Mühlbach am Hochkönig
Mühlbach am Hochkönig
|coat of arms||Austria map|
|Political District :||St. Johann im Pongau|
|License plate :||JO|
|Coordinates :||47 ° 23 ' N , 13 ° 8' E|
|Height :||860 m above sea level A.|
|Residents :||1,465 (January 1, 2020)|
|Population density :||28 inhabitants per km²|
|Postal code :||5505|
|Area code :||06467|
|Community code :||5 04 15|
|Address of the
5505 Mühlbach am Hochkönig
|Mayoress :||Anna Reitinger ( ÖVP )|
Municipal Council : (2019)
|Location of Mühlbach am Hochkönig in the St. Johann im Pongau district|
|Source: Municipal data from Statistics Austria|
Mühlbach am Hochkönig is a municipality with almost 1500 inhabitants in the Salzburg region in the St. Johann im Pongau district in Austria .
The community is located almost 50 km south of Salzburg and 6.5 km northwest of St. Johann im Pongau on the B 164 .
Mühlbach consists of the main town of the same name (1330) and the district Schlöglberg (135) (population in brackets as of January 1, 2020), which are also cadastral communities .
In 1350 the place "Mulpach" was first mentioned in a document. In 1519 Archbishop Leonhard allowed the construction of the Sebastian Chapel. In 1637 the building of the church was completed, and in 1678 a single-class elementary school was founded in the Messnerhaus.
Mühlbach has been proven to have been a mining site since prehistoric times. Already 4,000 years ago, miners on the Mitterberg were involved in a significant amount of copper mining. The copper ore was heated using the fire setting method, made "brittle" by sprinkling it with water and then mined with the help of bronze picks . With this arduous and primitive procedure, the miners of the time got up to 120 meters into the mountain. The mined stone was then crushed, enriched, roasted and the copper melted out of the burn. But suddenly the mining activity was stopped for no known reason and the copper ore deposits were forgotten for 2000 years.
In 1827 the Mitterberg copper deposit was rediscovered by chance. On the way home from Bischofshofen via Gainfeld and Mitterberg, the Rapold farmer rolled a loaf of bread from his cart into the ditch. The son-in-law sent out to search found the bread near today's Hochkeilhaus at a point on the creek bed where the water had cleared shiny yellow copper ore from rubble. While trying to melt the supposed gold, the farmhouse burned down. This story reached the Pillersee to Josef Zöttel, the k. k. Hüttenmeister, who finally discovered that it was high quality copper ore. He then opened the Maria-Hilf tunnel with two miners, which marked the beginning of modern copper mining.
In 1907 the industrialist Arthur Krupp (grandson of Friedrich Krupp , founder of the Essen Krupp cast steel factory ) and Creditanstalt AG founded Mitterberger Kupfer AG. In 1931, the forced global economic crisis and the stock market crash of 1929, the cessation of mining. Arthur Krupp donated the alpine base, today's Arthurhaus , and built two smaller power plants in Mühlbach. Mining in Mühlbach was suspended from 1931 to 1938. In 1938, after Austria was " annexed " to Germany, copper mining started up again. In 1977 mining was finally shut down due to the rapid drop in the price of copper from 57,000.00 / t in 1972 to 22,644.00 / t in 1974. In the heyday of mining there were up to 3,000 inhabitants in Mühlbach, the majority of whom were miners.
The copper used to make the Nebra Sky Disc probably comes from Mitterberg.
Until the end of 2002 the community belonged to the judicial district Werfen , since 2003 it has been part of the judicial district Sankt Johann im Pongau .
The community council has 13 members.
