chukchi-Kamchadal languages . (There all further information on the language family.)

The Chukchi and Koryaks form a cultural unit, their economy is based on reindeer herding and they have the status of autonomous districts within the Russian Federation .

The origin of the Russian name chuktscha is unclear. Probably, however, it has its origin in the name of the largest social subgroup, the reindeer chukchi (chukchi. Cawcw [ ˈsawsəw ]).

The language is listed as "endangered" in the UNESCO Red Book .

The Chukchi language is written with the Cyrillic alphabet with the help of three additional letters: Ӄ ӄ, Ӈ ӈ and Ԓ ԓ, as well as the character ʼ . The Ԓԓ was only introduced at the end of the 1980s to identify the Chukchi L-sound to distinguish it from the Russian that occurs in loan words. A special feature is the different pronunciation of the consonant / r / or the combination / rk / for men and women. While the men speak / r / or / rk /, the women speak / ts / in both cases. So the "walrus" is called rərkə for men , but tsətsə for women . (For more information on the structure of language see under Chukchi-Kamchadal languages .) The only word from the Chukchi language known in German is the name for the salmon species (Chukchi qetaqet ) Ketalachs (Latin Oncorhynchus keta , English dog salmon, chum salmon ), from which the "Keta" caviar is obtained.

The Chukchi alphabet

А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж
З з И и Й й К к Ӄ ӄ Л л Ԓ ԓ М м
Н н Ӈ ӈ О о П п Р р С с Т т У у
Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы
Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я ʼ


See also

Web links

Wiktionary: Chukchi  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations