from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Capoeira is a Brazilian martial art or a fight dance , the origin of which is traced back to the African NíGolo ("zebra dance"). Capoeira was practiced and further developed by slaves abducted from Africa during the colonial era in Brazil . Nowadays a distinction is made between two main directions: the "old" Capoeira Angola and the "modern" Capoeira Regional . Over the years, the African elements merged in Capoeira Regional with influences from other martial arts such as wrestling , Jiu Jitsu and Wushu . At this time (around the 1970s) many of today's characteristic acrobatics, such as high, twisted jumps or somersaults, developed; even if many of the low-level acrobatics at least tended to already exist.

In terms of content, Capoeira is characterized by three levels: the fight, the music and the “Roda” ( Portuguese “circle”) as a social framework in which the fight takes place. The fighting techniques themselves are characterized by extreme flexibility; there are lots of spinning kicks, jump-in kicks, and acrobatics . Music is traditionally played during the fights, this follows an endless rhythm in different variations; suitable songs, often from the time of slavery, are sung.

The fights always take place in a roda. This roda consists of a circle of capoeiristas and the musicians. Always two Capoeiristas fight in the Roda, whereby in Capoeira the term “game” is used for a fight. A roda is particularly influenced by the archaic force inherent in capoeira.


The existence of Capoeira is documented since the 18th century. The literature assumes that it originated in Brazil from a mixture of various African dances and cults . Martial arts similar to Capoeira, such as Maní in Cuba, also developed in other regions to which African slaves were abducted .

Forerunners of Capoeira were various fighting games and dances of African and indigenous culture. Above all, Batuque , Luta do Bode , Bassula , Kamangula , NíGolo and the Indian Quarupe should be mentioned .

There are legends about the battles between slaves and slave owners in the Quilombos - it is said of the Quilombos that Capoeira developed strongly there and that the slaves also used it in the fight against the slave hunters armed with firearms.

The next development phase of Capoeira is then also the first in which the experts agree on its origin and application. The Capoeira of that time is not comparable to today's, but rather as a kind of street fighting technique. Capoeiristas got together in gangs, the Maltas , and ruled entire street districts. They fought against rival Maltas and the authorities. This form of Capoeira was particularly widespread in the port cities of Rio de Janeiro , Recife and Salvador da Bahia , which are also commonly regarded as the breeding grounds for Capoeira. Accordingly, Capoeira is an urban phenomenon.

In the imperial era , capoeira was not explicitly forbidden, but the capoeiristas were persecuted and arrested, for example, for disturbing public order . Between 1865 and 1870 many capoeiristas were forcibly recruited for the war against Paraguay . On the one hand gangs were to be broken up, on the other hand runaway slaves were given the choice of either serving the fatherland or dying. They went down in history as the “Voluntários da Pátria”.

In the republic from 1889 there was finally a Capoeira paragraph, which punished the practice of Capoeira with banishment from six months to two years. One of the reasons for this treatment is that the capoeiristas were viewed as monarchists who, out of gratitude for the liberation of the slaves, felt indebted to the crown. During this time, Capoeira was pushed underground and only practiced in Rio de Janeiro, Recife and Salvador da Bahia.

The capoeira ban was lifted in 1937 by the nationalist dictator Getúlio Vargas , who wanted to establish a national sport with capoeira. He got this idea after seeing a performance by Mestre Bimba . Bimba wanted to form a modern martial art from elements of the street fighting technique Capoeira, which he called Luta Regional Baiana . In this form of Capoeira, he integrated elements of Batuque and Asian martial arts in order to increase the efficiency of this martial art. He taught them (while the ban was still on) at his academy in the Bahian capital Salvador da Bahia - the ban was the main reason why his school did not have “Capoeira” in its name. For the first time, Bimba devised a systematic method of teaching Capoeira; beforehand the techniques were learned through imitation.

Even today, Capoeira is mainly divided into two forms: Capoeira Regional and Capoeira Angola . However, there is currently a noticeable trend towards mutual rapprochement. This trend is mainly borne by Mestre Camisa and Mestre João Grande and is often referred to as Capoeira Contemporânea .

The film Only the Strong with leading actor Mark Dacascos gives an insight into Capoeira. Mainly Capoeira Regional is shown here, which is characterized by more spectacular movements. Mark Dacascos himself has been practicing Kung Fu since childhood (his father Al Dacascos owns several martial arts schools) and has trained himself Capoeira especially for this film with the help of some Brazilian Mestres .


