Nebra Sky Disc
|Nebra Sky Disc|
|World document heritage|
|Period:||2100–1700 BC Chr.|
|Storage:||State Museum for Prehistory , Halle (Saale)|
|Register link:||Nebra Sky Disc|
|Admission:||2013 ( session 11 )|
The Nebra sky disk , a 3,700 to 4,100-year-old, circular bronze plate with applications of gold , is the oldest known depiction of the heavens. The artifact of the Aunjetitz culture from the early Bronze Age of Central Europe shows astronomical phenomena and religious symbols and is considered to be one of the most important archaeological finds from this era . Some time after the emergence incorporated gold Tauschierungen and probably deliberate burial before about 3600 years strongly suggests a longer, possibly religious use to. Since June 2013, the Sky Disc of Nebra is part of the UNESCO - World Soundtrack Awards in Germany .
She was found on July 4, 1999 by robbers on the Mittelberg in the former municipality of Ziegelroda near the city of Nebra in Saxony-Anhalt . Since 2002 it has been part of the holdings of the State Museum for Prehistory Saxony-Anhalt in Halle .
The almost circular, forged bronze plate has a diameter of around 32 centimeters and a thickness of 4.5 millimeters in the middle and 1.7 millimeters on the edge , it weighs around 2.3 kilograms. The copper in the alloy comes from Mitterberg near Mühlbach am Hochkönig in the Eastern Alps . The ratio of the copper contained in the radiogenic lead - isotopes made this provenance. In addition to a low tin content of 2.5 percent, it has a high content of 0.2 percent arsenic, which is typical for the Bronze Age . It was apparently from a cast bronze brute driven while repeatedly heated in order to avoid stress cracks or eliminate. It turned deep brown to black. The current green color, caused by a layer of corrosion made of malachite , was only created by the long storage in the earth.
The applications made of unalloyed gold sheet are made using the inlay technique and have been supplemented and changed several times. Based on the accompanying finds (bronze swords, two hatchets , a chisel and fragments of spiral bracelets ) it can be assumed that they were around 1600 BC. Its manufacturing date is dated to 2100 to 1700 BC. Estimated.
What is unusual for an archaeological artifact is the fact that several changes were made to the pane during the time it was used, which was reconstructed on the basis of the superimpositions of edits:
- Initially, the gold applications consisted of 32 round plates, a larger, round and a sickle-shaped plate. Seven of the small plates are closely grouped a little above between the round and sickle-shaped plate.
- Later, the so-called horizon arches were attached to the left and right edges, which consist of gold from a different origin, as its chemical constituents show. To make room for the horizon arcs, one gold plate was moved a little towards the middle on the left side, two on the right side were covered so that 30 small plates can now be seen.
- The second addition is another bow at the bottom, again made of gold from another origin. This so-called solar bark is structured by two roughly parallel lines, and fine hatching has been notched into the bronze plate on its outer edges .
- Before the disk was buried, it had been modified a third time: the left horizon arc was already missing and the edge of the disk was provided with 39 very regularly punched holes around 3 millimeters in size.
The back of the sky disc does not contain any applications.
The Nebra sky disk was mainly examined by the archaeologist Harald Meller (State Office for Monument Preservation and Archeology Halle), the astronomer Wolfhard Schlosser (main observer at the Astronomical Institute of the Ruhr University Bochum ), the archaeochemist Ernst Pernicka (archaeo-metallurgist of the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg in Saxony , Institute for Archaeometry ), by employees of the State Criminal Police Office Saxony-Anhalt , by Christian-Heinrich Wunderlich (production technology, production sequence from the State Office for Monument Preservation and Archeology in Halle), at the particle accelerator of the Berlin Electron Storage Ring Society for Synchrotron Radiation by employees of the Federal Institute for Materials Research and -prüfung (BAM) in Berlin and the archaeologist and specialist in religions of the Bronze Age Miranda J. Aldhouse-Green ( University of Wales ).
Togetherness of the finds
Scientists from the State Office for Criminal Investigation of Saxony-Anhalt and the State Office for the Preservation of Monuments and Archeology in Halle found that the sky disk and the other bronze objects from the holdings of the robbers came from the same depot . The remains of the soil adhering to the objects matched the soil characteristics of the site on Mittelberg near Nebra.
The similarity of the processed material of all finds is further evidence of the connection between the bronze pieces. The copper used for all bronze parts shows similar concentrations of trace elements in all Nebra finds , only the content of different lead isotopes varies relatively strongly. However, this does not impair the statement.
In Chapter 2 of the analysis volume on "Bernstorf" by Gebhard / Krause the authenticity of the deposit is checked in detail and the result is questioned because the detailed investigation reports from Pernicka are not yet available.
Authenticity and age of the disc
The sky disc is dated using the stylistic features of the found objects. From comparisons with similar swords known from Hungary, it was concluded that the sky disc was around 1600 BC. Was buried in the ground.
The radiocarbon dating ( C14 method ) retired to determine the age of the disc made of bronze, since this material no carbon contains, which would be necessary for the C14 dating. The Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing irradiated the gold plating at the BESSY particle accelerator with high - intensity X-rays . It was found that the gold plating does not have a uniform composition. The sky disk was probably created in several separate phases.
These results agree with another finding. Christian-Heinrich Wunderlich from the State Office for Monument Preservation and Archeology in Halle extracted around 0.6 mg of carbon from a piece of birch bark that had been found on one of the swords. Its radiocarbon dating showed that the piece of wood dates from around 1600 to 1560 BC. BC.
