The hallmark (v. Lat. Punctio ; "stabbing"), even carving tools , even outdated Bunze , is a punch to the metal and leather processing. In the goldsmith 's, artistic blacksmith ' s, engraver and watchmaker 's handicrafts , counters appear in many variations and applications. A long piece of tool steel (round or square profile) is called a punch. The punch blanks are called prantels. One end of a punch is shaped, hardened and tempered according to the respective application , the other (flat, unhardened) end is hit with a hammer.
The hallmarks are used to stamp characters, patterns or representations in metals , leather and cardboard. In the area of bookbinding , decorative ornaments with hallmarks are often made for high-quality leather and sometimes cardboard covers . The simplest and most frequently used original form of a punch in the metal processing of the grains for fixing holes on metallic surfaces.
They are also used by the chaser , who uses many different hallmarks that he makes himself in his training.
They are also used to drive metals. The hallmark was also used as an aid in the manufacture of coin dies until the 19th century.
Some types of hallmarks are:
- Hallmarks ( for driving lines and ornaments , e.g. in preparation for driving)
- Bullet punches
- Ziselierpunzen (z. B. Schrotpunzen)
- Barrel marks
- Fineness stamp (stamp of the fineness in the precious metal is also referred to as hallmark)
- Producer's marks (company stamp , master's marks ) like the pewter marks
- Loafers' hallmarks
- Mating marks
- Motif punches to decorate the gold leaf surfaces of medieval gold background images
- Pick marks
Counterpunches (or counterpunches) are tools that are used in the production of hallmark work to make indentations in the work surface that are not easy and not beautiful enough with a digger (or the hallmark).
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