Capoeira is now widespread worldwide. There are different schools that differ greatly in training methods, focus and style. A distinction is made between Angola or regional schools - Capoeira Regional is taught according to the methods of Mestre Bimba , e.g. B. at Capoeira União . Capoeira Angola mainly refers to Mestre Pastinha and puts more traditional movements in the foreground. While Angola is also taught in regional, the reverse is usually not the case. In addition, a kind of third way prevails , this direction is called Capoeira Contemporânea, this is more of a collective term for many different styles and directions of contemporary Capoeira (such as Miudinho from the group Cordão de Ouro ). Another development is the holding of competitions, as in other martial arts. In contrast to those, however, it is not the scoring of hits or knockouts that counts , but the implementation of the dialogue mentioned below under Roda . However, this makes an objective judgment difficult.

Malícia - the soul of Capoeira

Capoeira has a fighting technique that is very different from most other arts. This may also be the reason why it is not as widespread in Europe as, for example, karate or judo .

The central element - the soul of Capoeira - is Malícia . Malícia can be interpreted as “cunning, wickedness”, but in Brazilian it is a positively documented quality and should be translated as “cunning” or “cunning”.

The Malícia is vividly described in songs: it can be explained graphically using the example of a snake waiting for prey in its hole. The snake is prepared and as soon as the prey arrives, it is killed without resistance (for example "bote de cobra coral" from the Ladainha Uma Vez by Mestre Toni Vargas). Elsewhere, the snake might have been inferior.

Often it is a matter of giving the opponent a - wrong - impression in a fight. In earlier times, Capoeira students were not allowed to show how strong they really are when others (potential opponents) were watching. They should rather give the impression of weaklings. This could be crucial in a fight.

Malícia runs like a red thread through the life of a capoeirista. It is never taught directly, but rather tried out by the students in a playful way. Because of the Malícia, the outcome of any fight is uncertain. Thus, technique and fitness are not decisive, but the tactical overview of the game. There are masters who use very few techniques but use them very efficiently with the help of Malícia.

Today the Malícia often takes a backseat in the modern forms of Capoeira Regional, as the speed and shortness of the games do not allow the necessary tension and dynamism to be built up. In Capoeira Angola, however, it is still the most important element.


Movement repertoire (selection)

There are many movements and combinations of movements in Capoeira. A selection of movements is set out in the table. It is important that the names are not always generally valid and can differ from group to group.

All movements are carried out from the ginga (basic movement of Capoeira).

Mortais (fatal blows) Traumatizantes (numbing blows) Desequilibriantes (litters) Esquivas (evasive movements) Fugas (escape movements) Floreios (decorations)
Meia-Lua de Compasso (Crescent Circle) Meia-Lua Rasteira (sweeping of feet) Aú (wheel) Negatives (avoidance)
Rabo de Arraia (ray tail) Martelo (hammer) Vingativa (revenge) Resistencia (resistance) Macaco (monkey) Relógio (clock)
Meia-Lua de Frente (crescent circle in front) Banda Esquiva (evade) S-Dobrado (double S) Pião de Mão (twisted one-handed handstand)
Chibata (small whip) Armada (twist stroke) Arrastão Cocorinha (crouch) Aú de Cabeça (wheel turn on the head) Saca-rolha (corkscrew)
Queixada (jaw) Tesoura (leg scissors) Rolé (role) Aú sem Mão (wheel stroke without hands) Mortal (somersault)
Ponteira (dotted step) Queda de Quatro (Fall on all fours) Parafuso (screw)
Bênção (blessing) Queda de Rins (falling on your kidneys) Folha Seca
Cotovelhada (elbow strike)
Cabeçada (headbutt)
Palma (hit with the palm)
Joelhada (knee strike)

Movements (alphabetical)

Armada com Martelo

Armada is a kick. The movement is initiated by the person pedaling by taking a short step forward with one leg and turning the foot 180 ° in the direction of the other leg. Then he lifts his back leg and rotates it 360 ° at chest height, trying to hit the opponent with the outer instep.

Banda 's a sweeper. This trick is mostly used to avoid a Martelo and to counter it at the same time. The sweep is carried out from a standing position; in order to be able to do it perfectly, one has to deal with Capoeira for a number of years, because this movement requires very quick reactions and extremely good flexibility.

