Jiu Jitsu

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The Kanji Jū (Jiu) and Jutsu (Jitsu) (read from top to bottom)

Jiu Jitsu [ dʑɯː.dʑɯ.tsɯ ] ( Japanese 柔 術 , Jūjutsu ? / I ; "The gentle technique / the yielding art") is a martial art of unarmed self-defense that originated from the Japanese samurai . Jiu Jitsu is supposed to offer a wide range of possibilities for self-defense and - among other things by strengthening one's character and self-confidence - also for peaceful conflict resolution. Audio file / audio sample

The aim of Jiu Jitsu is to render an attacker harmless as efficiently as possible, regardless of whether he is armed or not. This can be done by punching , kicking , thrusting , throwing , levering and choking techniques by bringing the attacker under control or incapacitating them. In Jiu Jitsu, force should not be used against force, but - according to the principle of "winning by giving in" - as much as possible of the attacker's strength should be used against himself.

Jiu Jitsu as a modern martial art

In the West ( Great Britain , USA and Germany ) at the beginning of the 20th century judo , western wrestling and boxing developed into a new type of self-defense, which became known as Jiu Jitsu. The first Japanese teachers called their techniques Kano Jiu Jitsu, the common name for Judo at the time. In the 1970s, elements from karate were added , in the 1990s from other fighting styles such as Wing Chun, etc. When Jiu Jitsu is spoken of as a martial art today, this modern western style is usually meant and not the traditional Jiu Jitsu from Japan.

Name and spelling

In Japan, Jiu Jitsu is written with Kanji , Chinese characters , as 柔 術 . The first sign means “soft, gentle, flexible, yielding”, the second sign means “technique, art, method, skill”. What is meant is that you don't rely on raw, directly applied force, but rather adapt your strategy and techniques fluently to the opponent.

Western texts use a variety of transcriptions . In the internationally used Hepburn system one spells Jūjutsu . In addition, the phonetically incorrect form of Jiu Jitsu has remained , which goes back to hearing errors of the western pioneers. Probably to make the pronunciation easier to understand, the variant Dschiu Dschitsu can be found in older German texts .

The Japanese martial arts are quite old, but the Sino-Japanese word jūjutsu can only be found in Japan in texts from the Edo period . In early modern literature, in the context of hard forms of fighting, there are other names such as Yawara or Yawarajutsu ( 柔 ら / 軟 ら / 和 ら , or 和 術 ), Taijutsu ( 体 術 , 體 術 ), Kempō ( 拳法 ), Hakuda ( 白打 ), Kogusoku ( 小 具足 ), Koshimawari ( 腰 廻 ), Kumiuchi ( 組 討 , 組 打 ), Torite ( 捕手 , 取 手 ) or Shubaku ( 手 拍 , 手 縛 ).


Judo training in an agricultural school in Japan, around 1920

The spiritual-philosophical side, such as the Bushidō code of conduct , is just as part of Jiu Jitsu as the various (fighting) techniques. Traditional elements such as the bow at the beginning and practicing the katas go hand in hand with newer elements such as the belt degrees ( kyū , dan ) and competitions. Some schools reject competitions because the possibilities of Jiu Jitsu must be severely restricted in order to avoid injuries in competition.

Within the Jiu Jitsu system, a student first learns the elementary school (Japanese 基本 Kihon , "basis"), consisting of punch, push, kick and leg techniques, as well as the fall school ( 受 け 身 Ukemi , " fall technique") as a prerequisite for a low-injury training. Furthermore, the use of throws , levers and holding techniques as well as unarmed defense techniques against attacks on one's own person and against third parties (such as against choking, wrist and collar grabbing, punching, kicking and weapon attacks) and ground combat are taught. General fitness is also promoted through intensive conditioning training at the beginning of each training session.


Originated in Japan

A samurai fully armed (1860)

As with many of the Asian martial arts, the origin of Jiu Jitsu can hardly be clearly identified. The manuscripts handed down in the various schools tend to exaggerate the differences to other schools and to give your own school direction as old as possible. Printed works through which the respective knowledge became public came about late.

In one of the genesis myths, the basic principle of Jiu Jitsu “yield in order to win” becomes particularly clear. It says that Akiyama Shirobei Yoshitoki (a doctor who lived in Nagasaki in the 16th century ) received medical knowledge as well as hand-to-hand combat ( Chinese  白打 , Pinyin báidǎ , Japanese Hakuda ) in monasteries on his study trip through China . He found physical strength as a prerequisite for performing the techniques. Back in Japan, Akiyama taught the Hakuda he brought with him from China , but many of his students turned away from this power-based system. One winter, Akiyama observed how the massive but rigid branches of a pine tree broke under the weight of falling snow, while the thin branches of a willow standing next to it bent down under the weight of the snow until the snow slipped, only to come back up unharmed . Inspired by this observation, he founded the first school of the "art of indulgence" and called it Yoshin-ryu (willow school).

The spread of Jiu-Jitsu took place mainly in the 17th century. In 1659 a monk named Chen Juan Bin is said to have instructed three samurai in the technique of unarmed combat. Fukuno Ryu, Miura Ryu and Isogai Ryu, the names of the three samurai, then each began to set up their own schools and over the years a system of several schools developed, some of which worked together, but also competed. However, some schools continued to engage in armed struggle. Around this time the name Jiu-Jitsu is said to have established itself.

The further development is closely connected with Kanō Jigorō , who tried to unite the various Jiu-Jitsu styles in the 19th century and thereby developed the Kōdōkan - Jūdō . As Japan opened up to the world market, both styles spread to the west.

Development in Germany

The history of Jiu Jitsu in Germany is closely linked on the one hand with the name Erich Rahn (1885–1973), on the other hand with the history of Kōdōkan-Jūdō. Rahn, who came from a respected family of merchants in Berlin, had already come into contact with Japanese as a child through his father's relationships that reached as far as Asia, from whom he learned a little Jiu Jitsu. At the Schumann Circus in Berlin, Rahn saw the Jiu-Jitsu master Katsukuma Higashi, who brought an apparently superior man to the ground using Jiu-Jitsu techniques. Rahn became Higashi's pupil and opened the first German Jiu-Jitsu school in the back room of a pub in Berlin-Mitte that same year (1906) at the age of 21. The stand for him self-defense in the foreground, behind the Budō standing philosophy hardly mattered. With the “westernization”, more and more wrestling grips, boxing hits and the use of force found their way into Jiu Jitsu.

Katsukuma Higashi, who lived in Berlin from 1906 to 1912 and presumably ran a Jiu-Jitsu school there, is referred to by Rahn as his main teacher. As a child, Higashi had had Jiu-Jitsu lessons under the teacher Masamichi Takahashi in school sports at the Doshisha Chugakkō Middle School in Kyoto . In addition, according to Higashi himself, there is an officially unconfirmed connection to "Tsutsumi-Hozan-Ryu Jiu Jitsu" according to Tsutsumi Masao, which Higashi indicates as co-author of his book "Self-Defense (Jiu Jitsu)". Higashi also claims to have learned "Shiten-Ryu Jiu Jitsu" under Kumon Hoshino. This is evident from Higashi's books. Hoshino is also said to have helped Jigoro Kano to integrate the techniques of Shiten Ryu into today's Kodokan Judo .

The police became aware of Rahn through demonstrations and fights and on June 30, 1910, Rahn performed Jiu Jitsu in the Royal Police Headquarters. Thereupon he was given the task of carrying out the newly arranged Jiu Jitsu training of the Berlin criminal police and later also of the protective police. In 1913 he was given a teaching position for Jiu Jitsu at the military gymnasium in Berlin.

At the time of the First World War (1914–1918), the development of Jiu Jitsu in Germany ceased and was only resumed in 1919. In 1920 he founded the “First Berlin Jiu-Jitsu Club” in Berlin-Schöneberg and in 1922 the “Central Association of German Jiu-Jitsu Fighters”. During the 1920s , Rahn gave repeated performances in variety shows and circuses all over Germany, where he fought against famous wrestlers and boxers and accepted challenges from everyone. From these public fights Rahn withdrew undefeated in 1925 at the age of 40.

In Germany, Jiu Jitsu soon became a competitive sport. In 1922, for example, the first German Jiu Jitsu championship took place in the Berlin Sportpalast in Berlin-Schöneberg, in which Rahn won against Hans Reuter (Munich).

Jiu Jitsu lessons for candidates for the Prussian Police at the Police School in Brandenburg (August 1924)

During this time the first Jiu-Jitsu clubs were opened. Alfred Rhode , a student of Rahn and later the "father of German judo", was transferred to the police in Frankfurt am Main as a police sports instructor in Berlin in August 1921 , with the task of introducing and disseminating Jiu Jitsu there. On October 10, 1922, Rhode founded the “First German Jiu-Jitsu Club” in the Hauptwache in Frankfurt am Main. V. ”, which is later in“ 1. German Judo Club e. V. ”was renamed. Also in 1922 Otto Schmelzeisen , who first came into contact with Jiu Jitsu in 1920 through his job as a police officer as part of a civil servant training course, founded a Jiu-Jitsu club in Wiesbaden , which was renamed “ Judo-Club Wiesbaden 1922 e. V. ”was renamed. Further associations were founded in 1922 by Max Hoppe in Berlin and August "Ago" Glucker in Stuttgart, among others .

In 1923 Erich Rahn established the “Reich Association for Jiu Jitsu” - today's “German Jiu-Jitsu-Ring Erich Rahn e. V. “- was founded, the first chairman of which was Walter Strehlow . In 1926, the first German individual Jiu Jitsu championship took place in Cologne. In 1929, in Frankfurt's Palmengarten between Budokwai London and the First German Jiu-Jitsu Club e. V. Frankfurt am Main the first international judo competitions take place. In the rule agreements between Master Gunji Koizumi and Marcus Kaye for London and Alfred Rhode, Edgar Schäfer and Philip Breitstadt for Frankfurt, it became clear that Jiu Jitsu is not well suited for a direct comparison competition, as it is mainly geared towards self-defense.

Exercise with Jiu Jitsu ( waki-gatame ) grip to protect against attacks 1931

Although in 1930 there were already 110 Jiu-Jitsu clubs registered in Germany, the trend now moved from Jiu Jitsu to Judo developed by Kano. In 1933 Alfred Rhode founded the European Judo Union (EJU), whereby Jiu Jitsu and Judo were organizationally separated from each other for the first time. The self-defense from J. Kano's system kept the name Jiu Jitsu, while the competitive part got the name Judo. In the same year Kano came to Germany and, with his students Dr. Takasaki, Kotani and Dr. Kitabatake from July 11th to 22nd in the Berlin University and from September 11th to 18th in Munich two courses. After a conversation between Kano and the then Reich Sports Leader, the term “Judo” was officially introduced throughout Germany.

Ideologically, Jiu Jitsu stood between two camps in the Third Reich. On the one hand, this martial art had already established itself to a large extent, was described positively by Hitler in Mein Kampf and was therefore also used as an instrument for military sport . On the other hand, Jiu Jitsu was considered alien because it came from Japan. In some Jiu Jitsu publications from the Nazi era, teachers justified their art by stating that there were similar martial arts in Germany during the Middle Ages; and Erich Rahn himself claimed to have created a system that was adapted to the German way .

From 1939 to 1945 there was no further development of the martial arts due to the war. After the end of the Second World War , Directive No. 23 regarding the restriction and demilitarization of sports in Germany, the Control Council Act, banned Jiu Jitsu and Judo from the Allies in Germany as well as in Japan. Only after long negotiations in 1949 was Directive No. 23 gradually repealed in all occupation zones and first the training of judo and later also of jiu jitsu released again. At the age of 65, Erich Rahn reopened his school in Berlin-Schöneberg in 1950, which had been bombed in 1944.

The German Dan College (DDK) was founded in Stuttgart on September 20, 1952 , and its first president was Alfred Rhode at the age of 56. On August 8, 1953, the German Judo Association (DJB) was founded in Hamburg and three years later recognized as a member of the German Sports Association (DSB) . In 1957 it was decided at the Association Day that testing and teaching should remain with the DDK, while the DJB should take over the other tasks.

On May 1, 1972, the 87th birthday of Erich Rahn, he appointed Ditmar Gdanietz , who had joined his school in 1957, as his successor. Gdanietz was head coach of the German Jiu-Jitsu-Ring Erich Rahn  e. V. (DJJR), an association that emerged from a loose grouping of students and distance learning students from Rahn. Erich Rahn died on July 5, 1973.

In January 1975 - under the leadership of Hans-Gert Niederstein (honorary title Hanshi , 10th Dan Jiu Jitsu and 2nd Dan Judo) - the members of the Korporation Internationaler Danträger e. V. (KID) the German Jiu Jitsu Bund e. V. (DJJB) was founded as an umbrella organization for all regional associations and their clubs and schools in Germany. The DJJB has set itself the goal of spreading and cultivating Jiu Jitsu and has five national associations as member associations. Hans-Gert Niederstein became the first president of the DJJB. After the death of Grand Master Niederstein in 1985, Dieter Lösgen (honorary title Hanshi , 10th Dan Jiu Jitsu and 1st Dan Judo) was his successor and is still President of the DJJB and the KID.

Jiu-Jitsu self-defense was anchored in the DJB's examination program until the 1970s. At the end of the 1980s the DJB founded the federal group for "Jiu Jitsu in the DJB" because of the popularity and value of Jiu Jitsu. This was dissolved again in 1993 because the DJB had decided not to pursue any other Budo disciplines apart from judo. Nevertheless, the DJB did not give the federal group approval for a fully-fledged and independent section of Jiu Jitsu recognized at the federal and state level. Therefore - in order to nevertheless guarantee professional autonomy and to keep teaching and technology of Jiu Jitsu away from foreign influences - the German Jiu-Jitsu Union e. V. (DJJU) founded. The DJJU is an association of national organizations within the meaning of the German Sports Confederation (DSB). Their goal is the unity of all Jiu Jitsuka and the equality of Jiu Jitsu in a unified Budo landscape. With eleven regional associations, the DJJU is a leading professional association for Jiu Jitsu in Germany.

With the departure of the federal group for "Jiu Jitsu in the DJB" in 1993, the establishment of new Jiu-Jitsu associations was initiated. One of these associations, the Kodokan Jiu Jitsu Association e. V. (KJJV), was founded in 1993 in Marl. The president is Klaus Möwius - a former student of H.-G. Niederstein (founder of the German Jiu Jitsu Association ) and former teacher of Jochen Kohnert (10th Dan Jiu Jitsu, 5th Dan Judo) and other well-known masters.

Jiu Jitsu as the basis of other martial arts

From the classic Japanese samurai martial arts, other martial arts developed over time. Many modern systems are based on the elements of the Jiu-Jitsu styles:

  • Jūdō is a throw-heavy style of Jiu Jitsu that originated in the mid-19th century. Kanō Jigorō developed Jūdō as an attractive martial art for modern Japanese society and as a close combat system for the Tokyo police . It is an extract from the Jiu-Jitsu elements of the Kitō Ryū, which is mainly composed of throwing, choking, levering and holding techniques. In Europe, competitive judo predominates, but in traditional Kano judo there are still punching, kicking and kicking techniques, and emphasis is placed on training in kuatsu ( art of resuscitation ).
  • When Aikidō sweeping, circular movements and joint locks are in the foreground. Ueshiba Morihei developed it mainly from the Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu , which Sōkaku Takeda taught him. Aikidō emphasizes picking up and reversing the attack very much.
  • Some karate styles were strongly influenced by Jiu-Jitsu principles (e.g. Wadō-Ryū through Shindo Yoshin Ryū) or by Kung Fu and are technically characterized by punching, kicking, kicking and blocking techniques as well as foot sweeps. They also include throws, levers, ground fighting techniques, and attacks on nerve pressure points .
  • German Ju-Jutsu is a young system made up of traditional judo and many other influences that was developed in Germany. To distinguish it from Jiu Jitsu, a different transcription is used for the same Kanji.
  • Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu is a martial arts based on Jūdō from Brazil, with a focus on ground fighting.
  • Krav Maga combines modern Jiu Jitsu with boxing .
  • German Ju Jutsu Do is a modern martial art system in the Jiu-Jitsu tradition with influences from many other systems. Above all is the effectiveness of the principles and techniques practiced. Ju Jutsu Do is designed for effective self-defense and is not competitive.



Jiu Jitsu is practiced barefoot and in a special suit (Japanese Keikogi ). In Germany, mat shoes are sometimes worn. This is especially the case in schools and associations of the Budo Academy Europe. It is unusual for men to wear a t-shirt under the keikogi; Women, on the other hand, are allowed to wear an undershirt / T-shirt / sports bra under the Gi due to anatomical considerations. Both sexes wear underwear under the Gi and, if necessary, a jockstrap (groin protector).

Jiu Jitsu training includes aspects that require special clothing. The clothing (usually made of cotton) must be robust enough that it does not tear when you pull on it, but also flexible enough that the Jiuka can move around easily in it. For Jiu Jitsu training, more robust judo suits, rather thinner karate suits and, more recently, special Jiu Jitsu Gis, e.g. B. be worn with leg reinforcements for ground combat. The uniform training clothing for Jiu Jitsu consists of the following elements:

  • Keikogi - A suit (Japanese Keikogi) in traditional white color - the color and shape can vary from bandage to bandage:
    • Zubon - a pair of pants laced at the hip (Japanese Zubon) with a lace or elastic waistband and
    • Uwagi - a robust jacket (Japanese Uwagi) often with light lacing inside, but without buttons or zippers and
  • Obi - a colored belt (for the meaning of the belt color, see → Graduations in Jiu Jitsu ), tied in a certain way (Japanese Obi ) holds the jacket together.

The introduction of uniform clothing and a graduation system in the martial arts should be understood in the socio-historical context of Japan: The importance of traditional martial arts went through the modernization and westernization of Japan in the Meiji Restoration - in which the samurai class was dissolved and handguns were introduced - largely back. Only with the growing Japanese nationalism did the classical martial arts regain importance. They were no longer seen as obsolete, but as an important part of cultural and national identity. Kōdōkan founder Kanō Jigorō adapted his martial art to the nationalist-militarist era and introduced uniform training clothing and the belt system. The uniform clothing can be seen as a uniform, the graduation system according to belt colors as a hierarchy of military ranks and the list in "rank and file" as a military formation.

Graduation in modern Jiu Jitsu

The belt colors of the student grades in Jiu Jitsu

In the dojo in Jiu Jitsu there is a hierarchical structure: the teachers (Japanese 先生 Sensei ) and the students. The graduation or ability in Jiu Jitsu is clear from the color of the belt (Japanese Obi ) - which is typical today for many, especially Japanese, martial arts. Kanō Jigorō, founder of the Kodokan Judo, first used this system in the 19th century. Before there was no belt color grading system in the martial arts from Japan and Okinawa.