With the municipal council and mayoral elections in Salzburg, the municipal council had the following distributions:
- 2004: 8 SPÖ and 8 ÖVP
- 2009: 10 SPÖ and 7 ÖVP
- 2014: 10 SPÖ, 5 ÖVP, and 2 FPÖ (17 members)
- 2019: 7 ÖVP and 6 SPÖ
- 1992–1994 Gerhard Sumper (SPÖ)
- 1994–2014 Johann Koblinger (ÖVP)
- 2014–2019 Manfred Koller (SPÖ)
- Since 2019 Anna Reitinger (ÖVP)
coat of arms
Blazon : "In the blue shield a silver three-rock, covered with crossed black iron and mallets and before projecting from naturfärbigem Wellenschildfuß a red mill wheel"
- A partnership with the Stockheim community in Germany has existed since 2002 .
Culture and sights
- In 2004, a wooden monument was erected by the Gamsjäger brothers on the Karbachalm , the area-related focus of the Salzburg region. In two tree trunks, 118 “windows” were cut into the wood, in which the coats of arms of the communities can be affixed.
- In the mining and local history museum with adventure tunnels, testimonies of the 5000 year old mining history are presented, which Mühlbach had a lasting impact until 1976.
- The mountain boot on the Dientner Sattel is at 1,400 meters.
- Bergkapelle Mühlbach am Hochkönig: As in all other places, music enthusiasts met very early in Mühlbach am Hochkönig and made music spontaneously in private rooms or in individual inns. Large celebrations such as weddings and church were accompanied. The children came into contact with the regional song potential in many families and later expanded their knowledge in music lessons at the school founded in 1862. The Bergkapelle Mühlbach has a well-kept, extensive chronicle, in which it can be read that rehearsals took place in the parlor of the Proneben farmer, Rupert Deutinger, at the turn of the century. Rupert Deutinger was also the first leader of a peasant music or miner's music that existed since 1908.
- In summer there are 140 km of marked hiking trails, 15 alpine huts, four tennis courts, an outdoor pool, a paragliding school, playgrounds, petting zoos and the Swiss alpine dairy at Arthurhaus .
The place lives from tourism and offers about 2,300 guest beds. It belongs to the Ski amadé ski association and offers 39 lifts with 150 km of prepared pistes, 35 km of cleared winter hiking trails, three toboggan runs and two ski schools.
- Established businesses
- Mühlbach ski school
- Austriafly flight school
- Sepp Bradl (1918–1982), in 1936 he was the first person to jump over 100 meters on the Slovenian large hill in Planica. In 1939 he became the first Central European to win the world championship .
- Julius Emil Knudsen (1856–1944), Norwegian mining director of Mitterberger Kupfer-AG and, together with his sons Emil jr. and William founder of skiing in Mühlbach
- Peter Radacher sen. (1896–1976), alpinist, ski pioneer, participant in the world championship in Nordic skiing, founder of the first ski school in the province of Salzburg
- Peter Radacher jun. (* 1930), Nordic skier, Olympic participant , hut keeper and alpinist
- Robert Zoller (* 1961), World Cup ski racer
- T. Kienlin, Thomas Stöllner : 2009 Singen Copper, Alpine Settlement and Early Bronze Age Mining: Is There a Need for Elites and Strongholds? In: TL Kienlin, B. Roberts (eds.), Metals and Sociueties. Studies in honor of Barbara S. Ottaway. University research Prehist. Arch. 169 (Bonn 2009) 67-104
- 2008 Bronze Age mass production of copper at Mitterberg in: Archeology in Germany , 4, 2008, 32 f.
- 2009 Prehistoric mining districts of the Eastern and Southern Alps - Comments on a state of research. In: K. Oeggl / M. Prast (Hrsg.), The history of mining in Tyrol and its adjacent areas. Proc. 3rd Milestone Meeting SFB HiMAT 2008 (Innsbruck 2009) 37–60
- 2010 Copper and Salt - Mining Communities in the Alpine Metal Ages . In: P. Anreiter et al. (Ed.), Mining in European History and its Impact on Environment and Human Societies
- Proceed. 1st Mining in European History Conference SFB HiMAT 12. – 15. November 2009 (Innsbruck 2010) 297-314
- 2011 The Alpine Copper of the Bronze and Iron Ages: New Aspects of Research. K. Schmotz (Ed.), Lectures of the 29th Lower Bavarian Archaeological Day (Deggendorf 2011) 25–70
- 2011 The Mitterberg as a major producer of copper in the Bronze Age: Questions and previous results. In: K. Oeggl, G. Goldenberg, Th. Stöllner , M. Prast (eds.)
