As Lamaism many Western authors and designate Tibetologists and some Tibetan authors, mainly in Tibetan, Mongolian and Manchu-Tungus culture as well as in Bhutan , Sikkim and Ladakh widespread form of Buddhism. The term is also common in Mongolian Studies . According to Heinz Bechert , the term is determined by the conjunction of the critical attributes:
- Appeal to the Kanjur as Buddhavacana (Buddha's teaching tradition),
- Tibetan as a cult language and
- Ordination according to the Vinaya of Mulasarvastivadin .
The two main representatives of the directions summarized under this heading are
The occasional equation with Vajrayana Buddhism is incorrect, since this (besides Sutrayana and Mahayana ) is only one of the three teaching systems ("vehicles") of Lamaism and Vajrayana (besides historical schools) has developed its own forms in China and Japan ( Mizong and Mikkyo ).
The mentioned western authors and Tibetologists include a .:
- Heinz Bechert
- Edward Conze
- Giuseppe Tucci
- Walther Heissig
- Luciano Petech
- Rudolf Petri
- Rolf A. Stein
- Albert Grünwedel
- Emil Schlagintweit
- Sándor Kőrösi Csoma
- Karl Friedrich Koeppen
- Ernst Schäfer
- Karl-Heinz Everding
- Sven Hedin
- Andreas Gruschke
- Helmut Hoffmann
- LA Waddell
- Han Suyin
Tibetan authors are:
More recently, the use of the term has been criticized primarily by Tibetan Buddhists (including the Dalai Lama ) and followers of Tibetan Buddhism. The term "Tibetan Buddhism" is generally suggested as an alternative. However, the use of "Tibetan Buddhism" as a generic term for example is problematic. B. Mongolian Buddhism, for which Tibetan Buddhism is only the prototype. On the academic side, Donald Sewell Lopez argues that the term is probably a Western adaptation of the Chinese lǎmajiào 喇嘛教 , which can be translated as "teachings of the lamas". The word lǎmajiào was introduced into Chinese during the Qing dynasty in order to distinguish the form of Buddhism it protected (especially by Emperor Qianlong ) from the Chinese form, fójiào 佛教 . Lopez criticizes the use of the term in Chinese propaganda and the detachment of the term from the cultural and political reality of Tibet in Western discourse. Lopez 'book' Prisoners of Shangri-La 'was judged very controversially. a. Sharply criticized by Robert AF Thurman : "The book is fundamentally spoiled by the usual hallmarks of a polemic: mere assertions presented as evidence, confused distortions in the argumentation and the author posing in schoolmasterly self-righteousness" (The book is fundamentally marred by the usual trademarks of a polemic: mere assertions paraded as evidence, confused distortions in reasoning, and an authorial pose of scholarly self-righteousness). Per Kværne defends the use of the term 'Lamaism' when it is used without pejorative connotations: "This term underlines the key role that the spiritual teacher (' Lama ') plays in the religious society of Tibet. Sometimes 'Lamaism' has a derogatory undertone preserved in the sense of a 'degenerate' Buddhism; if one deliberately excludes this meaning, however, it can be used, as it points to a fact of fundamental importance: the lama in Tibet does not necessarily have to be a fully ordained monk ( dge-slong ), and accordingly the transmission of the dharma is not reserved for the monk as in other Buddhist countries ".
- Jan-Ulrich Sobisch: Lamakratie - The failure of a form of government (PDF; 3.0 MB) - buddhismuskunde.uni-hamburg.de
- Heinz Bechert: Buddhism in South and Southeast Asia: history and present . W. Kohlhammer, 2013.
- Oliver Freiberger, Christoph Kleine: Buddhism: manual and critical introduction . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2010.
- Per Kvaerne: The rise and fall of a monastic tradition . In: Heinz Bechert and Richard Gombrich (eds.): The Buddhism. Past and present . 2nd Edition. CH Beck, 2002.
- Heinz Bechert: Buddhism in South and Southeast Asia: history and present . Kohlhammer 2013.
- Edward Conze: A Short History of Buddhism . 2nd Edition. Oneworld 1993.
- Giuseppe Tucci, Walther Heissig: The religions of Tibet and Mongolia . Kohlhammer, 1970. (therein: The Religions of Tibet (Tucci), pp. 5–295.)
- Walther Heissig: The religions of Mongolia . In: G.Tucci and W. Heissig, The Religions of Tibet and Mongolia. Kohlhammer, 1970.
- Luciano Petech: China and Tibet in the Early 18th Century. History of the Establishment of Chinese Protectorate in Tibet . EJ Brill, 1950.
- RP Anuruddha (= Rudolf Petri): An Introduction into Lamaism: The Mystical Buddhism of Tibet. First edition: Vishveshvaranand Vedic Research Institute 1959. Reprint: Literary Licensing 2011, ISBN 9781258000929
- Rolf A. Stein: The culture of Tibet . Weber, 1993.
- Albert Grünwedel: Mythology of Buddhism in Tibet and Mongolia. Guide to the Lamaist collection of Prince E. Uchtomskij . FA Brockhaus, 1900.
- Emil Schlagintweit: Buddhism in Tibet . FA Brockhaus, 1863.
- Collected works of Alexander Csoma de Kőrös . Akadémiai Kiadó, 1984.
- Karl Friedrich Koeppen: Tibet and Lamaism up to the time of Mongol rule . Lange, 1859.
- Ernst Schäfer: Secret Tibet. First report of the German Tibet Expedition 1938/39 . F. Bruckmann, 1943.
- Karl-Heinz Everding: Tibet. Lamaistic monastery culture, nomadic ways of life and everyday rural life on the “roof of the world” . DuMont, 2007.
- Sven Hedin: Transhimalaya. Discoveries and adventures in Tibet . FA Brockhaus, 1923.
- Andreas Gruschke: Myths and legends of the Tibetans. About warriors, monks, demons and the origin of the world . E. Diederichs, 1996.
- Helmut Hoffmann: The religions of Tibet . K. Alber, 1956.
- LA Waddell: The Buddhism of Tibet or Lamaism. With its mystic cults, symbolism and mythology, and in its relation to Indian Buddhism . Asian Educational Services, 1996.
- Han Suyin: Lhasa, the Open City. A Journey to Tibet . Putnam, 1977.
- Dawa Norbu: Red star over Tibet . Collins, 1974; Dawa Norbu: China's Tibet Policy . Routledge, 2001.
- Tenzin Chhodak: The 1901 Proclamation of HH Dalai Lama XIII. In: Alex McKay (ed.): The History of Tibet. The modern period, 1895–1959 . Routledge Shorton 2003.
- Tsultim Gyatso: A Letter from Ladakh to Our Foreign Visitors. In: Recent research on Ladakh 6. Motilal Banarsidass, 1997.
- Tibetan Buddhism is not Lamaism. Retrieved May 9, 2017 .
- Donald S. Lopez Jr .: Prisoners of Shangri-La: Tibetan Buddhism and the West . Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1999, p. 6.
- Donald S. Lopez Jr .: Prisoners of Shangri-La: Tibetan Buddhism and the West. Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1999, p. 44.
- Robert AF Thurman: Critical Reflections on Donald S. Lopez Jr.'s "Prisoners of Shangri-La: Tibetan Buddhism and the West" . In: Journal of the American Academy of Religion, pp. 191-201 . Vol. 69, No. 1. Oxford University Press.
- Per Kvaerne: The rise and fall of a monastic tradition . In: Heinz Bechert and Richard Gombrich (eds.): The Buddhism. History and present. 2nd Edition. CH Beck, 2002, p. 297 .