Origin of the metals used
At the Institute for Archaeometry in Freiberg in Saxony, the copper on the disc was examined radiologically and chemically. With a database of 50,000 prehistoric ore mines in Europe, Ernst Pernicka concluded that the copper of the sky disc came from ore mines in present-day Austria (deposit from Mitterberg near Salzburg ).
At the BESSY particle accelerator in Berlin, the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing examined the gold plating of the sky disc using the non-destructive SRXRF method ( Synchrotron Radiation Induced X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis ). The chemical composition of the gold plating is identical to that of gold from the Carnon River in Cornwall / England ; The tin contained in the bronze is said to come from there. After comparing it with the archaeological finds of processed gold, it was previously assumed that the gold could have come from mines in Romania ( Transylvania ).
The sky disk was made in several phases according to one interpretation.
First state: on the left the full moon, on the right the waxing moon, above in between the Pleiades (all representations simplified)
According to the interpretation of Meller and Schlosser, the platelets represent stars, the group of seven small platelets presumably represent the star cluster of the Pleiades , which belong to the constellation Taurus . The other 25 cannot be assigned astronomically and are counted as an ornament. The large disk was initially interpreted as the sun, now also as a full moon , and the sickle as the waxing moon .
According to Meller and Schlosser, the moon and the Pleiades represent two dates for the visibility of the Pleiades on the western horizon. According to Schlosser, the Pleiades had around 1600 BC. Their acronymic demise on March 10th Greg. as well as her heliacal sinking on October 17th greg. . Schlosser's chronological setting of the Pleiades sinking is contradicted several times in the specialist literature, as the respective sinkings were observed on different days due to the weather and visibility conditions. The fluctuation range is around six days. If the moon was in conjunction with the Pleiades on the March date , it was a narrow crescent shortly after the new moon . In October the moon was full if there was a possible conjunction. The sky disc could have served as a reminder (Meller: memogram) for determining the farming year from the preparation of the field to the end of the harvest.
Another interpretation of the first phase made in 2006 is represented by the astronomer Rahlf Hansen from the Hamburg Planetarium . According to this, an attempt to harmonize the lunar year (354 days) and the solar year (365 days) should have been made in the Bronze Age in order to achieve harmony. This would mean that the knowledge recorded on the bronze disc would be another Early Bronze Age equivalent in addition to the Babylonian and ancient Egyptian leap months . The Venus tablets of Ammi-saduqa are the oldest records of leap months so far. The Babylonian cuneiform texts mul.apin , which, in addition to the spring switching rule , also name an autumn leap month, are around 1000 years younger . The latter was also used during the reign of the Babylonian King Ammi-saduqa in addition to the spring leap month . With regard to the Nebra Sky Disc, Johannes Koch rejects comparisons with the supposedly similar Babylonian Pleiades switching rule .
The later added horizon arcs each cover an angle of 82 degrees, as does sunrise and sunset between winter and summer solstice on the horizon at the latitude of the site. If the disk was positioned horizontally on the Mittelberg in such a way that the imaginary line from the upper end of the left arch to the lower end of the right arch points to the top of the chunk about 85 km away , the disk could be used as a calendar to track the solar year. Seen from Mittelberg, the sun sets behind the Brocken at the summer solstice. The assumption that the right arch is the western one that marks the sunset is supported by its proximity to the inclined crescent moon, which is illuminated in the aforementioned constellation by the setting sun. It is uncertain whether the disk in this state was used as an instrument to determine the solstices, or whether it merely represents the knowledge about these determination possibilities.
Beginning of autumn and spring : View of the sunset at the equinox . At this time the sun sets 41 ° further south - the orientation of the disk is unchanged.
Winter solstice : The sunset has reached its southernmost point and is now 82 ° to the left of its northernmost point - the orientation towards the Brocken is unchanged.
As a final addition, another golden arch with two approximately parallel longitudinal grooves was added, which is interpreted as a sun ship , as is known from Egyptian or Minoan illustrations. The arch is surrounded on the long sides by short notches in the bronze plate, comparable to the representation of oars on other Bronze Age ship representations from Greece and Scandinavia. This addition probably has no calendar function, it could represent the nightly passage of the sun from west to east. It is still uncertain whether this implies a Bronze Age cultural exchange between Central Europe and the Middle East. The purpose of the holes on the edge of the disc is unclear; they were presumably used for fastening. This last addition in particular suggests that the disk can also be used for cultic purposes.
The investigations prove that the sky disc was manufactured in Central Europe before 1600 BC. The disc is the second oldest concrete representation of the night sky to date. Only the depiction of the stars of the Pleiades and the constellation Taurus on the limestone slab of Tal-Qadi in Malta is about 2000 years older.
Further possibilities of interpretation
What is remarkable for an archaeological find is the large number of other, sometimes very detailed, interpretations. In the professional world, these find little or no support or are even considered refuted.
Complex belief system
According to Miranda Aldhouse-Green, the symbols of strongly religious themes such as the sun, horizon land for the solstices, the sun barge, the moon and - as special representatives of the stars - the Pleiades are increasing. The creators of the disc deliberately brought together all these religious symbols, which were also found individually in other European regions, and it thus belongs to a Europe-wide, complex belief system. The bronze disc could represent a sacred message. Even the Central Europeans of the Bronze Age could have been able to represent their religious belief system or at least its core in a simple, transportable form.
