Overview map of the Berchtesgaden Alps
|Highest peak||Hochkönig ( )|
|location||Bavaria , Germany and Salzburg , Austria|
|part of||Northern Eastern Alps|
|Classification according to||AVE 10|
|rock||predominantly dolomite and limestone|
|Age of the rock||Triassic ( Wettersteinkalk / Ramsaudolomit , Dachsteinkalk )|
The Berchtesgaden Alps are a mountain group of the Northern Eastern Alps around Berchtesgaden according to the Alpine Club division of the Eastern Alps . Its central massif is the Watzmann , the highest peak of the Hochkönig at Germany with the Free State of Bavaria and Austria with the State of Salzburg have a share in the Berchtesgaden Alps . The mountain range extends between Saalach and Salzach to about 35 km × 45 km.
Boundary and neighboring mountain groups
The Berchtesgaden Alps border the following other mountain groups in the Alps:
- Salzkammergut mountains in the east ( Osterhorn group ), separated by the Salzburg basin (city of Salzburg , Hallein )
- Tennengebirge in the southeast, through the Salzach breakthrough at Pass Lueg
- Salzburg Slate Alps in the south, by the line Bischofshofen - Mühlbach (place Mühlbach ) - Dientner saddle - Dienten - Filzensattel - Urslau about Maria Alm to Saalfelden
- Kitzbühel Alps for a little bit in the southwest near Saalfelden
- Loferer and Leoganger Steinberge in the west from the Salzburger Saalachtal to Lofer
- Chiemgau Alps in the northwest from Unken via the Bavarian Schneizlreuth to Bad Reichenhall
Equivalents in alternative mountain group classifications
The mountain group classification according to Trimmel , as it is common in Austrian hydrography , designates an area largely identical to the Berchtesgaden Alps as No. 1330 Salzburg Limestone Alps and assigns it to the North Tyrolean-Salzburg Limestone Alps (1300).
In the Salzburg regional geography, the Austrian parts are counted among the Salzburg High Limestone Alps .
Landscape and structure
The Berchtesgaden Alps are divided into nine subgroups. The highest peaks are up to Hochkönigstock . He is in relative remoteness in the southeast fully on Austrian territory, just across the Torscharte in the West with the Stone Sea connected by the opposite Tenneck pulling Blühnbachtal from Hagengebirge separately.towering
The German-Austrian state border runs in a horseshoe shape through the mountain groups of the Reiter Alm (Reiter Steinberge), the Hochkaltergebirge , the Steinernes Meer, the Hagengebirge, the Göllstocks and the Untersberg . Together with the Lattengebirge , these mountain ranges frame the "basin landscape" of the Berchtesgadener Kessel or the geomorphological unit Berchtesgadener Talessel and the Berchtesgadener Land region in the south of the Berchtesgadener Land district . This basin is accessible by traffic via the Hallthurm pass between Untersberg and Lattengebirge, the Hangendensteinpass between Untersberg and Göllstock and the Schwarzbachwacht between Reiter Alm and Lattengebirge. At the southern edge of the wide valley lies the Watzmannstock , the central massif of the Berchtesgaden Alps , facing the Steinerne Meer, with which it is connected via the Trischübelpass . Its high central peak forms the highest point in the German part of the mountain group. The Watzmann, with its 1,800-meter-high east face, which is considered the highest face in the Eastern Alps, drops steeply to the elongated, fjord-like Königssee , which separates the Watzmann from the Hagen Mountains with the Gotzen Mountains in front . On the western side of the Watzmann with the brittle is Ramsau aufgeschotterte Wimbachtal that it from Hochkalter and its Hocheisgruppe separates. The Klausbachtal runs between Hochkalter and Reiter Alm towards the Hirschbichl Pass (border) and beyond to Weißbach bei Lofer an der Saalach.
