As a case school , event technology and - in Japanese martial disciplines - Ukemi ( jap. 受け身 ) different types of falling refer to operations where the Falling little as possible to take no damage.
The aim of practicing the fall school is to ensure a safe and controlled transition from the stand to the floor (and, if necessary, directly back to the stand). The practiced fall technique should be carried out reflexively in the event of a fall (when stumbling, a push attack, etc.) in order to minimize a time delay - through active reflection - and thereby remain uninjured and fit for a fight. Fall school is an important part of many martial arts and martial arts such as B. the Budo disciplines Judo , Jiu Jitsu , and Aikido or wrestling, for example .
The most important components of the fall school to protect sensitive parts of the body such as the head and spine are
- redirecting the energy of the fall through the hunched and tense body, and
- striking with the open hand and forearm, to redirect the impact energy and to reduce the speed of fall.
In principle, the following applies to all case types:
- The head should always be pressed against the chest with the chin to take the strain off the cervical spine and protect the head from the impact.
- It should never be unrolled on the back completely perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the body, but always at an angle to it. This relieves the load on the spine, as it does not completely touch the floor, but is only crossed once when rolling.
- The knocking off must take place at the time when the falling body would be exposed to the maximum energy impact. When you hit the ground, the speed of fall decreases and the area of impact increases. As a result, the energy is better distributed and the individual areas of the total area that hits it are relieved. Another interpretation is that knocking off the body tenses and this causes a better absorption of the fall.
- It should be noted that there are different designs for teeing off. In Aikido, for example, people only knock off in "emergencies", which means that the Aikido Fall School z. B. differs enormously from the judo fall school - where a loud, hard hitting is desired.
- A common beginner mistake is supporting arms while falling. A reflex reaction that must be avoided at all costs, as it can lead to quite severe ligament and bone injuries in the arm and shoulder.
- A deep exhalation is of great importance when impacting, because firstly, an emptied lung reacts less sensitive to injury and impacts to a hard impact and, secondly, exhaling involves rounding the back, lowering the head onto the chest and the necessary muscle tension when hitting the ground supported.
Falling forwards - in Japanese fighting disciplines Mae-Ukemi ( Japanese 前 受 身 ) - takes place at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the body and therefore not over the head, in contrast to the role in classical gymnastics. Here an arm leads the fall and the fall axis is directed from the arm over the shoulder across the back. Variants exist here that differ from a. express in behavior after the actual fall and rolling forward:
- Falling with lying down in the supine position: Here the arm knocks off against the guide arm in order to stop the fall - often observed in judo.
- Falling with standing up: The diverted falling energy is kept in the flow and used to stand up straight away - especially observed in Aikido, but is also sometimes used in Judo.
- Fall and return to fighting readiness: After getting up, the body is rotated with a round step ( Tai Sabaki ) and now stands in the opposite direction of the original fall in order to ward off a possible follow-up attack - for example, to observe Jiu Jitsu.
Another variant is the so-called "free fall". This assumes a situation in which the falling person cannot help himself with the poor, e.g. B. because these are held by the thrower. The rotation must be carried out in the air; landing is the same as for normal forward roll; however, it is usually taught without getting up afterwards. In all martial arts, landing is strongly hit in order to minimize the risk of injury.
When falling backwards - called Ushiro-Ukemi ( Japanese: 後 ろ 受 身 ) in Japanese fighting disciplines - it is particularly important to protect the head from the impact ("put your chin on your chest"). This is particularly at risk due to the straight fall backwards and the whiplash effect of the body. Before the impact, both arms are taken back and catch the fall with the knock off - before the upper body hits. It follows that
- Falling with lying down in the supine position: Here both arms cut off firmly and the falling person remains lying - for example in judo .
- Falling into combat readiness with subsequent rolling backwards and getting up: Alternatively, when falling backwards after knocking off (see above), the head can be angled to the side, the legs raised towards the head and used with the arms away from the ground to stand up directly - as with Watching Jiu Jitsu .
- Falling into combat readiness with a soft roll and standing up: One leg is set back and bent so that the roll can be carried out across the back. The head is placed slightly to one side and protected with the arm over which the roll ends - such as. B. common in Aikido .
Falling sideways - called yoko-ukemi ( Japanese 横 受 身 ) in Japanese fighting disciplines - is used to intercept techniques that break one's balance on one side , e.g. pulling a leg away. When falling, the leg on the side of the fall is pushed away and the arm in the direction of the fall kicks off as early as possible. Attention should be paid to the risk to the head and also a possible break in the elbow joint if the tee-off arm is not stretched (frequent beginner's mistake). Below is that
- Falling with lying on the side: Here one arm cuts off firmly and the falling person remains lying - for example in judo.
- Falling with sideways roll and getting up into combat readiness: After the knockdown, the head is angled to the side, the legs are lifted towards the head and the fall energy is used with the pressure of the knock-off arm from the ground to get up directly - e.g. B. to watch Jiu Jitsu.
- Horst Wolf : Judo martial arts: technique and methodology for beginners. (Illustration: Otto Hartmann ), Ullstein Verlag, Frankfurt am Main / Berlin (1994), ISBN 3-548-27616-4 .
- Rolf Brand: Aikido. The harmonious way. Berlin.