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Chukchi (proper name ԓыгъоравэтԓьэн йиԓыйиԓ / ļyg'orawetļ'en jiļyjiļ [ ɬəɣʔɔrawɛˌtɬʔɛn jiɬəjiɬ ], dt. "Language of real people" from lygi- "real," 'orawetl'an "man" and jilyjil "tongue, language", Russ. Чукотский язык ) is a paläosibirische language , which is spoken by about 10,000 speakers, the Chukchi , in the northeastern corner of the Russian Far East in the Chukotka region.
The closest related language, Korjak , has around 3,500 speakers. Together with Itelmen, Aliutor and Kerek, both languages form the group of Chukchi-Kamchadal languages . (There all further information on the language family.)
The origin of the Russian name chuktscha is unclear. Probably, however, it has its origin in the name of the largest social subgroup, the reindeer chukchi (chukchi. Cawcw [ ˈsawsəw ]).
The language is listed as "endangered" in the UNESCO Red Book .
The Chukchi language is written with the Cyrillic alphabet with the help of three additional letters: Ӄ ӄ, Ӈ ӈ and Ԓ ԓ, as well as the character ʼ . The Ԓԓ was only introduced at the end of the 1980s to identify the Chukchi L-sound to distinguish it from the Russian that occurs in loan words. A special feature is the different pronunciation of the consonant / r / or the combination / rk / for men and women. While the men speak / r / or / rk /, the women speak / ts / in both cases. So the "walrus" is called rərkə for men , but tsətsə for women . (For more information on the structure of language see under Chukchi-Kamchadal languages .) The only word from the Chukchi language known in German is the name for the salmon species (Chukchi qetaqet ) Ketalachs (Latin Oncorhynchus keta , English dog salmon, chum salmon ), from which the "Keta" caviar is obtained.
The Chukchi alphabet
|А а||Б б||В в||Г г||Д д||Е е||Ё ё||Ж ж|
|З з||И и||Й й||К к||Ӄ ӄ||Л л||Ԓ ԓ||М м|
|Н н||Ӈ ӈ||О о||П п||Р р||С с||Т т||У у|
|Ф ф||Х х||Ц ц||Ч ч||Ш ш||Щ щ||Ъ ъ||Ы ы|
|Ь ь||Э э||Ю ю||Я я||ʼ|
- Bernard Comrie : The Languages of the Soviet Union. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge et al. 1981, ISBN 0-521-23230-9 .