The peace mission or peacekeeping mission ( English peacekeeping mission ) is a form of military operation , primarily through the United Nations (UN). It is to be distinguished from political missions and good offices of the United Nations. Like all armed operations of the United Nations, it requires a corresponding resolution by the UN Security Council that defines the type, scope and duration of the operation. You can acc. Chapter VI or Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations .
A United Nations peace mission only takes place with the consent of the government of the host country in which its units operate. In principle, your troops have no combat mission, but are armed and, under certain circumstances , are entitled to a certain extent to make use of them. Depending on their mandate, they are entitled to defend themselves, their positions and civilians as well as to guarantee their freedom of movement. The instruments of a peace mission include the establishment of investigative commissions, mediation between conflicting parties, appeals to the international court of justice in The Hague insofar as both parties to the dispute have submitted to it, the formation of UN-controlled buffer zones, the deployment of election observers such as B. at UNAMET in East Timor.
The three basic principles of UN peace missions are: deployment only with the consent of the host country, impartiality and the limited use of force.
United Nations peace missions have mostly served to provide humanitarian aid, monitoring of a ceasefire (e.g. UNFICYP in Cyprus), disarming parties to a civil war (e.g. ONUMOZ in Mozambique) or securing a decolonization process (e.g. UNSF New Guinea) . In this sense, a peace mission serves as peacekeeping for the world organization. Additional tasks may include supporting the state bureaucracy or assisting with the democratization process .
Overall, there are differences with regard to the operational modalities of the various missions, but the facility-based options for using armed force create situations in which there is scope for the application of international martial law . Since the United Nations is an international organization, but only states can accede to the treaties on the international law of war, the legal status of the peace missions in particular is still open and unresolved in many specific legal questions.
There are different statements about the success of peace missions. In the past, missions have resulted in both obvious success, such as B. in El Salvador and Croatia . However, there were also peace missions that were severely criticized, such as B. Somalia. Nevertheless, there is agreement that the use of peace missions to date has saved a large number of human lives and that the cost of missions is below that of war.
- Abdou Abbas Lat Dior Diop: UN peace missions and African initiatives for conflict resolution in Africa , State and University Library, Bremen 2016, Klaus Schlichte and Elke Grawert (academic supervisors), full text online PDF , free of charge, 267 pages 2 MB) (Dissertation University of Bremen 2016, 267 pages Reviewers:
- UN: UN Peace Operations. UN, accessed May 15, 2017 .