Paul Gleirscher interprets the arched element on the disk not as a ship, but as a sickle. In Bronze Age iconography, ships are usually represented (almost) straight with a clearly curved bow and stern. The sickle reinforces the relation to the moon, which corresponds to many consecration finds composed of sickles. He agrees with the production time of the additional finds, but considers a laying down time up to the end of the Late Bronze Age (around 1000 BC) to be conceivable. This enables references to the finds of gold hats .
As early as 2007, Emília Pásztor and Curt Roslund in the essay An interpretation of the Nebra disc interpreted the so-called sky disc as an object of shamans or chiefs, which does not allow any astronomical interpretations and has no relation to the Middle East:
“Current scientific knowledge tends to steer us towards astronomical explanations, but we cannot expect a coherent - that is, coherent - knowledge of celestial phenomena to exist among the peoples of prehistoric Europe.
In general, the purpose of their observations would have been ritual, but the ritual rules of one community may have been different from those of others. Even the elements of the calendar that relate to star positions in the sky may have been influenced by the local climate and landscape. The heavenly tradition necessary for communal needs was transmitted orally and not necessarily shared with all members of the community. Ethnographic reports suggest that the chiefs and / or shamans of a community were the only individuals privileged to have access to it.
So there is no compelling evidence that the Nebra disk ever served as a precision instrument for astronomical observation, or that it was intended to depict celestial objects or events with any accuracy, or that it shows iconographic connections to the Near East. It is more likely that the disk was a symbolic expression of the cosmos, with a reference to the iconographic system of the Nordic Bronze Age. "
The Nebra Sky Disc, which dates from the Bronze Age and was built around 1800 BC. The stamped holes on the outer edge have construction features and characteristics that, according to the computer scientist Friedel Herten and the geologist Georg Waldmann, indicate a lunisolar calendar . Their study hypothesizes that the Stonehenge lunisolar calendars and the Nebra Sky Disc were based on an 18.6 year cycle and relied solely on observing the movement of the northern lunar turns. With both systems, solar and lunar eclipses could have been predicted to the day more than 5000 years ago.
The site is on the summit of the 252-meter-high Mittelberg in the Ziegelroda district , about 4 kilometers west of the city of Nebra, in the middle of the Ziegelroda Forest . The location is at (WGS 84). It is not yet clear whether it is a hoard or a grave . The place on the mountain, which was presumably unforested at the time, was probably used as early as the Neolithic Age , possibly as an observatory . A ring-shaped rampart was built on the mountain top in a later era.
About 20 kilometers away from the place of discovery is the likewise round one, dating back to about the 5th millennium BC. Circular moat by Goseck , dated to the 4th century BC , which proves astronomical knowledge from a much older time than when the Nebra Sky Disc was created.
The sky disc was discovered by Henry Westphal and Mario Renner, two predatory graves, who initially believed they were the middle part of a shield. The illegally acting probe users worked with a metal detector .
One day after the objects were excavated, Westphal and Renner received 31,000 DM from a Cologne dealer for the entire hoard (two bronze swords, two axes, a chisel and fragments of spiral bracelets). The find was to be sold through middlemen in Berlin in 1999 and later in Munich for one million DM, but word got around that it legally belonged to the state of Saxony-Anhalt . In Saxony-Anhalt there is a treasure shelf , according to which artefacts become the property of the state when they are discovered (Section 12 (1) Monument Protection Act SA). This made it worthless for the serious art trade. Until 2001 it changed hands several times, most recently to a pair of handlers, the museum educator Hildegard Burri-Bayer and the teacher Reinhold Stieber , for more than DM 200,000 .
On the initiative of the Ministry of Culture and the Ministry of the Interior as well as the State Office for Archeology of Saxony-Anhalt, contact was made with the stolen goods who had offered the disc for 700,000 DM on the black market. The state archaeologist Harald Meller met them on February 23, 2002 as a supposed buyer in a hotel in Basel . The Swiss police seized the sky disk there. The fence was arrested. The accompanying finds were also secured.
The robbery graves were also captured. They provided information on the location that was confirmed by forensic investigations.
The value of the sky disc is priceless; their insurance value in 2006 was 100 million euros.
- Criminal trials
Because of receiving stolen Burri-Bayer and Stieber in September 2003 by a were Schöffengericht the District Court Naumburg (Saale) to 12 or 6 months in prison (both on probation sentenced). Burri-Bayer had to pay 5,000 euros as a probation condition and Stieber had to do 150 hours of community service. Both lodged an appeal , which was rejected in September 2005 by a small criminal chamber at the Halle district court . The revision procedure confirmed the judgments in 2007, making them legally binding.
The robbers Westphal and Renner were also sentenced in September 2003 by the Naumburg District Court to 4 and 9 months' imprisonment (each on probation).
The sky disk was partially damaged by the improper excavation. A notch was made in the upper left area, which peeled off one of the stars. Part of the gold was torn out of the full moon. Due to the long storage in the ground, the entire disc was badly corroded, and corrosion adhered to the gold sheets - probably due to galvanic effects - which could not be removed mechanically.
The first fence tried to clean the window by soaking it in soapy water and then using a toothbrush and steel wool. This scratched the surface of the gold applications.
In the first step of the restoration in the State Museum for Prehistory in Halle, the soil adhering - after parts had been secured as samples for further investigation - were soaked with an ethanol-water mixture and removed with a hard nylon brush.