In the far east the Torrener Joch connects the Hagengebirge and Göll, otherwise they are separated from each other by the Bluntau valley, a side valley of the Salzach near Golling . Parallel to the Bluntau valley, the Göll sends a striking ridge to the east, the Kuchler Kamm. Upstream of the Göll to the north is the Roßfeld , to which the Roßfeldhöhenringstraße leads up from Unterau - partly via Austrian territory . In the south, the Hagen Mountains are connected to the Steinerne Meer via the Röth . With an area of around 100 km², the Steinerne Meer is the largest mountain range in the Berchtesgaden Alps.
While the two central massifs of Watzmann and Hochkalter are pronounced ridge mountains, the surrounding mountain ranges sometimes have extensive plateaus. These are particularly pronounced in the Steinernem Meer, Hagengebirge, Hochkönigstock ( Übergossene Alm ), Untersberg and Reiter Alm. There are many karst features such as carts and sinkholes . Some of the largest known cave systems in the Alps were washed out by the water, including the Salzgrabenhöhle in Steinerne Meer and the Riesling-Schachthöhle in Untersberg, the largest known cave in Germany, which may form a giant system with the wind holes and the Kolowratshöhle . The Kolkbläser Monster Cave System is the largest known cave in Salzburg with a system of at least 44.5 kilometers . The Schellenberger ice cave is accessible to tourists.
The most important peaks of the Berchtesgaden Alps are (groups according to height):
- Hochkönigstock: Hochkönig ( ), Hochseiler ( ), Torsäule ( )
- Watzmannstock: Watzmann -Mittel- ( ) and -Südspitze ( ), Kleiner Watzmann (Watzmannfrau) ( ), Watzmannkinder (up to )
- Steinernes Meer: Selbhorn ( ), Schönfeldspitze ( ), Brandhorn ( ), Großer Hundstod ( ), Funtenseetauern ( ), Wildalmkirchl ( ), Breithorn ( ), Persailhorn ( )
- Hochkaltergebirge: Hochkalter ( ), Hocheisspitze ( ), Seehorn ( )
- Göllstock: Hoher Göll ( ), Hohes Brett ( ), Jenner ( )
- Hagen Mountains: Großes Teufelshorn ( ), Kahlersberg ( ), Schneibstein ( )
- Reiter Alm: Stadelhorn ( ), Großes Häuselhorn ( ), Wagendrischelhorn ( ), Großes Mühlsturzhorn ( ), Großes Grundübelhorn ( ), Schottmalhorn ( )
- Untersberg: Berchtesgadener Hochthron ( ), Salzburger Hochthron ( )
- Lattengebirge: Karkopf ( ), Dreisesselberg ( ), Predigtstuhl ( )
The Berchtesgaden Alps drain over the Salzach , Inn and Danube to the Black Sea . The Berchtesgadener Ache flows from the centrally located Berchtesgaden basin towards the Salzach, which it reaches south of Salzburg, where its last section of the river is known as the Königsseeache . Along the western edge of the Berchtesgaden Alps, the Saalach runs through the Pinzgau , Reichenhaller and Salzburg basins , where it flows into the Salzach north of Salzburg. The Salzach, in the Pinzgau only separated from the Saalach by a valley watershed, flows through the Pongau in the south-east of the mountain group to break through the narrow point between the Hagen and Tennen Mountains at Pass Lueg before reaching the Alpine foothills near Salzburg via the Tennengau .
Southeast of the Obersee is the Röthbachfall, Germany's highest waterfall. For the other waterfalls in the Berchtesgaden Alps, see List of waterfalls in Germany, section Berchtesgaden Alps .
The largest still water in the Berchtesgaden Alps is the Königssee, which is embedded between the Watzmann and Hagengebirge massifs . In the south it is separated from the Obersee by a moraine wall and landslide remains . Both lakes, like the Hintersee near Ramsau , are popular destinations for tourists. In the Steinerne Meer, the Funtensee is located at an altitude of 1,600 meters in a basin ( Uvala ), in which the lowest temperatures ever recorded in Germany were recorded. Green and Schwarzensee are passed on the descent from Funtensee to Röth . The blue pool is also located in the Steinerne Meer on the ascent from the Wasseralm over the Lange Gasse to the plateau. The Seeleinsee in the Hagengebirge is located on the Kleine Reibn . Dießbachstausee and Saalachsee (this one in the course of the group boundary - Saalach) are reservoirs in the Berchtesgaden Alps.
