United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka
|German name||United Nations observer mission in Prevlaka|
|English name||United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka|
|French name||Mission d'observation des Nations Unies à Prevlaka|
|Type of mission||Peace mission|
|Beginning||January 15, 1996|
|The End||December 15, 2002|
The United Nations Observer Mission in Prevlaka ( English United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka , shortly UNMOP ) was a peacekeeping mission of the United Nations of 15 January 1996 until 15 December 2002, was aimed at the disarmament of the peninsula Prevlaka on the Adriatic coast of the Western Balkans after the breakup of Yugoslavia .
The Prevlaka with its strategic location on the Bay of Kotor , one of the best ports on the Adriatic, has been a border area for centuries, in the triangle between Bosnia , Croatia and Montenegro , historically Zeta , the city-states Ragusa and Cattaro , and the great powers Venice , Hungary and Austria , and the Ottoman Empire .
Before the breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991, it was a military base of the Yugoslav People's Army . For this reason, the peninsula was highly controversial between the newly formed state of Croatia and “Rest of Yugoslavia” (Serbia and Montenegro) , the legal successor to socialist Yugoslavia. The Croatian and Yugoslav presidents, Franjo Tudjman and Dobrica Ćosić , came to an agreement in Geneva on September 30, 1992 to demilitarize the area. With the UN resolution 779, the monitoring of UNPROFOR was transferred, but the peace mission failed, in the course of the Bosnian War 1992–95 the area was fought over up to the Bjelotina . In March 1995 the operational tasks of the Operation of Confidence in Croatia ( UNCRO ) were transferred.
For this reason, a separate UN mission was created in 1996 , the United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka (UNMOP). With it, military observers and civilian police monitors were stationed on the peninsula. On February 1, 1996, after the mandate had been extended for the first time (Resolution 1038), UNMOP was spun off independently from UNPROFOR, but was de facto part of the UN Mission in Bosnia-Herzegovina ( UNMIBH ). Only after the agreement on the normalization of relations of August 23, 1996 did Croatia and Serbia, which were more involved in their main border area of Slavonia , and Montenegro, which had become independent in June 2006, also tackled the Prevlak issue, but only with the UN interim administration established in 1998 UNTAES for the main conflict areas began direct negotiations. These were interrupted again by the NATO missions against Serbia in connection with the Kosovo war in March 1999. The package of confidence-building measures for the actors that was drawn up by then UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan in October 1999 with Resolution 1252 (1999) was also unsuccessful.
It wasn't until 2000, with the new governments in Croatia and Serbia and the new presidents Ivo Josipović and Boris Tadić , that the process started again. A joint diplomatic commission was set up in December 2001, and after several rounds of negotiations, an early solution was promised in April 2002. On December 10, 2002, a Croatian-Serbian interim administration for the peninsula was set up. A few days later the mission was declared over.
It took Argentina , Bangladesh , Belgium , Brazil , Czech Republic , Denmark , Egypt , Finland , Ghana , Indonesia , Ireland , Jordan , Kenya , Nepal , New Zealand , Nigeria , Norway , Pakistan , Poland , the Russian Federation , the Switzerland and Ukraine on part of this mission.
Commanders (Chief Military Observer) were:
- Col. Göran Gunnarsson (Sweden)
- January 1996 - November 1996
- Col. Harold Mwakio Tangai (Kenya)
- November 1996 - July 1998
- Col. Graeme Williams (New Zealand)
- July 1998 - September 2001
- Colonel Rodolfo Sergio Mujica (Argentina)
- September 2001 - December 2002
- UNMOP - United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka. un.org → Peacekeeping → Missions → past (materials)
- Sniježnica Konavoska ili dubrovačka Sniježnica. ( Memento of the original from March 13, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Section Bjelotina 1.125m. dinarskogorje.com, accessed March 11, 2016.
- Background , on un.org.
- Facts & Figures , on un.org.