Afterwards, traces of corrosion adhering to the gold were removed using a chemically active paste. These were removed with cotton swabs. The traces of corrosion on the bronze plate were left.
Finally, the star chipped off during the excavation was reattached and the severely deformed piece of the full moon that had been torn out was replaced by a newly made sheet of gold of the same composition.
Place of issue
The sky disc has already been loaned out several times. From October 15, 2004 to May 22, 2005 it was in the exhibition The Forged Sky - The Wide World in the Heart of Europe 3600 years ago with around 1,600 other Bronze Age finds from 18 countries, including the Trundholm Sun Chariot (from the National Museum in Copenhagen) to visit in the State Museum for Prehistory in Halle. In return, the exhibition was shown in Copenhagen from July 1 to October 22, 2005 . From November 9, 2005 to February 5, 2006, the Nebra Sky Disc was shown in the Natural History Museum in Vienna , and from March 10 to July 16, 2006 it was on display in the Reiss-Engelhorn Museum in Mannheim . The next stop was the Basel Historical Museum , where the exhibition The Forged Sky - Religion and Astronomy 3600 Years ago was on view from September 29, 2006 to February 25, 2007.
From September 21, 2018 to November 5, 2018, the sky disc in the Martin-Gropius-Bau in Berlin was part of the exhibition Moving Times. Archeology shown in Germany , which took place on the occasion of the European Cultural Heritage Year 2018. It was then replaced by a copy by January 6, 2019.
Since 2007, replicas of the sky disk have been shown in numerous exhibitions. From July 7th to October 21st 2007 a copy could be seen in the Neanderthal Museum in Mettmann . From October 28, 2007 to February 17, 2008 an exhibition on the sky disc took place in the Norishalle in Nuremberg . On display was a reproduction of the sun disk in the state in which it was tracked down by the robbery graves. From June 15 to September 21, 2008 an exhibition on the sky disc and the cult and myths of the Bronze Age took place on the Baltic Sea in the Pomeranian State Museum in Greifswald . From February 11th to June 13th 2010 there was an exhibition in the Viadrina Museum in Frankfurt (Oder) . From 20 November 2010 to 10 April 2011, the exhibition was a heaven on earth - The Secret of the Nebra sky disk in the Museum and Park to see. From February 2 to August 12, 2018, the special exhibition The Nebra Sky Disc - Born from the Deep in the Hallein Celtic Museum traced the path of copper from the deposit to the processed cult object using a master copy of the Sky Disc and original finds from mining in the Mitterberg area.
On June 20, 2007, the Arche Nebra multimedia visitor center was opened as a station on the “ Himmelswege ” tourist route near the location where it was found, An der Steinklöbe 16 in Nebra . The offers also include a planetarium.
Early Bronze Age research project
Triggered by the discovery of the sky disk, the German Research Foundation funded a research group from 2004 to 2010 for the cultural and historical reassessment of the Early Bronze Age in Central Germany (FOR 550: The Departure to New Horizons. The Finds of Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, and Their Significance for the Bronze Age in Europe ).
For six years, 24 buildings from the Early Bronze Age were examined. In addition to the place where the sky disc was found on the Mittelberg, there are twelve circular moats in Saxony-Anhalt , including in Egeln , Belleben and Bad Dürrenberg ( Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg ). In addition, the archaeologists of the University of Jena researched twelve fortified settlements in Saxony-Anhalt that were built on hills between 4,000 and 3,500 years ago. The political, religious or economic importance of these hill settlements are currently the subject of intensive research.
Copyright and trademark law
Courts dealt with the disc with regard to trademark protection . After it had been presented to the public at a press conference on September 25, 2002, a private person reported two image / word marks on September 27, 2002 that contained the "sky disc" in stylized form together with descriptive lettering (including "sky disc of Nebra") at the German Patent and Trademark Office . When the state of Saxony-Anhalt then also applied for a trademark for the “Nebra Sky Disc”, the private person asked it to withdraw the application, asserted injunctive relief and threatened claims for damages. For its part, the country successfully sued for the cancellation of the registered trademarks. The appeal of the private person to the OLG Naumburg was withdrawn. The country had become the owner of the pane through Section 12 (1) of the Monument Protection Act SA; This gave him the right according to § 71 UrhG to publish a posthumous work for the first time. This right took precedence over the rights of private individuals from the registered trademark and established a right to delete the trademark in favor of the state (Section 13 Trademark Act).
In a previously unique process - for archaeological finds of comparable importance - there were civil lawsuits over the exploitation rights of the Nebra Sky Disc. Here, publishers faced the state of Saxony-Anhalt in two proceedings . The country as the owner of the disc has filed several picture / word marks and cites a related right from the initial release of a posthumous work, the editio princeps . From these rights, the country claims to control images of the disc and to claim license fees for uses.
In April 2005, the Magdeburg Regional Court ruled that the State of Saxony-Anhalt was entitled to the claimed rights: As the owner of the sky disc, he had the right to publish it, but it could not be deduced from the presumed cultic use 3600 years ago in the form of the disc's presentation at processions that at that time it had already "appeared" within the meaning of copyright law and all rights had expired. Due to a decision of the Düsseldorf Higher Regional Court in August 2005 and the Federal Court of Justice in 2009, this court decision is now to be regarded as outdated. In three resolutions, the German Patent and Trademark Office (Jena Office) approved a master goldsmith from Augsburg in September 2009 who had applied for the cancellation of the sky disk trademarks. The state of Saxony-Anhalt appealed against this decision, but subsequently waived the trademarks. Instead, Saxony-Anhalt registered trademarks with the same content (009533423, 009763392 and 009763475) with the Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market (trademarks, designs and models) in October .