If a Martelo of the opponent comes with the left leg (from the right), then turn the left leg out of the parallel position so that the heel points towards the opponent. Then you bring your right leg across the floor to the heel (or ankle) of the opposing leg and apply pressure by trying to twist your upper body, in our case over your left shoulder, as far as possible. It would be desirable if the pulling leg landed in the Esquiva. This litter is very similar to the Rasteira.

The ginga describes the basic step of Capoeira.

The Meia-Lua ( port. For "Crescent") is one of the most important foot shocks. It is a wide twisting leg movement very similar to the Armada. The difference is that in Meia-Lua the body is leaning further back and that the heel is used instead of the outer instep.

The Meia-Lua de Compasso (Portuguese for "polished crescent") is a blow. This kick is similar to the Meia-Lua. The only difference is that in the Meia-Lua de Compasso the hands (or just one hand) have to touch the ground. So the attacker gets deeper. The Meia-Lua de Compasso can also be used as an introduction to various combinations.

The Meia Lua de Frente (Portuguese for "crescent from the front") is a kick. It is the counterpart to Queixada. The inner instep is hit. Normally the stroke is performed from the parallel position (the legs are about 1 meter apart). The Meia Lua de Frente is not a particularly strong hit, it is more of a distraction or often comes quickly and surprisingly.


The queixada is a kick. The kick is one of the standards that every capoeirista must master. In Queixada, the outside of the instep is hit. You can perform the Queixada from the parallel position or from the Esquiva. Before doing this, however, you have to cross your back leg forward.

The Ponteira is a kick. In contrast to the Benção, you only hit the opponent with the ball of the ball very quickly and with a snap movement. It's not as powerful as the Benção, but the Ponteira is very quick and effective. In other martial arts the kick is known as the front kick .


Capoeira as a fighting dance game is based on a system of unwritten rules that has only been passed on from generation to generation due to the African tradition of oral tradition. It is uncertain how the main features of this set of rules might have looked. It is of interest that the beginner is usually not given a text booklet with rules, but that these rules have to be experienced in an individual context. In particular, against the background of the Malicia, they only ensure the rough framework conditions, the rules can be broken at certain moments in the game, sometimes this is even necessary in order to be able to start special subroutines such as the Chamada .

Based on John Lowell Lewis ' work, there is a tabular overview of the most important rules of the game. This is broken down into “normative” and “pragmatic” rules. It should be pointed out at this point that the rules in Capoeira are very vague and depend on the other players. They are therefore to be seen more as a possibility that can be varied. In some schools the only rule taught is “there is no rule”. Nevertheless, certain habits and processes can also be found there.

Normative rules

These rules refer to fixed behaviors that have become established in capoeira circles worldwide and are not questioned or varied. On the one hand they guarantee the safety of the fighters and on the other hand they reflect part of the philosophical approaches of Capoeira to dealing with one another.

  1. The active game takes place between two players within the roda
    1. Follow the conventions for entering and exiting the Roda
    2. Do not move outside the roda during the game
    3. Shake hands before and after the game (more like a "clap")
  2. Try to throw your companion
    1. Only feet, hands and head should touch the ground
    2. Never try to hurt your colleague
      1. Strikes with closed fists are prohibited
      2. Pushing away / pushing prohibited, except as part of the throw
    3. Emotional, psychological and / or damage to prestige are fine
  3. Always be ready to defend yourself against an attack
    1. When you turn your back on your colleague, always look at him (for example through your legs)
    2. Hold your hands in front of or over your face in defense
    3. Keep an eye on a colleague at all times
  4. There is no roda without music (the berimbau player is the leader of the roda)
    1. The music starts before the game
    2. When the music ends, the game ends

Pragmatic rules

These rules describe the type of game that it should ideally be. Capoeira is not a static martial art like other forms. Everything comes from movement, and no two fights are the same.

General behavior is described in the rules, but these are not exclusive or even mandatory.

  1. Do not block attacks (unless at the beginning or in extreme situations)
    1. Dodge and counterattack
    2. Be prepared to dodge most attacks
    3. Be prepared to attack most evasive attempts
  2. Always be on the move (Ginga; pronounced "dschinga")
    1. Try to increase your freedom of movement while restricting the freedom of movement of the competitor
    2. Never stop completely (except for Chamada )
  3. Deceive your fellow campaigner so that he becomes vulnerable
    1. Establish movement patterns only to break them
    2. Pretend you're doing one thing and do another
    3. Always smile

Capoeira can also be understood as a kind of communication which, with practice, improves the skill, the sense of rhythm and the reaction enormously. The quality of the entertainment therefore lies with the two people playing or dancing together. Successful Capoeira entertainment requires a lot of intuition, understanding, empathy and sincerity. However, Capoeira, originally mysterious in character, has meanwhile largely become a hectic sport, sometimes even a consumption.