During the cold periods of the Quaternary Ice Age , huge masses of firn accumulated in the entire Alps and flowed as glaciers into the Alpine foothills. Only the highest peaks still protruded from the ice stream network . The valley of the Königssees was excavated over 200 m below the normal valley floor - hence the considerable depth of the lake. The current U-shape of the valleys was formed by the erosion of the glaciers. With the end of the Last Ice Age, the glaciers melted far back into their upper basins and subsequently disappeared completely for a time.
Today, the glaciation of the Berchtesgaden Alps, as in general of the Northern Limestone Alps, is comparatively low. You can still find noteworthy glaciation on the Hochkönig with the Übergossene Alm , on the Hochkalter with the blue ice and on the Watzmann with the Watzmann glacier . Doused alpine pastures and blue ice show clear signs of dissolution due to global warming . A special feature is the avalanche cone called the ice chapel at the foot of the Watzmann east face, the lower end of which is 930 m above sea level and which is likely to be the lowest year-round snowfield in the Alps.
Natural structure of the Berchtesgaden Alps (934.3)
The natural spatial unit 016 - Berchtesgaden Alps - belonging to the main unit Northern Limestone Alps - encloses u. a. the Berchtesgadener Land . The structure proposed by Klaus Hormann in 1978 calculates the Berchtesgaden Alps, deviating from the previous structure, as the main unit 934 Salzburg Plateau-Limestone Alps of the superordinate unit 93 Northern Limestone-Eastern Alps.
Many of the units range in the area of the Untersberg (934.343), the Hagengebirge (934.313), the Steinernes Meer (934.312) and the Reiter-Alpe (934.341), the Hochkalter-Massif (934.321) and the Gölls (934.323) as well as the Schellenberger Mittelgebirge (934.333) with the Rossfeldkuppen (934.334) to the Austrian territory.
The Berchtesgaden Alps are formed by a ring of plateau mountains that are closed on almost all sides and are grouped around a central basin landscape. Only in the northeast is the mountain grouping broken up towards the Salzach Valley .
Broad notches between the main groups of the Berchtesgaden Alps (934.30)
This natural area is formed by the Wimbachgries (934.301) and the Königssee-Obersee-Furche (934.302). The Wimbachgries - framed by the rock massifs of the Hochkalter , Watzmann and Steinernen Meeres - was created by increased erosion in the central area of the domed vault formed by the limestone massifs ( relief reversal ). Due to the flat slope at the exit of the valley, the steep flanks in the upper section of the valley and the glacial shape of the valley, a wide area of debris with little vegetation formed. Only a fraction of the sediment reaches the Ramsauer Ache , as the valley exit was closed by the terminal moraine of the Wimbach glacier and the stream had to find a new drain on the eastern side of the valley in the form of a gorge .
The narrow, fjord-like valley of the Königssee-Obersee-Furche follows a pre-glacial system through deep tectonic faults . During the Ice Age, the valley was considerably deepened by local glaciers, so that the narrow lake has a water depth of 190 meters. The separation of Königssee and Obersee was caused by a postglacial landslide . In the area of the mouth of the ice trench, an alluvial cone of fluviatil transported sediments formed, which reduces the width of the lake to only 250 meters at this point.
Southern Berchtesgaden Limestone Plateau Mountains (934.31)
The German part of the southern Berchtesgadener Kalkplateaugebirge consists of the mountain ranges and plateaus south and east of the Königssees and is limited by the Gotzenalmplateau (934.314) and the German parts of the Steinernes Meer (934.312) in the south and the Hagengebirge (934.313) in the east.
The Gotzenalm plateau is 1200 to 1700 meters above sea level and is bordered in the west and south by the steep slopes to the Königssee and Obersee, while the eastern border is formed by the limestone massifs of the Hagengebirge . The Gotzenalm plateau area, characterized by numerous sinkholes , is formed by Jurassic silica limestone and radiolarite , which is underlain by the Dachstein limestone .