In June 2013, the sky disc was included in the " World Document Heritage " by UNESCO . The certificate of recognition as a document heritage was presented to the State Museum for Prehistory in Halle on September 30, 2013 by the head of the German UNESCO commission Walter Hirche , and the recognition was thus official.
The "Lord of the Sky Disc"
The Nebra Sky Disc is an object in several ways that can only be associated with a prince. On the one hand, it shows exclusive astronomical knowledge that helped its owner to consolidate his social position through calendar regulations. Furthermore, the combination of bronze and gold was reserved for the upper strata of the Aunjetitz culture. The origin of the materials ( copper from the Alps , tin and gold from Cornwall ) speak for a very influential client or manufacturer with far-reaching trade relationships. In contrast to their dumping around 1600 BC The date of their production can only be determined with great uncertainty so far. According to Harald Meller, it should have been in use for around 100–200 years. Their production would therefore be in the 17th or 18th century BC. To locate.
The buried person in the Bornhöck grave mound near Raßnitz is a possible “master of the sky disk” . This hill, which once shaped the landscape, was removed in the 19th century. In 2010, however, underground remains were discovered in an aerial photo , which were archaeologically examined between 2014 and 2017. The size of the hill with a Bronze Age diameter of 65 m already speaks for a supraregional outstanding position of the buried. Thanks to organic finds, the date of origin of the hill could be traced back to around 1800 BC using the radiocarbon method . To be dated. Its construction therefore coincides with the production of the sky disc. The buried person's extensive trade contacts are evidenced, for example, by a loaf of bread , which is typical of the cultures of Southeast Europe. It therefore seems plausible to consider the prince who was buried in Bornhöck as a possible client or even manufacturer of the sky disc.
The area around the Bornhöck was an economic and cultural center of the Aunjetitz culture. With the burial mound of Dieskau and the Hallberg near Osmünde , there are two other important burial grounds . Several extremely valuable and extensive hoard finds also come from here, for example the Bennewitz depot and Depots I , II and III from Dieskau.
In the episode "Sun, Murder and Stars" (written in the stars ) of the crime series Inspector Barnaby (episode no. 92, season 15, first broadcast in September 2012), what is known as an early discus is used as a murder weapon, practically the sky disc from Nebra corresponds. The disc is stolen from a museum, the side edge sharpened by the perpetrator.
- Jörg Adam : Forensic investigation of the soil adhering to the sky disc. In: Harald Meller, François Bertemes (ed.): The departure to new horizons. New perspectives on the European Early Bronze Age. Final conference of the research group FOR550 from November 26th to 29th 2010 in Halle (Saale) (= conference of the State Museum for Prehistory Halle. Volume 19). State Office for Monument Preservation and Archeology Saxony-Anhalt, Halle (Saale) 2020, ISBN 978-3-948618-03-2 , pp. 87–92.
- Miranda Aldhouse-Green, Howard Davies, Clive Ruggles: Star Wars. In: British Archeology Volume 79, 2004, pp. 16-17.
- Miranda and Stephen Aldhouse-Green: The Quest for the Shaman. Shape-Shifters, Sorcerers and Spirit Healers in Ancient Europe. Thames & Hudson, London 2005, ISBN 0-500-05134-8 , esp. Pp. 107-110.
- Gregor Borg , Harald Meller (ed.): In dialogue with the earth - accompanying geological research in the vicinity of the Nebra sky disk (= research reports of the State Museum for Prehistory Halle. Volume 13). State Office for Monument Preservation and Archeology Saxony-Anhalt - State Museum for Prehistory, Halle (Saale) 2019, ISBN 978-3-944507-90-3 .
- Gregor Borg, Ernst Pernicka : Golden Times? - European gold deposits and their relation to the Nebra sky disk. In: Annual publication for Central German prehistory. Volume 96, 2017, pp. 111-138 ( online ).
- Gregor Borg et al .: From distant lands - Provenance studies of natural gold in comparison to the gold of the Sky Disc of Nebra. In: Harald Meller, François Bertemes (ed.): The departure to new horizons. New perspectives on the European Early Bronze Age. Final conference of the research group FOR550 from November 26th to 29th 2010 in Halle (Saale) (= conference of the State Museum for Prehistory Halle. Volume 19). State Office for Monument Preservation and Archeology Saxony-Anhalt, Halle (Saale) 2020, ISBN 978-3-948618-03-2 , pp. 55–78 ( online ).
- Anja Ehser , Gregor Borg, Ernst Pernicka: Provenance of the gold of the Early Bronze Age Nebra Sky Disk, central Germany: geochemical characterization of natural gold from Cornwall. In: European Journal of Mineralogy. Volume 23, 2011, pp. 895-910 ( online ).
- Manuela Frotzscher: Geochemical characterization of central European copper deposits to determine the origin of the copper of the Nebra sky disk (= research reports of the State Museum for Prehistory Halle. Volume 1). State Office for Monument Preservation and Archeology Saxony-Anhalt - State Museum for Prehistory, Halle (Saale) 2012, ISBN 978-3-939414-80-3 (Dissertation University of Halle 2009) ( online ).
