Punch (tool)

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Punch steel

The hallmark (v. Lat. Punctio ; "stabbing"), even carving tools , even outdated Bunze , is a punch to the metal and leather processing. In the goldsmith 's, artistic blacksmith ' s, engraver and watchmaker 's handicrafts , counters appear in many variations and applications. A long piece of tool steel (round or square profile) is called a punch. The punch blanks are called prantels. One end of a punch is shaped, hardened and tempered according to the respective application , the other (flat, unhardened) end is hit with a hammer.

The hallmarks are used to stamp characters, patterns or representations in metals , leather and cardboard. In the area of bookbinding , decorative ornaments with hallmarks are often made for high-quality leather and sometimes cardboard covers . The simplest and most frequently used original form of a punch in the metal processing of the grains for fixing holes on metallic surfaces.

They are also used by the chaser , who uses many different hallmarks that he makes himself in his training.

They are also used to drive metals. The hallmark was also used as an aid in the manufacture of coin dies until the 19th century.

Some types of hallmarks are:

Counterpunches (or counterpunches) are tools that are used in the production of hallmark work to make indentations in the work surface that are not easy and not beautiful enough with a digger (or the hallmark).

See also


  • Josef Dillinger, Hans D. Dobler, Werner Doll, Ulrich Fischer, Werner Günter, Max Heinzler, Eckhard Ignatowitz, Reinhard Vetter: Metalltechnik. Basic education (= European reference book series for metal professions. ). 5th, revised edition. Verlag Europa-Lehrmittel Nourney - Vollmer, Haan-Gruiten 2007, ISBN 978-3-8085-1145-9 .
  • Erhard Brepohl : Theory and Practice of the Goldsmith. 15th enlarged edition. Fachbuchverlag Leipzig in Hanser-Verlag, Munich et al. 2003, ISBN 3-446-22364-9 .
  • The silversmith. Instructional and manual. Rühle-Diebener, Stuttgart 1982.

Individual evidence

  1. Helmut Kahnt, Bernd Knorr: Old dimensions, coins and weights. A lexicon. Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig 1986, licensed edition Mannheim / Vienna / Zurich 1987, ISBN 3-411-02148-9 , p. 395.