The Hagengebirge is formed by a Dachstein limestone slab that plunges north to northeast and is deeply karstified , so that there is almost no surface runoff . The rainwater that has seeped away reappears in karst springs on the lower slope - mostly on Austrian territory . The German part of this natural space unit largely comprises the mountain range that forms the state border with Austria from the Großer Teufelshorn in the south, over the Kragenkopf, Kahlersberg , Windschartenkopf to the Schneibstein .
The German parts of the Steinerne Meer form the southernmost tip of the Berchtesgadener Land and are part of the largest karst plateau in the Berchtesgaden Alps. The highest elevations on German territory are the Große Hundstod (2593 m) and the Funtenseetauern (2578 m). To the north-east of these mountain ranges there are plateau areas that can be regarded as a counterpart to the Gotzenalm plateau in terms of their origin and altitude (1300 to 1900 m). In the area of the distribution area of the Jurassic sediments, lakes ( Funtensee , Grünsee , Schwarzensee ) have formed in sinkholes sealed with clay , while the surface runoff is largely absent in the Dachstein limestone.
Middle Berchtesgaden limestone massifs (934.32)
The central Berchtesgaden limestone massifs include the German parts of the Hochkalter massif (934.321) in the west and the Göll massif (934.323) in the east as well as the Watzmann massif (934.322). In contrast to the limestone massifs of the Steinerne Meer and the Hagengebirge, the southern parts of the Mittlerer Berchtesgaden limestone massifs are more prominent and the rock formations plunge more strongly in northerly directions.
The Hochkalter massif is built up asymmetrically in accordance with the north-western layer falling. While the flat northwestern flank by numerous flat-filled with detritus Kare is in the southeast flank drops steeply into the massif Wimbachtal. The summit ridge divides north of the main summit and encloses a cirque opening to the north in which the rest of the Blaueis Glacier has been preserved. At the foot of the slope of the Hochkalter massif, numerous intensely pouring karst springs arise, whose streams drain into the Ramsauer Ache.
The Watzmann massif , which is also asymmetrically formed, is built up - similar to the Hochkalter - by a Dachstein limestone series dipping to the north. In the south and on the west flank are the underlying Ramsaudolomite , which weather in small pieces and form extensive debris fields in the area of the upper Wimbachgries and Eisgraben. The east side of the southern part of the massif drops steeply 1800 meters in the direction of Königssee. Between the main ridge of the Watzmann and the Kleiner Watzmann, the 500 to 800 meter wide Watzmannkar extends in a north-easterly direction, in which the Watzmann glacier and snow fields spread out at an altitude of between 2000 and 2200 meters . In front of the northeast roof of the Watzmann is the Kühroint-Grünten plateau , which was glacial overformed by the Königsee glacier. The Dachstein limestone is covered there by Jurassic limestone, marl and silica limestone . Due to the local groundwater-inhibiting properties of this sequence of layers, there is also an above-ground runoff, while in the Dachstein limestone distribution area, the rainwater seeps away due to karstification.
The Göll massif is built from a Dachstein limestone vault. In the south, the massif is bounded by a tectonic fault zone ( Torrener Joch zone ), while in the northeast the Dachstein limestone is overlaid by softer Jurassic and Cretan limestone and marl stones. The change in the petrographic composition is also noticeable in the morphology - north-east of the striking Dachstein limestone ridge Hoher Göll-Kehlstein, the landscape merges into the gentler Roßfeldkuppen.
Berchtesgadener Hochgebirgslücke (934.33)
Almost completely framed by the high mountain massifs, a pronounced basin and valley landscape is formed in the center of the Berchtesgadener Land , which is due to the spreading of softer Triassic to Cretan rocks. In addition to the basin landscapes of Ramsau and Klausbachtal (934.330) and the Berchtesgaden basin (934.332), low mountain ranges ( Bischofswiesener Mittelgebirge (934.331) and the German parts of the Schellenberger Mittelgebirge (934.333) and the Rossfeldkuppen (934.334)) make up the Berchtesgadener Hochgebirgsgaden.