Rules of Mestre Bimba

The rules for capoeiristas by Mestre Bimba have been passed down orally . At first glance, they seem a bit unusual for rules of a martial art, but they are suitable for survival in a dangerous environment and provide guidance for basic, cautious behavior:

  1. If you sleep in someone else's house, sleep with one eye open and one eye closed.
  2. Don't bend into corners.
  3. Don't go under leafy trees at night.
  4. Don't sit with your back to the street anywhere.
  5. Don't walk in dark streets.
  6. Safe lasts the longest.
  7. When you sleep in the Roda, the pipe falls.
  8. Give up smoking. It is forbidden to smoke while exercising.
  9. Give up drinking. The consumption of alcohol affects the muscles.
  10. Avoid showing your friends your progress outside of capoeira roda.
  11. Avoid chattering during exercise.
  12. Always go to the ginga.
  13. Practice the basic exercises daily.
  14. Do not be afraid to approach the opponent. The closer you are to him, the more you can learn.
  15. Always keep the body relaxed.
  16. Better to fight in the roda than in the street.

Clothing and belt system


As in any other martial arts, there is also a “combat suit” in Capoeira. This depends on the style and always consists of pants and t-shirt in different color combinations.

In Capoeira Angola it is traditionally the combination of black pants / yellow T-shirt or shirt with a name of the group. This originally goes back to a football club whose fan Mestre Pastinha is said to have been. Alternatively, in some groups you can also see white trousers with a leather belt and a white T-shirt with the group name.

In the Capoeira Regional style, there is traditionally only the combination of white pants / white T-shirt with the name of the group. In addition, a cord is used to mark the wearer's graduation as a belt for the trousers.

Belt system

Today there are - apart from a few exotic groups - only in the Capoeira Regional different belts that indicate the degree of wearer. In order to reach the next level, the capoeirista must meet certain requirements, taking into account the time that has passed since reaching the last level.

Requirements can be:

  • to play with one or more masters or teachers in the roda,
  • Prove knowledge of capoeira music,
  • perform certain attack, defense and acrobatic movements.

There are usually certain time intervals that should be observed between two stages. How long this is is decided by the master of the respective school. In general, the waiting times between higher belt levels are longer.

There are different degree systems in Capoeira. There is no international standardization, so that in some schools there are also belt systems that are not recognized by most large groups. In general, some trends can be identified in terms of color:

  • A “traditional” that recalls the origins of Capoeira and Candomblé , the graduação das sete cordas with colors corresponding to the gods of Candomblé, which the slaves on their way from Africa (blue for the water) to the struggle for freedom accompanied on the new continent (red for the fire of war). The color of the Mestre is white as a symbol of peace won.
  • A "Brazilian", which uses the colors of the Brazilian national flag in its color scheme in a gradation of the rank from the outside (green) to the inside (white).
  • A "sportive" one that is based on the belt system of karate . Here, too, the color of the mestre is white and replaces the black of the highest graduation in karate.

Originally there were no cords in Capoeira, as Mestre Bimba , the founder of Capoeira Regional , first learned the Angola style . In the course of his work for Capoeira, however, a simple degree system was initially developed , consisting of silk scarves of different colors. Silk was used because it protects the wearer against cuts with knives better than other fabrics.

Batizado and Troca de Cordas

The first cords are usually awarded once a year as part of a solemn ceremony, the Batizado (meaning: "baptism of fire "). For students who have already graduated, it is only called “Troca de Cordas” because they only have to change their cords. It is already clear in advance who gets which cord, only to demonstrate one's own abilities this is checked again in differently demanding games in the Roda.

It is customary for each student to look for a higher graduate as a “sponsor” who has a specific role during the ceremony. If the student plays with a master in the roda, the master tries to throw the student on the ground and then - in a playful way - does not let go of him until the "godfather" saves him.