- Rupert Gebhard , Rüdiger Krause : Bernstorf, archaeological-scientific analysis of the gold and amber finds from the Bernstorfer Berg near Kranzberg, Upper Bavaria (= treatises and inventory catalogs of the State Archaeological Collection. Volume 3 / Frankfurter Archäologische Schriften . Volume 31). Archaeological State Collection Munich, Munich 2016, ISBN 978-3-927806-43-6 . - (In Chapter 2 the authenticity of the bundle of Nebra as a hoard is questioned, but everything that has been attempted in terms of interpretations is based on this authenticity.)
- Paul Gleirscher : On the program of images for the Nebra sky disk: ship or sickle. In: Germania. 85/1, 2007, pp. 23-33 ( online ).
- Rahlf Hansen: The Nebra Sky Disc - reinterpreted , in: Archäologie in Sachsen-Anhalt NF 4.2006 (2007), , pp. 289-304.
- Friedel Herten, Georg Waldmann: Functional principles of early time measurement at Stonehenge and Nebra . In: Archaeological Information . tape 41 , 2018, p. 275–288 , doi : 10.11588 / ai.2018.0.56947 ( uni-heidelberg.de [PDF; accessed on June 19, 2019]).
- Johannes Koch: The Nebra Sky Disc - An attempt at interpretation. In: Archeology in Saxony-Anhalt NF 2.2004, , pp. 39–43.
- Ralf Koneckis, Holger Filling: The gold points on the Nebra sky disk , in: Lectures in Geophysics and Physics. VI (2), 2005, pp. 56-75 ( PDF; 563 kB ).
- Harald Meller: The Nebra Sky Disc - an early Bronze Age find of extraordinary importance. In: Archeology in Saxony-Anhalt NF 1.2002, online ). , pp. 7-20 (
- Harald Meller: The Nebra Sky Disc. Find history and archaeological evaluation. In: Stars and Space . 12.2003, pp. 28-33.
- Harald Meller: Nebra: From logos to myth - biography of a heavenly image. In: Harald Meller, François Bertemes (eds.): Reaching for the Stars - How Europe's elites came to power and wealth (= conferences of the State Museum for Prehistory Halle (Saale). Volume 5). State Museum for Prehistory, Halle 2010, ISBN 978-3-939414-28-5 , pp. 23–73 ( online ).
- Harald Meller: The Nebra hoard found in the mirror of early Bronze Age landfill customs. In: Harald Meller et al. (Ed.): 1600 - Cultural upheaval in the shadow of the Thera outbreak? 4th Central German Archaeological Day from October 14 to 16, 2011 in Halle (Saale) (= conferences of the State Museum for Prehistory in Halle. Volume 9). State Office for Monument Preservation and Archeology Saxony-Anhalt / State Museum for Prehistory, (Halle (Saale) 2013, ISBN 978-3-944507-00-2 , pp. 493-526 ( online ).
- Harald Meller (ed.): The forged sky. The wide world in the heart of Europe 3600 years ago. Konrad Theiss Verlag, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-8062-1907-9 .
- Emília Pásztor, Curt Roslund: An interpretation of the Nebra disc. In: Antiquity. 81 (2007), pp. 267-278 ( online ).
- Ernst Pernicka, Christian-Heinrich Wunderlich: Scientific investigations on the finds from Nebra. In: Archeology in Saxony-Anhalt. 1.2002, , pp. 24-31.
- Ernst Pernicka et al .: On the authenticity of the Nebra Sky Disc - a brief summary of the investigations carried out. In: Archaeological correspondence sheet. 38, 3/2008, pp. 331-352 ( online ).
- Mathilde and Hinrich Rahmann : Deciphering the Nebra Sky Disc? In: PR Sahm, H. Rahmann, HJ Blome, G. Thiele (eds.): Homo spaciens. Man in the cosmos. An interdisciplinary outlook on the origin and future of humans in space. Discorsi-Verlag, Hamburg 2005, ISBN 3-9807330-8-4 , pp. 99-118.
- Clive Ruggles: Ancient Astronomy. An Encyclopedia of Cosmologies and Myth. ABC-Clio 2005, ISBN 1-85109-477-6 Entry: Nebra Disc , pp. 304-307.
- Peter Schauer : Critical comments on the bronze ensemble with the "sky disc" allegedly from Mittelberg near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt. In: Archaeological correspondence sheet. 35 (2005), pp. 323-328 and 559 (correction).
- Wolfhard Schlosser : On the astronomical interpretation of the Nebra sky disc. In: Archeology in Saxony-Anhalt. 1.2002, , pp. 21-23.
- Wolfhard Schlosser: Astronomical interpretation of the Nebra sky disk. In: Stars and Space. 12.2003, pp. 34-40.
- Wolfhard Schlosser: The Nebra Sky Disc - Sun, Moon and Stars. In: AD Wittmann, G. Wolfschmidt, HW Duerbeck (Hrsg.): Development of Solar Research / Development of solar research. Frankfurt am Main 2005, ISBN 3-8171-1755-8 , pp. 27-65.
- Wolfhard Schlosser: The Nebra Sky Disc - Astronomical Investigations. In: PR Sahm, H. Rahmann, HJ Blome, G. Thiele (eds.): Homo spaciens. Man in the cosmos. An interdisciplinary outlook on the origin and future of humans in space. Discorsi, Hamburg 2005, ISBN 3-9807330-8-4 , pp. 73-97.