The domed surfaces of the Ramsau are built up by the coarse sediments and conglomerates of the Ice Age moraines . To the west of Ramsau, the valley landscape is divided into two areas. In a south-westerly direction, the Klausbachtal extends with the Hintersee , which was dammed by a terminal moraine wall and a late glacial landslide. In a north-westerly direction, the valley landscape continues over the Sautiefen to the Schwarzbachwacht. There are numerous rich karst springs there, such as the Schwarzbachloch . The pigeon lake , which has developed over a collapse doline , is located at the entrance to this valley.
The flat surfaces of the central Berchtesgaden basin are mainly characterized by the floodplains of the Königsseer , Ramsauer , Bischofswiesen and Berchtesgadener Ache , while the domed elevations in the basin were formed by glacial Triassic rocks, some of which are covered by Ice Age moraine material.
The domed Bischofswiesen low mountain range is built from more easily weatherable Ramsaudolomite. The progressive erosion and the formation of the domed terrain was favored by earlier erosion of the overlying Dachstein limestone. The area of the Bischofswiesener Mittelgebirge, reaching up to an altitude of 1400 meters, is wooded and merges into a small plateau to the north in the Loipl area , which is interpreted as an earlier valley floor and is now 200 meters above the valley level of the Bischofswiesener Ache.
The formation of the Schellenberger Mittelgebirge was also influenced by the lack of the overlying Dachstein limestone. While in the western part of this natural area the subsoil is built up by Ramsaudolomite, in the central and eastern part Triassic and Jura rocks of the Hallstatt breccia dominate. There are also deposits of the Permoskythian salt rocks from the salt mountain near Berchtesgaden. The domed rocks are glacial over a large area and covered with moraine material. Only the Kneifelspitze towers over the hilly low mountain range.
The morphologically richly structured Roßfeldkuppe to the east are made up of sub- Cretaceous rocks (conglomerates, sandstones and marl stones) and rise above the level of the summits of the Schellenberger Mittelgebirge by 300 to 500 meters.
Northern Berchtesgaden Plateau Mountains (934.34)
The northern border of the Berchtesgaden high mountain gap forms the massif of the Reiter-Alpe (934.341) in the west, the Lattengebirge (934.342) and the Berchtesgadener parts of the Untersberg (934.343) in the north .
The Reiter-Alpe massif is formed by a flat Dachstein limestone unit at an altitude of 1400 to 2000 meters, which has developed from the underlying Ramsaudolomit. The limestone slab, which is bent up at the edges, drops steeply at the edges. The plateau itself is framed by 200 to 600 meter high marginal mountains. The plateau is deeply karstified so that drainage takes place via a karst cave system . Numerous heavily pouring karst springs arise at the boundary between the Dachstein limestone and Ramsaudolomit. In the bowl-shaped depressions of the plateau, marly rocks of the Upper Cretaceous Gosau strata have been preserved, which due to their lithological composition have a water-retaining character and thus form the basis for the existence of the small alpine pastures.
Similar to the Reiter-Alpe, the Lattengebirge is also made up of a base made of Ramsaudolomite with overlying Dachstein limestone, which, however, in contrast to the Reiter-Alpe and the Untersberg, slopes much more strongly to the south-west in this natural area. The Dachstein limestone in the Lattengebirge differs facially from the other mountain ranges of the Berchtesgaden Alps: Large areas of the Dachstein limestone are formed there in main dolomite facies. The clay-marly rocks of the Gosau strata are widespread in the Lattengebirge and have a major influence on the hydrogeological conditions. Due to the water-retaining character, a small raised bog formed at the Moosenalm .
The mountain range of the Untersberg , which is traversed by numerous faults, is formed by a Dachstein limestone plate dipping to the northwest over the Ramsaudolomit. The plateau is intensively karstified and characterized by numerous sinkholes, carts and karst caves. Extensive cave systems ( Schellenberger ice cave , giant thing shaft cave , Kolowrats cave ) run through the Untersberg. During the Ice Ages, local glaciation started from the Untersberg plateau .
