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Steinmetz chisel iron with hard metal cutting edge and so-called knot head
Sound of a 31 centimeter long steel chisel struck on the longitudinal axis with a mallet
Video: dividing a Plastersteins with chisels and hammers by Gunter Demnig when laying a stumbling block in Cologne

The chisel (from Middle High German meizel ) is a tool that is used to separate or process different materials (essentially stone, metal or also bones). This is a tool made of steel that has a hardened wedge-like cutting edge and an unhardened striking surface.

Chisels are used with the help of a hammer to divide or cut off objects to be processed. Among the common types that exist in different sizes and designs, including flat chisel , Grooving , Aushaumeißel , web chisel (Paring chisel) and cross chisel . Special forms are the Scharrier- , Bossier- , impact , dental and blasting iron , etc. (chisels are of masons as iron hereinafter). The stonecutters say Fäustel to the hammer . Fäustel and iron as well as other hand-operated metal tools are called crockery by the stone experts and are part of the basic equipment when working with stone.

Bits are in the metal working by forging / ironwork and metal workers , in the stone working of stone-cutters, or in medicine for cutting through bone ( osteotomy / stomatology used). There are also motor-driven chisels on demolition hammers , pneumatic hammers , demolition hammers and rotary hammers .

The terms chisel and chisel are also used interchangeably by laypeople, contrary to the technical terminology.

Special chisels

Special irons (chisels) used by stonemasons and stone sculptors

Metalworking chisels

Milling cutter

In road construction, rotating rollers equipped with milling chisels are used on cold milling machines. These have the shape of a top and are interchangeable.

Drill bit

Deep drilling roller bits with 3 toothed bevel gears each

In deep drilling technology - mostly for the purpose of developing oil and gas deposits - drill heads known as chisels are used. The most common form for this purpose is the roller bit, in which toothed bevel gears crush the rock to be drilled when the bit rotates. Special gouges are common for taking soil samples, see Pürckhauer boring tool.

Chisel (archeology)

Chisels of the funnel beaker culture around 4100 to 2700 BC From Schleswig-Holstein

Here chisels are treated as an object of research. (On the other hand, chisels can also serve as a tool for searching in archeology.)

Chisels are long, narrow tools that are used for machining. The cross-section can be rectangular or octagonal, round or square. The cutting edge is about the same width as the thickness, the length is about 15 cm. The chisel is a shape-changing tool that is struck with another device. As a Schlegel z. B. woods and hammer stones . The chisel can be driven into a material with measured blows (e.g. when splitting whalebones, bones or antlers). The gouge is concave towards the cutting edge (inwards) and is used for hollowing out.

Ancient chisels are made of flint , stone, antlers , bones, dentin, e.g. B. from the mammoth or amber . They were mainly used in the Levallois and teeing technique. They have been known since the end of the Paleolithic and found their greatest distribution as narrow chisels or gouges in the Neolithic . Ewald Schuldt found 60 flat and 36 hollow chisels in 106 megalithic systems in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. The oldest polished bone chisel comes from Přezletice in the Czech Republic and is around 700,000 years old.

The first evidence so far of chisels made from almost pure copper by smelting comes from today's Serbia ( Pločnik ) in the 6th millennium BC . Their cutting edges were forged cold and thus hardened .

See also

Web links

Commons : Chisel  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Chisel  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Single receipts

  1. Hermann Hundeshagen: The blacksmith at the anvil. A practical textbook for all blacksmiths. Fig. Cold meal u. For an explanation, see p. 111 , ISBN 3-88746-430-3 , accessed October 2, 2013.
  2. Website of Angele (machine builder and forge supplier ) Cold shot chisel ( Memento of the original from October 4, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved October 2, 2013. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  3. Fig. Hot shot chisel ( Memento of the original from October 5, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved October 2, 2013. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  4. ^ AA Abbasi, Shiv Kumar Tiwari: Dimensions of human cultures in central India , edited by: Sarup & Sons , 2001.
  5. ^ A. Ono: Flaked bone tools and the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition: A brief perspective. In: Archeology, Ethnology, Anthropology Eurasia , Volume 28, No. 1, 2010, pp. 38-47, doi: 10.1134 / S1563011006040050 .
  6. ^ I. Morley: Mousterian Musicianship? The case of the Divje babe I bone. In: Oxford J. Archeology , Volume 25, 2006, pp. 317-344, doi: 10.1111 / j.1468-0092.2006.00264.x .
  7. Petr Neruda, Karel Valoch: Palaeolithic people and Moravian Caves. In: Scripta Fac. Sci. Nat. Univ. Masaryk. Brun. Volume 35 (2005), 2007, pp. 65–76 ( PDF  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ).@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /  
  8. Timothy Champion, Clive Gamble, Stephen Shennan , Alisdair Whittle: Prehistoric Europe , edited by: Left Coast Press , 2009.
  9. 7500 year old tools. News on n-tv , September 22, 2009 (accessed October 2, 2013).
  10. Angelika Franz: Archaeologists are puzzling over 7000 year old copper finds . In: Spiegel Online of December 27, 2010 (accessed October 2, 2013).