- Christoph Sommerfeld: "... stars times stars through the sun is the moon." Comments about the Nebra disk. In: Praehistorische Zeitschrift. 87 (1) 2012. online ). , pp. 110-131 (
- Viola Alvarez: Heaven made of bronze . Romantic trilogy, published so far: Die Steine des Gorr. Bastei Lübbe, Bergisch Gladbach 2008, ISBN 978-3-7857-1619-9 ; The eye of heaven. Ehrenwirth, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-431-03796-8 .
- Ute Kaufholz: sun, moon and stars. The secret of the sky disc. Anderbeck 2004, ISBN 3-937751-05-X .
- Martin Kerner: Bronze Age Astronomy: The bronze disk of Nebra. Mantis-Verlag, Graefelfing 2007, ISBN 978-3-928852-32-6 .
- Frank Hagen von Liegnitz (pseudonym): The sun woman . Christmas present from the WeserStrom cooperative. Bremen 2002.
- Harald Meller, Kai Michel: The Nebra Sky Disc. The key to a lost culture in the heart of Europe , Ullstein, Berlin 2020, ISBN 978-3-548-06116-0
- Katja Näther, Sven Näther: Nebra Files - No Sun on the Sky Disc? Wilhelmshorst 2004, ISBN 3-934858-02-3 .
- Thomas Schöne: Crime scene sky disk. A story with robbers, fences and scholars. Mitteldeutscher Verlag, Halle (Saale) 2008, ISBN 978-3-89812-532-1 .
- Arche Nebra - experience the sky disc
- State Office for Monument Preservation and Archeology Saxony-Anhalt:
- Förderverein Himmelsscheibe von Nebra e. V. ( Memento of December 11, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- University of Halle: The hillside settlements of the micro and macro region. Economic, political-social, administrative and cult central locations , 2009
- University of Halle: “The departure to new horizons. The finds from Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, and their significance for the Bronze Age in Europe "
- Chapter 2 from Rupert Gebhard and Rüdiger Krause: Bernstorf. Archaeological and scientific analyzes of the gold and amber finds from Bernstorfer Berg near Kranzberg Upper Bavaria - available as PDF
- UNESCO World Document Heritage: The Nebra Sky Disk , German UNESCO Commission
Documentation and lectures
- Terra X: The Lord of the Sky Disc ( ZDFmediathek : Video 43 min from December 11, 2016, video available until August 22, 2020, 7:30 p.m.)
- Wolfhart Schlosser: The Nebra Sky Disc - Man's early glimpse into the cosmos. Lecture from October 22, 2008 at the Philipps University of Marburg ( Memento from October 28, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- State Office for Prehistory Halle: The Nebra Sky Disc - An astronomical clock. Press release of February 21, 2006 (PDF file; 487 kB)
- "Bucket lid or sensational find?" ( Memento from April 24, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) - script for the feature of the Deutschlandradios with comments from the finders; more extensive blog version
- The ticking of the stars article at stern.de from February 21, 2006
- Die Zeit , No. 14 of March 31, 2005,
- “Exhibition on the Nebra Sky Disc in the Norishalle.” Erik Stecher, Nürnberger Zeitung No. 248 of October 26, 2007 ( Memento of November 13, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Riddle about the ship on the sky disk Archaeologists find a 3900 year old seal of the Minoans with a similar illustration. By Thomas Schöne, Mitteldeutsche Zeitung, March 23, 2009.
- UNESCO World Document Heritage The Nebra Sky Disc. In: unesco.de. German UNESCO Commission, accessed on March 1, 2019 .
- Florian Sanktjohanser: It's good that the robbers were such idiots , Zeit online, February 1, 2020 (from: Merian issue No. 09/2018).
- Manufacturing the sky disc and enclosed finds (swords). State Office for Monument Preservation and Archeology Saxony-Anhalt / State Museum for Prehistory. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
- science-online ( Memento from April 29, 2005 in the Internet Archive )
- Rupert Gebhard, Rüdiger Krause: Bernstorf, archaeological-scientific analyzes of gold and amber finds from Bernstorfer Berg near Kranzberg, Upper Bavaria (= treatises and inventory catalogs of the State Archaeological Collection. Volume 3 / Frankfurter Archäologische Schriften. Volume 31). Archaeological State Collection Munich, Munich 2016, Chapter 2 .
- Nebra-disk (PDF; 2.0 MB) ( Memento from September 27, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Nebra Sky Disc. The gold comes from England @ stern.de, May 13, 2010; "According to recent studies, the gold used for this comes entirely from England ... So far, this was only known from the sun and one other symbol." The gold of the Nebra sky disc comes from Cornwall derstandard.at, October 23, 2014, accessed October 26, 2014 .
- Johannes Koch: Things to consider about the Nebra sky disk . Koenen-Dresp, Glons 2007, p. 9; Note Sch05: Wolfgang Schlosser: Correspondence from May 12, 2005.
- Wolfhard Schlosser: The Nebra Sky Disc - Astronomical Investigations. In: Harald Meller (ed.): The forged sky. The wide world in the heart of Europe 3600 years ago. Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2004.
- Manfred Feller, Johannes Koch: Mystery of the sky disc not solved yet? Why the alleged decryption of the sky disk by R. Hansen and H. Meller is wrong. (No longer available online.) In: home.arcor.de. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016 ; accessed on December 12, 2018 .