The Roda

Capoeira player at a roda in Amsterdam
Entry ritual to a Roda in Paris

Traditionally, Capoeira takes place as a form of play in the so-called “Roda” (Portuguese for “circle, round”): All participants stand in a circle, with the musicians gathering at one point in this circle.

The berimbau players are central , as the berimbau determines the rhythm of capoeira. The game starts from there. Two capoeiristas (or capoeiras) crouch in front of the instruments, look at each other briefly, shake hands (clap) (some still touch the berimbau at this point as a sign of admiration) and usually go to the center of the roda with a wheel flip. The bystanders clap the rhythm and sing the chorus. The two capoeiristas then play with each other within the circle. There is no competition between the two of them, rather they carry out a kind of physical dialogue, the words being the various offensive and defensive movements. Each offensive movement is followed by a defensive movement by the other, a defensive movement becomes an offensive movement. These sequences of reciprocal movements become sentences. It is up to the players themselves to decide whether the focus is on cooperation or confrontation. Depending on their ability and mood, this conversation can have a more peaceful character or lead to a fight. In the end there is no winner or loser, but the capoeiristas decide for themselves when to end the dialogue.

Anyone bystanders can also buy into the game beforehand (from the Portuguese comprar for "buy"). In doing so, you first mark vigilantly (the previous players are still exchanging blows) and yet determine your intention to take over the game (by holding an outstretched arm between the ends of the game, the palm of the hand facing the person with whom you are “talking to” from now on “Would like), and then continue the dialogue with this player.

Capoeira is extremely versatile as it combines acrobatics, martial arts, rhythm, responsiveness, improvisation and creativity. The player is in constant movement: On the one hand, because the basic step is already a rocking step (the ginga ), on the other hand, because there are a lot of deep movements in the crouch or acrobatics upside down (wheel flick, headstand, etc.). Because of this and the philosophy of avoiding all blows and only blocking them in an emergency, it does not represent an easy target for the other person.


Toques (rhythms)

Musician of a Roda

A very important aspect is the rhythm, also called "toque", which is created with the traditional instruments berimbau , atabaque and pandeiro . The rhythm determines the type of capoeira game. Many rhythms are used in the roda, the main ones being:

  1. Angola : this toque should be mentioned in the same line as the Angola style. It is characterized by a slower tempo and greater musicality. It is the oldest capoeira game. The game looks very theatrical and takes place on the floor. Tactical finesse and short, violent rhythm changes with strong kicks are characteristic. Only with this toque is a chamada used as a game-in-game insert. Despite its slow pace, Angola is the most dangerous game (due to the subtle deceptions and fast throws). The Angola Toque does not clap.
  2. São Bento Grande de Angola : This can be played both slowly and quickly, the game is playful to combative, acrobatic interludes are welcome but not compulsory.
  3. Benguela : A little faster than Angola. The game is more fluid and also allows acrobatics, but no aerial acrobatics. It still remains a game on the ground, few rasteiras and few direct kicks aimed at the opponent.
  4. São Bento Grande de Bimba : Fast, powerful toque. The game is fast and athletic. All kinds of kicks and acrobatics are allowed.
  5. Iuna : Iuna is a species of bird, and the toque of the same name describes a game in which only graduated capoeiristas are allowed to participate. It is very acrobatic, not combative and has the so-called “cintura desprezada” movements - an innovation that goes back to Mestre Bimba. As a further variant, the Iuna-Toque can be played in memory of deceased capoeiristas.
    In contrast to the aforementioned toques, the Iuna does not sing.
  6. São Bento Pequeno : This is a reduced version of the São Bento Grande. The game for this is friendly, without straight kicks and rasteiras and with a special focus on flowing and round play.

There are also a large number of toques , which are only played on certain occasions.

Cantigas (songs)

In addition to the instruments, the songs are fundamental for Capoeira. Each of the three toques above calls for a type of singing:

  • A game of Angola begins with long solemn songs with long stanzas that often tell a whole story. These are called Ladainhas .
  • In the Benguela, songs with long stanzas are sung, but they are shorter than Ladainhas (so-called quadras).
  • At São Bento Grande there are short pieces in which the lead singer alternates with the Roda bystanders at a fast pace (so-called corridos).

The songs are sung in Portuguese .