In the lower part of the Berchtesgaden Alps, dolomite predominates, which is called Ramsaudolomite here . The gravel masses of the Wimbach valley consist mainly of this material. The slopes formed from dolomite are often characterized by the vegetation of mountain pines - to see z. B. at the base of the Untersberg and in the Stone Sea.
Over the dolomite there is often a layer of lime up to 1000 meters thick , which is called Dachstein lime here . The mussel shells often found in the banked Dachstein limestone (called cow steps due to their crescent shape ) and the algae mats embedded in thin layers of dolomite suggest that the deposits took place in a tropical shallow sea. Over a period of around 15 million years, the organisms there produced lime while the earth's crust continued to sink.
Another type of Dachstein lime can be found e.g. B. on the massif of the Hohen Gölls: The rock consists of embedded corals , calcareous sponges and calcareous algae , which indicate an existing coral reef with strong surf.
1989 was in the range chalk tertiary limit the Bavarian Alps 3 stratigraphically independent iridium anomalies by Günther Graup et al. presented. No findings could be found there that indicate an impact , as is otherwise often found. Rather, the exact geochemical data point to a volcanic origin (including a positive correlation with selenium), which occurs at a time with sea level and climate fluctuations.
The only underground mining still active in the Berchtesgaden Alps is salt mining. Salt mining today is limited to the Berchtesgaden salt mine . This oldest active salt mine in Germany also has a visitor entrance . In the mine, the salt is extracted wet , i. that is, it is released from the surrounding stone by means of water. The typical salt content of the Berchtesgadener Haselgebirge is around 50%, but can fluctuate between 10% and 90%. The brine is transported via a brine pipeline to the New Saline Bad Reichenhall , where it is boiled. In addition, brine is processed in the saline, which is extracted through deep boreholes in the Reichenhall basin. The salt products are sold under the Bad Reichenhaller brand .
At the Dürrnberg near Hallein in Austria , the Celts , and thus far earlier than in neighboring Berchtesgaden, mined salt. Salt mining came to a standstill with the rule of the Romans over the area. In the 12th century it was taken up again by the Archbishop of Salzburg and the income from the Hallein salt mine ensured the prince-archbishopric of Salzburg its economic independence until the secularization of 1803. Salt mining on the Dürrnberg was stopped in 1989 and since then only maintenance mining and visitor access has been carried out in the mine.
In earlier years silver , manganese , copper and iron ore were also mined in the Berchtesgaden Alps . There was copper mining in Mitterberghütten until 1931 and on Mitterberg near Mühlbach am Hochkönig until 1977 .
As early as 1910, the “Plant Protection District Berchtesgaden Alps” was established in the German part of the area as one of the first German protected areas. Since 1978 the core area of the Berchtesgaden Alps has been occupied by the German Berchtesgaden National Park .
The Salzburg part is covered by the European and Nature Reserve Kalkhochalpen , which was installed in 1983 and has been an EU protected area ( FFH ) since 1997 . The protection zone covers 23,647 hectares. As Göll, Hagen, Hochkönig Mountains , Steinernes Meer , 3,674 hectares are also designated as landscape protection areas.
There are also considerations of merging the two within the framework of the EuRegio Salzburg - Berchtesgadener Land - Traunstein and operating them as a common national park area.