- Peter Kurzmann: Further investigations on the Neolithic star map of Tal-Qadi on Malta . In: archaeologie-online.de. archaeomedia Brunn, Jordan & Steinacker GbR, July 10, 2016, accessed on December 12, 2018 . .
- BBC Documentation (English) The Riddle of the Sky Disc , 2004.
- Emília Pásztor, Curt Roslund: An interpretation of the Nebra disc. In: Antiquity . 81 (2007), pp. 267-278.
- Friedel Herten, Georg Waldmann: Functional principles of early time measurement at Stonehenge and Nebra . In: Archaeological Information . tape 41 , 2018, p. 275–288 , doi : 10.11588 / ai.2018.0.56947 ( uni-heidelberg.de [PDF; accessed on June 19, 2019]).
- robbery raids is increasing , April 4, 2003, accessed on March 7, 2011.
- Steffen Könau and Carsten Sommerfeld: Judge's verdict on the "Scheibenkrimi". Rheinische Post , September 26, 2005, accessed on November 8, 2016 .
- suspended sentences for receiving stolen goods with the Nebra sky disk. FAZ , September 19, 2003, accessed November 8, 2016 .
- www.sz-online.de ( Memento from July 18, 2018 in the Internet Archive ), January 29, 2007, accessed on July 18, 2018
- Nebra Sky Disc in Berlin ( Memento from September 13, 2018 in the Internet Archive ) in Die Zeit from December 23, 2017
- Turbulent times. Archeology in Germany. 21 Sep 2018 to January 6, 2019. Gropius Bau
- Further stations on the Himmelswege are the large stone grave in Langeneichstädt , the Goseck district ditch , the Pommelte district ditch and the State Museum for Prehistory in Halle . himmelswege.de
- Homepage of the FOR 550
- LG Magdeburg, judgment of October 16, 2003, NJW 2004, 2988.
- Magdeburg Regional Court - Nebra sky disk no title page from Heyne-Verlag, LG Magdeburg from April 19, 2005, AZ 5 W 32/05.
- German Patent and Trademark Office : Decision of September 27, 2009, file number 302 50 476 - S 211/09 Lösch (PDF; 645 kB), decision of September 27, 2009, file number 305 07 066 - S 216/09 Lösch (PDF ; 611 kB) and resolution of September 27, 2009, file number 305 06 901 - S 217/09 Lösch (PDF; 614 kB).
- Ralf Möbius: Say “Shit” quietly as you say goodbye: Top law firm in trademark law missed the deadline - Saxony-Anhalt waived trademarks for the “Nebra Sky Disc” . March 22, 2011 (accessed March 22, 2011).
- Representation of the brand
- www.unesco.org (English)
- Accolade "for Saxony-Anhalt sky disk now in the" memory of mankind ( memento from October 3, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) at the MDR , September 30, 2013.
- Harald Meller: Nebra: From logos to myth - biography of a sky image. 2010, pp. 45, 61-62.
- Harald Meller, Torsten Schunke : The rediscovery of Bornhöck - a new early Bronze Age "prince grave hill" near Raßnitz, Saalekreis. First preliminary report. In: Harald Meller et al. (Ed.): Poor and rich - on the distribution of resources in prehistoric societies. 8th Central German Archaeological Day from October 22nd to 24th, 2015 in Halle (Saale) (= conferences of the State Museum for Prehistory in Halle. Volume 14 / I). State Office for Monument Preservation and Archeology Saxony-Anhalt Halle 2016, ISBN 978-3-944507-45-3 , p. 455 ( online ).
- An encrypted message from the Bronze Age?
- Harald Meller, Torsten Schunke : The rediscovery of Bornhöck - a new early Bronze Age "prince grave hill" near Raßnitz, Saalekreis. First preliminary report. In: Harald Meller et al. (Ed.): Poor and rich - on the distribution of resources in prehistoric societies. 8th Central German Archaeological Day from October 22nd to 24th, 2015 in Halle (Saale) (= conferences of the State Museum for Prehistory in Halle. Volume 14 / I). State Office for Monument Preservation and Archeology Saxony-Anhalt Halle 2016, ISBN 978-3-944507-45-3 , p. 462 ( online ).
- Juliane Filipp, Martin Freudenreich: Dieskau Revisited I. Research on the "life story" of the gold hoard of Dieskau and on another burial mound with gold additions near Osmünde in today's Saalekreis, Saxony-Anhalt. In: Harald Meller et al. (Ed.): Metals of Power - Early Gold and Silver. 6th Central German Archaeological Day from October 17 to 19, 2013 in Halle (Saale) (= conferences of the State Museum for Prehistory in Halle. Volume 11 / II). State Office for Monument Preservation and Archeology Saxony-Anhalt Halle 2014, ISBN 978-3-944507-13-2 , pp. 743–752 ( online ).
- Juliane Filipp, Martin Freudenreich: Dieskau Revisited II. A microregional view. In: Harald Meller et al. (Ed.): Metals of Power - Early Gold and Silver. 6th Central German Archaeological Day from October 17 to 19, 2013 in Halle (Saale) (= conferences of the State Museum for Prehistory in Halle. Volume 11 / II). State Office for Monument Preservation and Archeology Saxony-Anhalt Halle 2014, ISBN 978-3-944507-13-2 , pp. 753–760 ( online ).