The main instrument of a Capoeira Bateria is the berimbau. The berimbau is made from the very elastic Biriba wood , which is only found in Brazil. It is a musical bow that consists of a wooden stick (Verga), a metal string (Arame) and a body (Cabaça). In the hands of the musician holding an additional Caxixi (Holzrassel), a Baqueta (percussion sticks) and a Dobrão (coin, stone). Despite its simple construction, the berimbau is difficult to play and, in addition to a good sense of rhythm, requires a lot of coordination and finger strength.

There are berimbaus of different sizes and pitches:

  • Berra-Boi ("mooing the ox") is the lowest tuned berimbau with a very long stick and a large body. It is rarely played.
  • Gunga is a low pitched berimbau. Traditionally, the basic rhythm is played on it and at the beginning of a roda the gunga begins as the first instrument.
  • Medio is a medium high pitched berimbau. Traditionally, the inversion of the basic rhythm is played on it. It starts in a roda after the gunga.
  • Viola is a high pitched berimbau. Almost exclusively improvisations of the basic rhythm are played on it. She starts as the last berimbau.
  • Violinha is a very high pitched berimbau.

A pandeiro is a bell tambourine . It supports the berimba rhythms and enriches the timbres. At the same time, it emphasizes the basic rhythm. It belongs to the frame drum family .

The classic atabaque is a rope drum of deep tuning. Similar to the pandeiro, it supports the basic rhythm and provides a strong groove.

A Reco-reco is a ratchet, similar to the Güiro . It provides a slightly undefined overtone in the Roda and enriches the timbre.

The agogô is an instrument from samba music . It is a double metal bell that is struck with a wooden stick. In Capoeira, an agogô is traditionally used, which consists of two Brazil nut shells that are screwed onto a wooden stick.

Capoeira in public

Capoeira can now be found in more and more films, commercials and computer games.

The best-known film about and with Capoeira is Only the Strong from 1993. Other films that feature Capoeira are:

In Christina Aguilera's video Dirrty , Sepultura's video Roots Bloody Roots and in the video of Black Eyed Peas with Sérgio Mendes , two capoeirista fight. Capoeira can also be found in the music video for Maria Maria by Carlos Santana , Rich Girl by Gwen Stefani , Michael Frantis Say Hey , Mark Medlock You Can Get It and in the video by Safri Duo Sweet Freedom . In addition, the music video Taboo by Don Omar Capoeirista can be seen fighting on the beach.

Furthermore, "L" from the manga Death Note defends itself with Capoeira. Capoeira plays a bigger role in the video game series Tekken and its film adaptation .

See also


  • Bira Almeida: Capoeira, a Brazilian Art Form: History, Philosophy, and Practice . 2nd Edition. North Atlantic Books, 1986, ISBN 0-938190-29-6
  • Carola Schormann: Capoeira - Part I . In: Praxis des Musikunterrichts , 114, 2013, pp. 44 ff.
  • Mestre Nestor Capoeira: Capoeira - martial art and dance from Brazil. 5th edition. Verlag Weinmann, 2001, ISBN 3-87892-068-7
  • Mestre Nestor Capoeira: Capoeira: Roots of the Dance-Fight-Game . 1st edition. North Atlantic Books, 2002, ISBN 1-55643-404-9
  • Mestre Nestor Capoeira: A Street-Smart Song: Capoeira Philosophy and Inner Life . 1st edition. Blue Snake Books / Frog Ltd., 2006, ISBN 1-58394-155-X
  • Greg Downey: Learning Capoeira: Lessons in Cunning from an Afro-Brazilian Art . 1st edition. Oxford University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-19-517697-9
  • John Lowell-Lewis: Ring of Liberation: Deceptive Discourse in Brazilian Capoeira . 1st edition. University of Chicago Press, 1992, ISBN 0-226-47683-9
  • Mestre Bola Sete: A Capoeira Angola na Bahia , Pallas Verlag, ISBN 85-347-0271-3 (only available in Portuguese)
  • Tiago de Oliveira Pinto: Capoeira, the fighting game from Bahia . In: Tiago de Oliveira Pinto (ed.): Brazil. Introduction to the musical traditions of Brazil. Schott, Mainz a. a. 1986, ISBN 3-7957-1811-2
  • Tiago de Oliveira Pinto: Capoeira, Samba, Candomblé. Afro-Brazilian music in Recôncavo, Bahia . Reimer, Berlin 1991 (publications of the Museum für Völkerkunde Berlin NF, Dept. Musikethnologie 7), ISBN 3-496-00497-5

Web links

Commons : Capoeira  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Capoeira  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on June 1, 2008 .