Managed and partly managed huts
- Bertgenhütte ( ) on the Hochseiler
- Blaueishütte ( ) on the Hochkalter
- Eckberthütte ( ) in the Blühnbachtal
- Erichhütte ( ) on the Hochkönig
- Franz-Eduard-Matras-Haus ( ) on the Hochkönig
- Gotzenalm ( ) in the Hagen Mountains above the Königssee
- Ingolstadt house ( ) in the Stone Sea
- Kärlingerhaus ( ) on Funtensee
- Kührointhütte ( ) on the Kleiner Watzmann
- New Traunsteiner Hut ( ) on the Reiter Alm
- Ostpreußenhütte ( ) on the Hochkönig
- Peter Wiechenthaler Hut ( ) on the Stone Sea
- Purtschellerhaus ( ) on the Hohen Göll
- Riemannhaus ( ) in the Stone Sea
- Schneibsteinhaus ( ) on the Schneibstein
- Steel house ( ) on Torrenner Joch
- Stöhrhaus ( ) on the Berchtesgadener Hochthron
- Toni-Lenz-Hütte ( ) on the Salzburger Hochthron
- Wasseralm ( ) in the Röth
- Watzmannhaus ( ) on the Falzköpfl
- Wimbachgrieshütte ( ) in the Wimbachtal
- Zeppezauerhaus ( ) on the Geiereck
- ( ) on the Watzmann-Hocheck
- East wall bivouac box ( ) below the "Massige Pillar" in the Watzmann east wall
- Wildalmkirchl bivouac box ( Wildalmkirchl in the Steinerne Meer ) northeast below the
In the Berchtesgaden Alps there are both classic via ferratas such as the Mannlgrat, but also modern sports via ferrata such as the Königsjodler, Grünstein via ferrata or the Berchtesgadener Hochthronsteig.
Long-distance and long-distance hiking trails
The Via Alpina , a cross-border long-distance hiking trail with five partial trails through the entire Alps, also runs through the Berchtesgaden Alps. The Violette Path of the Via Alpina runs in nine stages through the Berchtesgaden Alps as follows:
- Stage A36 from Werfen in the Salzach Valley to the Arthurhaus
- Stage A37 from Arthurhaus to Erichhütte
- Stage A38 from the Erichhütte to Maria Alm
- Stage A39 from Maria Alm to the Riemannhaus
- Stage A40 from the Riemannhaus to the Kärlingerhaus
- Stage A41 from Kärlingerhaus to Königssee (with a boat trip across the Königssee)
- Stage A42 from Königssee to Engedey near Berchtesgaden
- Stage A43 from Engedey to the Neue Traunsteiner Hut
- Stage A44 from the Neue Traunsteiner Hütte to Unken in the Saalachtal
The two central massifs of the Berchtesgaden Alps, Watzmann and Hochkalter massifs, are completely undeveloped by mountain railways. In the other mountains, the railways mainly only open up their foothills.
The first cable car to be opened in the Berchtesgaden Alps and today the oldest original large cable car in the world is the Predigtstuhlbahn from Bad Reichenhall to the Lattengebirge . With the Untersbergbahn , the mountain group has another large cable car that can be used by the public. These two railways represent the two exceptions in which the high altitudes of mountain ranges in the Berchtesgaden Alps were developed. Lattengebirge and Untersberg, however, are the two lowest mountain ranges in the Berchtesgaden Alps.
The Hirscheckbahn in the Hochschwarzeck in the Lattengebirge and the chairlift on the Zinkenkopf (Göllstock) are chairlifts with summer and winter operation. Both areas are also equipped with drag lifts for winter operation.
The lifts of the ski areas Götschen (Lattengebirge), Roßfeld , Obersalzberg (both Göllstock), Hochkeil (Hochkönig) and parts of the Hinterthal-Maria Alm area are also located in the Berchtesgaden Alps.
In the Berchtesgaden Alps, Ramsau bei Berchtesgaden is Germany's first mountaineering village. The Bergsteigerdörfer initiative is a seal of quality for gentle tourism in accordance with the Alpine Convention and special consideration of regional culture.
- Joachim Burghardt: Forgotten paths around the Königssee. Bruckmann, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-7654-5018-1 . A bibliography of the Berchtesgaden Alps (PDF; 276 kB) is available online for this book .
- Albert Hirschbichler: The history of climbing in the Berchtesgaden Alps. In: Berg 2003 . Alpine Club Yearbook Volume 127, Munich / Innsbruck / Bozen 2003, pp. 40–64.
- Klaus Hormann: Geographical Land Survey 1: 200,000 - Natural spatial structure of Germany: The natural spatial units on sheet 190/196 Salzburg. Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Remagen 1978, ISBN 3-87994-375-3 , pp. 45-55, 69.
- Bernhard Kühnhauser: Alpine Club Guide Berchtesgaden Alps with Hochkönig . 20th edition. Bergverlag Rother , Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-7633-1127-9 .
