|coat of arms||Austria map|
|Political District :||St. Johann im Pongau|
|License plate :||JO|
|Residents :||3,944 (January 1, 2020)|
|Population density :||23 inhabitants per km²|
|Postal code :||5640|
|Area code :||06434|
|Community code :||5 04 03|
|Address of the
5640 Bad Gastein
|Mayor :||Gerhard Steinbauer ( ÖVP )|
Municipal Council : (2019)
|Location of Bad Gastein in the St. Johann im Pongau district|
View of the part of the town center to the right of the waterfall with the congress center, town hall and hotel facilities (photo: 1997)
|Source: Municipal data from Statistics Austria|
Bad Gastein [ baːt ɡasˈtaɪ̯n ] is a spa and winter sports resort with 3944 inhabitants (as of January 1, 2020) in the Gastein Valley in Austria . The place belongs to the communities of the Hohe Tauern National Park and lies at the foot of the Graukogel. In addition to the spa treatments, the valley offers opportunities for relaxation and sport throughout the year.
A special feature is the location of the center, which was created on the steep slopes around the waterfall and is characterized by very steep and narrow streets. Multi-storey houses were built on these cliffs to save space, so that the appearance of the village is reminiscent of a city (“skyscraper village”). The difference in altitude between the spring park and the train station is around 80 meters. It is possible to overcome part of the height difference from the town center to the station area by using the car park lift (11 floors).
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Bad Gastein
The municipality includes the cadastral communities Badgastein, Böckstein and Remsach and the village of Bad Gastein. Areas of Bad Gastein in the village category are: Anlauftal, Bad Gastein, Badberg, Badbruck, Böckstein, Hinterschneeberg, Kötschachdorf, Kötschachtal, Patschgsiedlung, Remsach, Sportgastein (Naßfeld).
- Place name
The place, spoken in Pongaurian Boud Goschdei , was called Wildbad or Wildbad Gastein in the past centuries . From 1906 to 1996 the community was called Badgastein . On January 1, 1997, the spelling was set to Bad Gastein . The name "Gastein" goes back to two Indo-European roots and means either "gray river" or "spraying river". The oldest existing document with the name "Gastuna" can be found in 963 in a certificate of the noble Rosmuot.
- Baths and spa facilities
In the beginning, the bathing facilities were shared pools, in which bathers passed the time with breakfast and board games. For the successful bathing cures of the Middle Ages , long bathing times and also the generally long cure duration of six weeks were required. The Gastein healing cave is also supposed to offer natural help with rheumatic diseases as part of radon balneology .
In the Middle Ages, word of the healing power of the Gastein thermal baths spread. Despite the primitive bathing facilities and accommodations at the time, princes and nobles took long and arduous journeys to the thermal springs. The thermal water was conducted from the springs to the inns in open wooden gutters, later in wooden well pipes. The medicinal water was brought to the neighboring Bad Hofgastein by means of barrels and horse-drawn carts before a thermal water pipe was built in 1830.
- Gastein Convention
On August 14, 1865, the Gastein Convention was passed between Austria and Prussia in Bad Gastein , which regulated the condominium over the duchies of Schleswig (administered in Prussia) and Holstein (administered in Austria) acquired as a result of the German-Danish War in 1864 .
The centers of gold mining in the Hohe Tauern are located in the Böckstein district . The most important gold supplier at all times was the Radhausberg . In 1557, 830 kg of gold and three times as much silver were brought into the Salzburg silver trade (purchase monopoly of the sovereign) from Gastein and Rauris. The mining of precious metals was nationalized in 1616. This operating period, now referred to as " Aryan ", lasted until 1865/1868.
After the state shutdown, private investors took over the mining industry and founded the first Radhausberg trade union , which lasted until 1904/1905. Then the Swiss tunnel builder Karl Imhof (1873–1944) became interested in mining, found a financier in the Swiss tobacco producer Fritz Mayer, and set up the Second Radhausberg Company . The economic success remained low. Production was inactive from 1926 to autumn 1937. After a brief engagement by the English Edron Trust, the German mining company Preussag started mining at the end of March 1938 ; Although this did not achieve any success, it was responsible for the creation of today's Gasteiner Heilstollen. Today, the Böcksteiner Montanmuseum and the Via aurea association remember this time.