In general, a distinction is made between student ( Kyū ) and master ( Dan ) degrees, with each degree being assigned a specific belt color. Everyone starts with a white belt ( 6th Kyū or 9th Kyū ) and undergoes a belt test in order to get to the next higher belt grade . Taking exams often serves as an incentive and confirmation of what has been achieved, as in many other areas of everyday life.

Depending on the desired Kyū or Dan level, the examination program and the waiting time are determined by the respective association. In the exam itself, attention is paid to many sub-aspects. In addition to the dynamic and correct execution of the technique, emphasis is also placed on the posture, attention, fighting spirit, concentration and will of the examinee. For a pass, other values ​​such as attitude, regular attendance at training, punctuality, etc. are taken into account, so that ultimately the overall impression is decisive.

Student grades - Kyū grades (Mudansha)

In the German Jiu-Jitsu Union (DJJU), in the German Jiu-Jitsu-Ring Erich Rahn (DJJR) and in the German Dan-Kollegium (DDK) there is a six-level subdivision of the student grades, according to which the umbrella associations less established in Germany, such as the World Ju Jitsu Federation (WJJF) in Germany judge:

Kyu 6. Kyu 5. Kyu 4. Kyu 3. Kyu 2. Kyu 1. Kyu
Belt image White belt Yellow belt Orange belt Green belt Blue belt Brown belt
Belt color White yellow orange green blue brown

In the German Jiu Jitsu Association (DJJB), on the other hand, there are nine student grades due to the fanning out of the brown belt. This further subdivision of the student grades in the DJJB serves a better preparation of the Mudansha ( 無 段 者 , literally: "Person without Dan", therefore Kyū degree holder ) for the black belt :

Kyu 9. Kyu 8. Kyu 7. Kyu 6. Kyu 5. Kyu 4. Kyu 3. Kyu 2. Kyu 1. Kyu
Belt image White belt Yellow belt Orange belt Green belt Blue belt Brown belt Brown belt with a red stripe Brown belt with two red stripes Brown belt with three red stripes
Belt color White yellow orange green blue brown brown  | a brown  || b brown  ||| c
a with 1st red stripes
b with 2nd red stripes
c with 3rd red stripes

Master Degrees - Dan Degrees (Yūdansha)

The belt colors of the master degrees in Jiu Jitsu

The division into ten master degrees is common in Japanese martial arts or martial arts. There are defined criteria and examination programs for the master’s degree exams - also different from association to association. The technical part of the Dan bearers ( 有 段 者 , Yūdansha , literally “Person with Dan”) becomes freer, so that the examinees have to work out their repertoire of defense techniques themselves, and the theoretical-philosophical part of the examination increases considerably. In most associations, the fifth dan exam is the last technical examination that can be taken, and further grades are awarded for exceptional achievements in or for the association.

Black belts are worn according to the first to fifth dan, whereby stripes - the number of which corresponds to the respective dan grade - can be sewn onto the belt. The sixth through eighth dan are visible through a red and white belt and the ninth and tenth dan through a red belt.

Dan degree 1st Dan 2nd Dan 3rd Dan 4th Dan 5th Dan 6th Dan 7th Dan 8th Dan 9th Dan 10th Dan
Belt image Black belt Black belt Black belt Black belt Red and black belt (alternatively) a Black belt Red and black belt (alternatively) a Red and white belt Red and white belt Red and white belt Red belt Red belt
Belt color black black black black red- black red- red- red- red- red red
black black White White White
a Since 2019, the Austrian Jiu Jitsu Association Austria (JJVÖ) has allowed wearing a red-black belt as an alternative to the black belt for the 4th or 5th Dan.


Modern Jiu Jitsu is a very versatile form of self-defense, in which it often depends on the teacher what focus is set in training and defense techniques. Therefore, not one, but several Jiu-Jitsu associations have established themselves in Germany, which also results from the complex historical development. Some important national and international associations are listed below.