- Tours and peaks in the Berchtesgaden Alps on steinmandl.de
- berchtesgadener.info , tour website Berchtesgaden Alps
- Marco Klüber: Photo gallery Berchtesgaden Alps on flickr.com
- Stadler Markus: Alpine climbing in the Berchtesgaden Alps
- alpinisten.info: Mountain tours in the Berchtesgaden Alps
- Hubert Trimmel : Mountain group structure for the Austrian cave directory . Ed .: Association of Austrian Speleologists. Vienna 1962 .; WGEV working basis 2005/2006. In: Environment → Water. Federal Environment Agency , 2010, accessed on January 24, 2010 (on the Water Quality Survey Ordinance; links to list (PDF; 23 kB), map , each. Pdf).
- According to Trimmel, the Untersberg foreland , the part of the Salzburg basin between the Saalach estuary and the Salzach, which forms the city of Salzburg, is independently managed as a group in 1350
- Federal Agency for Nature Conservation : Landscape profile - 1600 Berchtesgaden Alps , last change: March 1, 2012, online at bfn.de
- For the " geomorphological unit of Berchtesgaden valley basin" see Planning Office Steinert, Landschafts + Ortsplanung (D-83236 Übersee): Markt Berchtesgaden - Land Use Plan with Landscape Planning , Chapter: 2.6 Landscape as a Protected Property ; Environmental reports from March 6, 2014 to March 6, 2016, PDF file p. 16 of 48 pages; In addition, multiple use of the terms “valley basin” and “valley basin communities” from p. 3, online at gemeinde.berchtesgaden.de
- 7000 years ago the Alps were largely free of ice, cf. Wissenstexte.de: Ice Age and Ice Age .
- Hilmar Schmundt: Puzzle from the ice. Der SPIEGEL 21/2005 p. 166, May 23, 2005, accessed on November 13, 2014 .
- Carl Rathjens: Berchtesgaden Alps . In: The manual of the natural spatial structure of Germany , published by the Federal Institute for Regional Studies and the Central Committee for German Regional Studies, 1st delivery, published by the Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Remagen 1953, p. 58f.
- Klaus Hormann: The natural space units on sheet 190/196 Salzburg , p. 69.
- Klaus Hormann: The natural space units on sheet 190/196 Salzburg , p. 45 f.
- Klaus Hormann: The natural space units on sheet 190/196 Salzburg , p. 46
- Klaus Hormann: The natural space units on sheet 190/196 Salzburg , p. 49
- Klaus Hormann: The natural space units on sheet 190/196 Salzburg , p. 48
- Klaus Hormann: The natural space units on sheet 190/196 Salzburg , p. 47f.
- Klaus Hormann: The natural space units on sheet 190/196 Salzburg , p. 50
- Klaus Hormann: The natural space units on sheet 190/196 Salzburg , p. 51f.
- Klaus Hormann: The natural space units on sheet 190/196 Salzburg , p. 52
- Klaus Hormann: The natural space units on sheet 190/196 Salzburg , p. 52f.
- Klaus Hormann: The natural space units on sheet 190/196 Salzburg , p. 53
- Klaus Hormann: The natural space units on sheet 190/196 Salzburg , p. 53f.
- Klaus Hormann: The natural space units on sheet 190/196 Salzburg , p. 54f.
- Klaus Hormann: The natural space units on sheet 190/196 Salzburg , p. 55
- Heinrich Otto Buja: Engineering Handbook Mining Technology: Deposits and Extraction Technology , Beuth, Berlin 2013, p. 496.
- Bad Reichenhaller , about the salt brand , online at bad-reichenhaller.de
- Grubenbahnen Salzburg at www.sagen.at
- Federal Agency for Nature Conservation: Nature Reserves. Retrieved April 25, 2018 .
- Berchtesgaden National Park
- Gerald Schlager: The Salzburg Kalkhochalpen nature reserve as part of a future cross-border national park Berchtesgaden-Salzburg? In: Yearbook of the Association for the Protection of the Mountains . 1985, p. 175-207 .