- Post war history
After the Second World War , a DP camp was set up from requisitioned hotels in Bad Gastein for Jewish, so-called displaced persons , most of whom had been moved from the DP camp on the grounds of the Ebensee concentration camp to Bad Gastein. The camp, in which up to 1,300 people lived at times, was closed in March 1946.
After the First and Second World Wars , Bad Gastein was no longer able to assert itself as a fashionable health resort for the upper classes. As compensation, winter sports tourism was established from 1946. Furthermore, rehabilitation clinics of health insurances and wellness hotels have increasingly settled due to the alleged healing effects of the radon-containing thermal water.
For many years, the tourist infrastructure of the place has increasingly shifted from the historical core to the station area. Due to the flat location, the location on the main road and the immediate vicinity of mountain railway stations (winter sports), it is more attractive and convenient for tourists to reach. The Felsentherme, also located there, which was facing bankruptcy due to ailing facilities, was extensively modernized by November 2017. Due to changed leisure habits (the summer season, which used to be dominant, was replaced by the winter season) and completely outdated buildings (many hotels had not been modernized since the 1970s and had insufficient heating facilities), the former Belle Époque hostels were increasingly decaying. The Grand Hotel Gasteinerhof , which only had three bathrooms, closed in 1987, and the owners of the renowned Grand Hotel de l'Europe , once one of the largest and most exclusive luxury hotels in Europe, had to file for bankruptcy in 1988. Since then, the multi-storey house has been used as an apartment building, with most of the owners only being there for a few weeks a year. The casino moved out in 2015. Between 2001 and 2005 the Viennese real estate entrepreneur Franz Duval acquired five historic buildings that characterize the center ( Haus Austria , Kongresshaus, Hotel Straubinger , Badeschloss , k. U. K. Post office) for a total of five million euros . Since then, the properties have fallen into disrepair, and son Philipp Duval, who inherited the property in 2013, did not present any redevelopment plans either. However, the Viennese architect Franz Wojnarowski announced in February 2017 that there were potential buyers who, like himself, were striving for "an architectural combination of old, classicist building tradition and modern new buildings". Wojnarowski held 50 percent of some of the old buildings on Straubingerplatz, Philipp Duval the other half. Duval was the sole owner of the House of Austria and the desolate congress center and, according to the municipality, had "broken off all contact".
Since investments in the tourist future of the town center were uncertain for years, there were attempts to temporarily use the "eyesore" artistically and to inspire guests for the "morbid charm" of the area. The Summer Fresh Art Festival has been held in July since 2010 and since 2011 artists have been invited to work in studios in the listed power plant at the foot of the waterfall and to live in hotels for a few weeks. In this context, the press referred to avant-garde performers, high-quality restaurants and described Bad Gastein as a “stronghold for the creative and the crazy”.
At the beginning of November 2017, the State of Salzburg bought the vacant historical ensemble on Straubingerplatz with the Hotel Straubinger, the Badeschloss and the post office building, which was in need of major renovation, for 6 million euros and financed an initial, makeshift renovation. In November 2018, the buildings were sold on to the Munich-based Hirmer real estate group for 7.5 million euros, subject to the condition that at least one 4-star superior or a 5-star hotel would be built no later than three years after the necessary permits had been obtained. A 520 meter long pedestrian tunnel and a new multi-storey car park should solve the traffic problems in the center by 2021. The number of overnight stays has risen significantly regardless of the inner-city ruins. In 2018 they were 1.2 million a year compared to 850,000 in 1990. In February 2019, there was even talk of a new “gold rush mood”.
coat of arms
The stylized silver jug in the coat of arms is taken from the seal of Diepold von Gastein (1327).
The community council has a total of 21 members.
- With the municipal council and mayoral elections in Salzburg in 2004, the municipal council had the following distribution: 12 SPÖ, 10 ÖVP, 2 ULB, and 1 FPÖ.
- With the municipal council and mayoral elections in Salzburg in 2009 , the municipal council had the following distribution: 11 ÖVP, 8 SPÖ, 1 FPÖ, and 1 ULB.
- With the municipal council and mayoral elections in Salzburg in 2014 , the municipal council had the following distribution: 12 ÖVP, 5 SPÖ, and 4 FPÖ.