  • Jiu Jitsu Association Austria (JJVÖ)
  • Austrian Jiu-Jitsu Association (ÖJJB) (dissolved since January 19, 2008)
  • World Kobudo Federation Austria (WKF-A) (outsourced as an autonomous section from JJVÖ from October 31, 2009; marginal "association activity" available)





Surname graduation annotation
Erich Rahn 10th Dan Pioneer of Jiu Jitsu and Judo in Germany; Founder of the DJJR; Founder of the first Jiu Jitsu school in Germany - the Rahn sports school
Ditmar Gdanietz 10th Dan Honorary President of the DJJR; former head coach and first chairman of the DJJR; Head of the Rahn Sports School from 1972 to 2007; Student of Erich Rahn
Lothar Sieber 10th Dan Chairman of the Board of Grand Masters of the DJJR; Member and honorary president of the "German Dan Bearer and Budo Teachers Association eV"; Honorary President of "Idokan Polska"; Shihan; Naturopath
Dieter Lösgen 10th Dan President of the DJJB; National coach in the DJJB; Founding member and president of the corporation Internationaler Danträger e. V .; Representative for Germany in the Jiu Jitsu World Association United Nations of Ju-Jitsu ; Sports physiotherapist and alternative practitioner
Horst Weiland 10th Dan Founder of the Budo Academy Europe; Founder of the martial arts anti-terrorist fight , Ajukate , All-Style-Do-Karate and Fight of Knife
Siegfried Lory 10th Dan President of the International Association for Asian Martial Arts (IFAK); National trainer at IFAK; President of the Bavarian Association for Asian Martial Arts (BFAK); National coach at BFAK; Judicial officer a. D.
Jochen Kohnert 10th Dan Co-founder of the DJJU; Former examination supervisor of the JJU-NW (state association NRW of the DJJU); eight-time German master and European champion in Jiu-Jitsu
Hannelore Sieber 9th Dan former president of the DJJR; Wife of Lothar Sieber
Günther Stein 9th Dan Representative of the European Dan College (EDC)


Surname graduation annotation
Josef Ebetshuber 10th Dan Hanshi; former President and Chief Instructor of the WJJC; 10th Dan Judo-Do; 7th Dan Judo; 4th Dan Kung Fu
Franz Strauss 10th Dan Shihan; former executive president of the ÖVWS; former President of WJJKO Austria; former Branch Director IMAF Austria; former executive president of the ÖJJB; Student of Josef Ebetshuber; 10th Dan Judo-Do; 3rd Dan Judo

See also


  • Hans-Erik Petermann: Jiu-Jitsu: Traditions - Basics - Techniques . Ed .: Pietsch Verlag. Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 978-3-613-50476-9 .