- The history of mining in Tyrol and its neighboring areas. Proceedings for the 5th milestone meeting of the SFB HiMAT from 7th – 10th October 2010 in Mühlbach (Innsbruck 2011) 93-106
- Th. Stöllner , C. Eibner, J. Cierny: 2004 Prehistoric copper mining in Arthurstollen - a new project in the southern district of the Mitterberg area. In: G. Weisgerber / G. Goldenberg (ed.), Rame delle Alpi - Alpenkupfer. The cut, supplement 16 (Bochum 2004) 95-106
- Th. Stöllner , J. Cierny, C. Eibner, N. Boenke, R. Herd, A. Maass, K. Röttger, T. Sormaz, G. Steffens and P. Thomas: 2009 The Bronze Age Mining in the Southern District of the Mitterberg Area - Report on the research from 2002 to 2006. Archaeologia Austriaca 90, 2006 (2009) 87–137
- Th. Stöllner , D Fritzsch, A. Gontscharov, D. Kirchner, K. Nicolussi, Th. Pichler, R. Pils, M. Prange, H. Thiemeyer, P. Thomas: 2011 considerations on the functioning of the Middle Bronze Age wet processing box from the Troiboden. In: K. Oeggl, G. Goldenberg, Th. Stöllner , M. Prast (eds.), The history of mining in Tyrol and its adjacent areas. Proceedings for the 5th milestone meeting of the SFB HiMAT from 7th – 10th October 2010 in Mühlbach (Innsbruck 2011) 141–156
- Th. Stöllner , E. Hanning, A. Hornschuch: 2011 Econometrics of the copper production process on the Mitterberg main course. In: K. Oeggl, G. Goldenberg, Th. Stöllner , M. Prast (eds.), The history of mining in Tyrol and its adjacent areas. Proceedings for the 5th milestone meeting of the SFB HiMAT from 7th – 10th October 2010 in Mühlbach (Innsbruck 2011) 115–128
- Th. Stöllner , R. Schwab: 2009 Hard or soft? What matters. Pimples from prehistoric mining in the Eastern Alps. Mitt. Anthr. Ges. Wien 139, 2009 (Festschrift for FE Barth), 149–166
- Th. Stöllner , P. Thomas, A. Maass, A. Hornschuch, R. Pils, K. Röttger: 2009 Large-scale production of copper in the Mitterberg area in the Bronze Age - research report for the years 2008–2009. In: K. Oeggl, M. Prast (eds.), The history of mining in Tyrol and its adjacent areas. Proc. 3rd Milstone Meeting SFB HiMAT 2008 (Innsbruck 2009) 231–242
- Klaus Oeggl (Ed.): The history of mining in Tyrol and its adjacent areas: Proceedings for the 5th Milestone Meeting of the SFB HiMAT from October 7th to 10th, 2010 in Mühlbach . [University of Innsbruck], Innsbruck University Press, Innsbruck 2011, ISBN 978-3-902811-13-4
- 50415 - Mühlbach am Hochkönig. Community data, Statistics Austria .
- ↑ Statistics Austria: Population on January 1st, 2020 by locality (area status on January 1st, 2020) , ( CSV )
- ↑ Gerhard Sumper . In: Salzburger Nachrichten : Salzburgwiki .
- ↑ Johann Koblinger . In: Salzburger Nachrichten : Salzburgwiki .
- ^ Manfred Koller (Mühlbach am Hochkönig) . In: Salzburger Nachrichten : Salzburgwiki .