- With the municipal council and mayoral elections in Salzburg 2019 , the municipal council has the following distribution: 12 ÖVP, 5 FPÖ, and 4 SPÖ.
- 1936–1938 Fritz Obrutschka
- 1954–1964 Josef Pfarrmaier (SPÖ)
- 1964–1974 Anton Kerschbaumer (SPÖ)
- 1974–1989 Rudolf Fornather (SPÖ)
- 1989–1994 Friedrich Kreuzer (FPÖ)
- 1994-2004 Manfred Gruber (SPÖ)
- since 2004 Gerhard Steinbauer (ÖVP)
Culture and sights
Bad Gastein offers a variety of natural historical and architectural sights. Outstanding are the waterfalls in the center and in Böckstein, the glacier mills, the hotel complexes of the Belle Époque . The architectural image of Bad Gastein was shaped primarily by the architects and builders Wolfgang Hagenauer , Josef Wessicken , Valentin Ceconi and Jacob Ceconi , Angelo Comini and Franz Franzmair .
- Catholic parish church of St. Primus and Felizian
- Evang. Christophoruskirche
- Catholic parish church Maria, mother of the Good Council in the Böckstein district
- Catholic branch church hl. Nicholas (built around 1380)
- Gastein waterfall : The waterfall in the middle of the village is a landmark that has been the subject of many painters and poets. The height of fall of the Gasteiner Ache in three stages is a total of 341 m. The negatively ionized air by atomization is an important therapeutic agent in the area.
- Grand Hotel de l´Europe : The hotel was built from 1906 to 1909 as a late historical building according to the plans of the cathedral master builder Matthäus Schlager. The building houses the Gastein Museum and condominiums.
- The Hotel Weismayr in the town center (formerly Provenchère) was rebuilt in the years 1886–1888 by Angelo Comini according to the plans of the architect Josef Wessicken. It is still run as a hotel today.
- The Hotel Straubinger is located directly at the Gastein waterfall. It was once the largest hotel in the health resort and, together with its Hotel Austria branch, had around 200 rooms. The main building was built from 1840 to 1842 in place of the tavern at Mittereck, which was built in 1509, and was owned by the Straubinger family from 1602 to 1980. The Gastein Convention was signed in the Hotel Straubinger in 1865 . Eckart Witzigmann completed his cooking apprenticeship at the Hotel Straubinger from 1957 to 1960. Today it is empty and waiting for a new investor. On November 14th it was announced that the Hotel Straubinger had found a new investor. The new investor is the Munich-based “Hirmer-Immobilien-Gruppe”. With the assignment contract, the buyer undertakes to set up a commercial hotel in the 4-star superior or 5-star category within three years of obtaining the necessary permits. This is to ensure that the historic center of Bad Gastein does not fall into disrepair.
- The Hotel Badeschloss , located at the waterfall opposite the Hotel Straubinger, was built from 1791 to 1794 on behalf of the Salzburg Prince Archbishop Hieronymus von Colloredo (Archbishop) . The German Emperor Wilhelm I lived here for the first time in 1863 and then every year until 1887 - except in 1866 - when he was in Bad Gastein for a cure. It has been empty for a few years and is waiting for a new investor. On November 14, 2018 it was announced that like the Hotel Straubinger, the Hotel Badeschloss and also the post office would be renovated by the investor “Hirmer-Immobilien-Gruppe” within three years of approval.
- The House of Austria in the center housed the municipal office, a public reading room, the Gastein Museum and business premises. The building was built on behalf of the Straubinger family and opened in 1898 as "Hotel Austria". Until it was sold in 1939, it was attached to the "Hotel Straubinger" headquarters. In 2008 the municipal office relocated and the building has been empty since then.
- The Bad Gastein Congress Center is an imposing concrete building from the 1970s in the center of the village. Gerhard Garstenauer received the architecture award of the state of Salzburg for this building in 1975 . The operation for congresses and events was discontinued in January 2007, and the rental contracts of some business premises were terminated.
- Felsentherme Bad Gastein with the Austrian Builder Award 1968
- The Tauernbahn train station, which is typical of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, is located near the valley station of the Stubnerkogelbahn . At the opening of the Tauern Railway in September 1905, the then mayor, Carl Straubinger, received the Emperor Franz Joseph , who had come in a saloon car .