Web links

Wiktionary: Jiu Jitsu  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Jiu Jitsu  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b Kanō Jigorō , T. Lindsay: Jujutsu and the origins of Judo . In: Transactions of The Asiatic Society of Japan . tape XV , 1887 ( judoinfo.com ).
  2. ^ A b Hans-Erik Petermann: Jiu-Jitsu. Traditions - Basics - Techniques . Pietsch Verlag, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-613-50476-6 , p. 11-12 .
  3. ^ Rudolf Hartmann: Japanese students at the Berlin University 1870-1914. (= Small row. 1). Berlin 1997, p. 28.
  4. Jiu Jiutsu master Katsukuma Higashi. In: East Asia magazine. Volume 8, 1905/06, p. 493.
  5. Erich Rahn: 50 Years of Jiu Jitsu and Judo. Ferch near Potsdam, 1950, p. 30.
  6. ^ East Asia Journal. Volume 8, 1905/06, p. 493, Archives of Doshisha University Kyoto (Office for International Affairs Doshisha University of Kyoto, Dec. 2017, www.doshisha.ac.jp)
  7. Masao Tsutsumi, Katsukuma Higashi: Self-Defense (Jiu Jitsu) with an appendix on Kuatsu (the science of resuscitation of casualties). Tetzlaff, Berlin 1906.
  8. H. Irving Hancock, Katsukuma Higashi: The Complete Kano Jiu-Jitsu. Dover Publications, 2006, p. 9, ff
  9. Masao Tsutsumi, Katsukuma Higashi: Self-Defense (Jiu Jitsu) with an appendix on Kuatsu (the science of resuscitation of casualties). Tetzlaff, Berlin 1906.
  10. ^ Brian N. Watson: Judo Memoirs of Jigoro Kano. Trafford, 2008, p. 80.
  11. Club history of the 1st German Judo Club (1st DJC). As of 2015.
  12. Marcus Coesfeld : Martial arts in the Third Reich - tool of worldview. In: Sigrid Happ, Olaf Zajonc (Ed.): Martial arts and martial arts in research and teaching 2012. Hamburg 2013, pp. 51–60.
  13. a b Source: www.djjb.de, as of 2007.
  14. ↑ Off to the 20s! | BAE | Budo Academy Europe. Retrieved on March 27, 2018 (German).
  15. Jiu Jitsu in the style of the roaring twenties. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on March 28, 2018 ; accessed on March 27, 2018 (German). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.judoka-wattenscheid.de
  16. Regulations for the 2019 Examination System. Jiu Jitsu Association Austria, May 1, 2019, p. 8 , accessed on March 11, 2020 .
  17. ^ Jiu-Jitsu | BAE | Budo Academy Europe. Retrieved on March 27, 2018 (German).
  18. website of DJJU
  19. KBVD website
  20. ^ Website of the World Ju-Jitsu Federation Gruppe Deutschland e. V. (WJJF-D)
  21. European Nippon Jiu Jitsu Association (ENJJV)
  22. iba-jiujitsu.de
  23. JeliNet Web Design: International Jujitsu Federation - Home. In: www.cyberbudo.com. Retrieved April 1, 2016 .
  24. a b Hannelore Sieber DJJR: DJJR Deutscher Jiu Jitsu Ring Erich Rahn e. V. - Association for Asian Martial Arts. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on June 30, 2017 ; accessed on November 22, 2017 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.djjr.de
  25. Hannelore Sieber DJJR: DJJR Deutscher Jiu Jitsu Ring Erich Rahn e. V. - Association for Asian Martial Arts. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on June 30, 2017 ; accessed on November 22, 2017 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.djjr.de
  26. Super User: The first German martial arts school - founded in 1906. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on September 12, 2017 ; Retrieved November 22, 2017 (American English). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / sportschule-rahn.de
  27. Hannelore Sieber DJJR: DJJR Deutscher Jiu Jitsu Ring Erich Rahn e. V. - Association for Asian Martial Arts. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on June 30, 2017 ; accessed on November 22, 2017 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.djjr.de
  28. a b c Dieter Drexler: Jiu-Jitsu & Karate School Lothar Sieber - school management. Retrieved November 22, 2017 .
  29. a b Hannelore Sieber DJJR: DJJR Deutscher Jiu Jitsu Ring Erich Rahn e. V. - Association for Asian Martial Arts. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on June 30, 2017 ; accessed on November 22, 2017 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.djjr.de
  30. a b Dieter Lösgen. Retrieved November 22, 2017 .
  31. a b c Horst Weiland: ATK Wuppertal. Retrieved November 22, 2017 .
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  34. The headmaster. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on December 1, 2017 ; accessed on November 22, 2017 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.yoshin-ryu.de
  35. ^ Dan exams at BAE in Bochum-Gerthe. Retrieved November 22, 2017 (German).
  36. Erwin Schön: Franz Strauss 10th Dan Ju-jitsu died - Yawara-michi Austria . In: Yawara-michi Austria . October 9, 2014 ( yawara-michi.at [accessed November 24, 2017]).
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