- Böckstein Castle
- Glacier Mills
- the Gastein Museum with its extensive collection and information about the history of the place was reopened in November 2011 in the Hotel de l'Europe.
- On the Stubnerkogel there is a year-round accessible 140-meter suspension bridge at almost 2,300 m above sea level, the Glocknerblick viewing platform and a rock path.
- The Gasteiner Heilstollen is used for the therapy of rheumatic diseases and chronic symptoms of the respiratory tract and skin.
- In Bad Gastein's thermal spring park, the thermal water gushes impressively and completely naturally from the rock.
- The Zirbenzauber on the Graukogel is known for its particularly beautiful and ancient stone pine, some trees are almost 400 years old.
- The Montanmuseum Altböckstein consists of an old Salzstadl and a Säumerstadl, the path from gold ore to gold can be followed on a functioning ore processing plant.
The economic basis was and is the 17 thermal springs that are located on the “Badberg” (at the foot of the Graukogel) to the left of the waterfall, with temperatures ranging from 40 ° C to 46.4 ° C and a daily pouring of around five million liters .
The second economic basis since the development by the Tauernbahn and especially today is the pronounced tourism , in winter skiing in the alpine area and in summer mountaineering and hiking.
- Rail: Bad Gastein received a rail connection at the beginning of the 20th century. In 1905 the Schwarzach-St. Veit - Bad Gastein, in July 1909 in the presence of Emperor Franz Joseph I. the continuation from Bad Gastein to Spittal an der Drau opened, with which the Tauern Railway was completed. Eurocity trains or Railjets stop at the station every two hours.
- Bus: Local transport is ensured by buses within the Salzburg transport association .
- Road: Bad Gastein can be reached by car via the B 167 through the Gastein Valley .
- Ski area: The common ski area of Bad Hofgastein and Bad Gastein, the Schloßalm-Angertal-Stubnerkogel ski area , is part of the Gasteinertal ski region of the Ski amadé ski association and offers over 80 km of slopes with a total of 5 cable cars, 7 chair lifts and 7 drag lifts. The Stubnerkogelbahn takes you to the Stubnerkogel ( ). The Schlossalm (2050 m), the central ski area of Bad Hofgastein , can be reached with the ski swing via the Angertal ski center (1175 m) .
- Since 2008 there has been a fun park (QPark Gastein) on the Stubnerkogel in the Stubnermulde , which is mainly geared towards beginners and intermediate riders.
- In the southern part of Bad Gastein, which can be reached via a toll road from Böckstein , lies Sportgastein im Naßfeld with the Kreuzkogel ski area - at an altitude of 2650 m, it is also the highest and most snow-sure ski area in the Gastein Valley.
- The third Bad Gastein ski mountain is the Graukogel . The Alpine World Ski Championships were held on it in 1958 . Until 1988, Bad Gastein was the venue for the women's Alpine Ski World Cup races with the silver jug races .
- Tennis: A WTA women 's tennis tournament was held in Bad Gastein from 2007 to 2015 . The “Nuremberg Gastein Ladies” on the grounds of the Hotel Europäische Hof was the only open-air tournament on the WTA Tour in Austria.
- Golf: Bad Gastein has an 18-hole golf course.
- 14./15. In February 2019 a city slopestyle competition took place on the town's steep, sloping streets.
- Josef "Sepp" Benedikter , born June 4, 1911 in Bad Gastein; † November 11, 1982 in Tarzana ( USA ); Skiers and World Cup participants; Author, film double and owner of Rebel Ridge Ski Area in California
- Angelo Comini , born September 13, 1839 in Artegna (Friuli); † May 16, 1916 there; most important master builder in the history of Gastein; built u. a. the famous Hotel de l'Europe and the Kaiserhof. Also carried out renovations at the Hotel Straubinger.
- Hans Eder , born March 26, 1927 in Bad Gastein; † April 28, 2008 in Qualicum Beach, BC, Canada; Austrian champion in Nordic skiing and Olympic participant
- Franz Xaver Franzmair , born February 22, 1901 in Timelkam near Vöcklabruck; † May 13, 1988 in Salzburg; Hotelier and master builder (hotel complexes, rock pool), honorary citizen of Bad Gastein
- Uta Franzmair , born September 19, 1935 in Bad Gastein; Actress "Uta Franz" (Sissy films 1955–1957)
- Gerhard Garstenauer , born January 22, 1925 in Fusch; Architect (Felsenbad, Congress Center, Sport-Gastein)
- Siegfried Grabner , born February 4, 1975; Snowboard professional, honorary citizen since 2014
- Hermann Greinwald , born January 21, 1927 in Bad Gastein; † December 25, 1990 there, general practitioner, spa doctor, mountain rescue doctor and district doctor in Bad Gastein.
- Fritz Gruber , born May 28, 1940 in Spittal an der Drau; Mining and local historians for the Gastein Valley and botanists
- Manfred Gruber , born May 1, 1949 in Bad Gastein, politician, mayor of Bad Gastein and 2007 President of the Austrian Federal Council
- Josef Gumpold , born September 3, 1908 in Böckstein; † December 6, 1942 in Russia; Nordic winter sportsman ; World Cup and Olympic participants ;
- Thea Hochleitner , born July 10, 1925 in Bad Gastein; Ski racer in the 1950s, participation in the 1956 Winter Olympics in Cortina d'Ampezzo (bronze medal in giant slalom)
- S. Karl Huber , born May 25, 1907 in Salzburg; † January 15, 1978 in Salzburg; architect
- Ludwig Schmidseder , born August 24, 1904 in Passau; † June 21, 1971 in Munich; Operetta composer, completed the operetta " Abschiedswalzer " here in 1949 together with the librettists Hubert Marischka and Rudolf Österreicher
- Franz Schubert , born January 31, 1797 in Vienna; † November 19, 1828 there; created the "Gastein Symphony" after a vacation in Bad Gastein (August 14th to September 4th 1825)
- Hans Senger , born May 25, 1925 in Bad Gastein; † May 11, 2004 in Heiligenblut; Ski racer in the 1950s, taking part in the 1952 Winter Olympics in Oslo
- Karl Straubinger , born August 4, 1855 in Bad Gastein; † December 19, 1924 there; Hotelier, mayor (1882–1917), honorary citizen of Bad Gastein
- Georg Thomalla , born February 14, 1915 in Kattowitz (Upper Silesia); † August 25, 1999 in Starnberg (Bavaria); actor
- Karl Heinrich Waggerl , born December 10, 1897 in Bad Gastein; † November 4, 1973 in Schwarzach im Pongau; Writer, honorary citizen of Bad Gastein
- Theodor von der Wense , born January 29, 1904 in Gmunden; † April 18, 1977 in Innsbruck; Physician and author of several works on Gastein thermal water
- Josef Wessicken , born August 10, 1837 in Salzburg (Griesgasse); † October 19, 1918 there; architect
- Erwin Wexberg , born February 12, 1889 in Vienna; † January 10, 1957 in Washington; Individual psychologist and doctor (student of Alfred Adler)
- Alois Windischbauer , born January 8, 1846 in Wels; † January 22, 1917 in Bad Gastein; Hotelier, founder of the Windischbauer dynasty (Elisabethpark, Kaiserhof, Gasteinerhof, Savoy, Regina, Astoria, Söntgen)
- Elisabeth Windischbauer , married Kaltenbrunner , born September 13, 1912 in Badgastein; Ski racer (World Cup participant 1935 and 1936 ) and hotelier (Gasteinerhof)
- Eckart Witzigmann , born July 4, 1941 in Hohenems; grew up in Bad Gastein; Haubenkoch, he was awarded the title “Chef of the Century” by Gault-Millau in 1994, honorary citizen of Bad Gastein
- Jörg Wörther , born July 8, 1958 in Bad Gastein; † July 15, 2020; Award-winning chef
- Bernhard Zimburg , born May 31, 1954 in Bad Gastein; Ambassador to Algeria, Indonesia and Japan
- Heinrich Zimburg , born May 18, 1895 in Mährisch-Weißkirchen; † March 30, 1978 in St. Johann im Pongau; Spa director (1934–1964) and local historian. Editor of the "Bad Gasteiner Badeblätter" from 1935 to 1970
- Maria Zittrauer , born January 10, 1913 in Bad Gastein (Bad Bruck district); † June 6, 1997 ibid; Poet, Trakl Prize winner 1952
- Hermann Greinwald: The Gastein cure. Therme and Heilstollen. A guide for healing seekers and healthy people by Dr. Hermann Greinwald. (= Gastein library, volume 8). Verlag Bernhard Feichtner KG, Bad Gastein (2nd edition)
- Fritz Gruber : Mosaic stones on the history of Gastein and its Salzburg area. Mining - Baths - Buildings - Place names - Biographies - Chronology (30th supplementary volume of the communications of the Society for Salzburg Regional Studies). Bad Gastein 2012, self-published by the Rotary Club Bad Gastein, 528 pages, 838 notes, 265 mostly color pictures, ISBN 978-3-200-02728-2 .
- Fritz Gruber: The old Gastein (illustrated book with detailed texts). Our country in pictures / series of publications by the Gastein Museum Volume 1, . Rauter by HLP-Kommunikation, St. Johann im Pongau 1993.
- Joseph Mitterdorfer: The Wildbad Gastein and its surroundings in Salzburg's high mountains . In: Franz Sartori (Hrsg.): Oesterreichs Tibur or nature and art paintings from the Austrian Empire . Vienna 1819, p. 145–185 ( full text in Google Book Search).
- Rosalie Koch: Wildbad Gastein . In: -: Say . Baumgärtner, Leipzig 1847, pp. 15–32. - Full text online .
- Joseph Mitterdorfer: Gastunia. A paperback for Gastein's spa guests as well as for lovers of the same natural beauty. Ms. Xav. Duyle, Salzburg 1820 (332 pages).
- Laurenz Krisch: The Bad Gasteiner Karl Heinrich Waggerl. Festschrift on the occasion of his 100th birthday in 1997 . Series of publications by the Gastein Museum, . Gastein Museum, Bad Gastein 1996.
- Laurenz Krisch: Angelo Comini, the most important master builder in the history of Bad Gastein . Series of publications by the Gastein Museum, . Gastein Museum, Bad Gastein 1997.
- Laurenz Krisch: The Salzburg architect Josef Wessicken and his work in Bad Gastein . Series of publications by the Gastein Museum, . Gastein Museum, Bad Gastein 2004.
- Laurenz Krisch: The Bad Gastein master builder Franz Xaver Franzmair and his architects . Series of publications by the Gastein Museum, . Gastein Museum, Bad Gastein 2005.
- Laurenz Krisch: Bad Gastein during the Nazi regime . In: Communications of the Society for Salzburg Regional Studies (MGSL) , No. 147 (2007), , pp. 255–322.
- Laurenz Krisch: The Jewish “Displaced Persons” in Bad Gastein during the immediate post-war period . In: Communications from the Society for Salzburg Regional Studies (MGSL) , No. 148 (2008), , pp. 357–382.
- Laurenz Krisch: The history of the Grand Hotel de l'Europe in Bad Gastein . Series of publications by the Gastein Museum, . Gastein Museum, Bad Gastein 2009.
- Heinrich von Zimburg: The history of Gastein and the Gastein valley . Braumüller, Vienna 1948 (384 pages with 66 illustrations).
- Heinrich von Zimburg: The architectural monuments of Badgastein . (Contains: The Nikolauskirche in Badgastei. The Sankt Preimskirche in Badgastein. The church "Maria von dem Gute Rate" in Böckstein.) Verlag der Kurverwaltung Bad Gastein, Bad Gastein 1963, .
- Heinrich von Zimburg, Fritz Gruber: 500 years Badehospiz Badgastein . Series of publications by the State Press Office, Press and Information Center of the State of Salzburg, Salzburg Documentations, Volume 99, ISBN 3-85015-079-8 . (Attached works: Fritz Gruber: The Strochner Foundation anno 1489 and the older history of the Armenbadspital in Badgastein and Heinrich Zimburg: The more recent history of the Badehospice Badgastein .) . Landespressebüro, Salzburg 1989,
- 1988 The movie season of Wolfram Paulus plays in Bad Gastein.
- 2015 The feature film The Village of Silence is set in Bad Gastein.
- 2019 The thriller Die Toten von Salzburg - Mordwasser takes place in Bad Gastein.
- 2019 The thriller Under different circumstances: Bad Gastein also plays in the dark valley .
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