Shanghai Cooperation Organization

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Shanghai Cooperation Organization
SCO

Logo of the SCO
 

States of the SCO
  • Members
  • observer
  • Dialogue partner
  • candidate
  • Claimed areas
  • German name Shanghai Cooperation Organization
    Seat of the organs Beijing , People's Republic of ChinaChina People's RepublicPeople's Republic of China 
    Secretary General TajikistanTajikistan Rashid Alimov
    Member States 8th
    Official and working languages

    russian and chinese

    founding

    June 7, 2002
    (1996 forerunner Shanghai Five)

    eng.sectsco.org

    The Shanghai Cooperation Organization ( SCO ), English Shanghai Cooperation Organization, SCO is an international organization based in Beijing ( China ). It was founded in 2001 and emerged from the Shanghai Five , which was founded in 1996 . The People's Republic of China , India , Kazakhstan , Kyrgyzstan , Pakistan , Russia , Tajikistan and Uzbekistan belong to it. The SCO deals with security cooperation between the member states as well as economic and trade issues and stability in the region. The SCO currently represents around 40% of the world's population , making it the world's largest regional organization. Since December 2004, the SCO has had observer status at the United Nations .

    aims

    The basic objectives of the SCO are:

    • strengthening confidence among Member States
    • participation and cooperation in political, scientific and technical, cultural, tourist and ecological areas, in the field of trade, energy and transport
    • the common guarantee and support of peace and security in and between the regions of the member countries
    • Resolving and resolving conflicts

    In addition, observers see the containment of the influence of NATO and the prevention of Colored Revolutions as goals of the organization.

    States involved

    Member States
    1. China People's RepublicPeople's Republic of China People's Republic of China
    2. KazakhstanKazakhstan Kazakhstan
    3. KyrgyzstanKyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan
    4. RussiaRussia Russia
    5. TajikistanTajikistan Tajikistan
    6. UzbekistanUzbekistan Uzbekistan , was not a member of the Shanghai Five
    7. IndiaIndia India , since the SCO summit 2017 in Astana (since 2019 Nur-Sultan) (Kazakhstan)
    8. PakistanPakistan Pakistan , since the SCO summit 2017 in Astana (since 2019 Nur-Sultan) (Kazakhstan)
    States with observer status
    1. MongoliaMongolia Mongolia , since the 2004 SCO summit in Tashkent (Uzbekistan)
    2. IranIran Iran , since the SCO summit 2005 in Astana (Kazakhstan)
    3. AfghanistanAfghanistan Afghanistan , since the SCO Summit 2012 in Beijing (People's Republic of China)
    4. BelarusBelarus Belarus , since the 2015 SCO summit in Ufa (Russia)
    Dialogue partner of the SCO
    1. ArmeniaArmenia Armenia
    2. AzerbaijanAzerbaijan Azerbaijan
    3. CambodiaCambodia Cambodia
    4. NepalNepal Nepal (2016)
    5. Sri LankaSri Lanka Sri Lanka
    6. TurkeyTurkey Turkey (2012)
    Guest participant
    1. TurkmenistanTurkmenistan Turkmenistan
    2. ASEANASEAN ASEAN
    3. Commonwealth of Independent States CIS
    4. Flag of the Collective Security Treaty Organization.svg Organization of the Collective Security Treaty
    5. Flag of the Eurasian Economic Union.svg Eurasian Economic Union
    States that have expressed an interest in the SCO
    1. Flag of Egypt.svg Egypt
    2. Flag of Bangladesh.svg Bangladesh
    3. SyriaSyria Syria (2013)
    4. UkraineUkraine Ukraine (2012)

    prehistory

    The forerunner of the SCO was the Shanghai Five group; it was in 1996 in Shanghai of Соглашение об укреплении доверия в военной области в районе границы //关于在边境地区加强军事领域信任的协定(dt about.: Treaty on the deepening military trust in border regions) was signed by the People's Republic Established in China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. In 1997, the same states signed the Соглашение о взаимном сокращении вооружённых сил в районе границы / 关于 在 边境 地区 相互 裁减 军事力量 的 协定 on the occasion of a convention on the reduction of the armed forces in the Moscow regions : The SCO initially served primarily to resolve border disputes that arose in Central Asia after the collapse of the Soviet Union . Annual summits of the Shanghai Five took place in Almaty (Kazakhstan) in 1998 , in Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan) in 1999 and in Dushanbe (Tajikistan) in 2000 .

    Foundation and development

    Shanghai Cooperation Organization Summit of the Heads of State or Government 2012 in Beijing
    15th summit in July 2015 in Ufa , Russia

    In 2001 the Shanghai Five summit returned to Shanghai . The five member states included Uzbekistan in the Shanghai Five Treaties , which are now informally known as the Shanghai Six . At the same time, on June 15, 2001, all six heads of state signed the Декларация о создании Шанхайской организации сотрудничества / 《上海 合作 组织 成立 宣言》 (in the founding of the SOZ proclamation) of the organization was announced.

    On June 7, 2002, the Heads of State and Government of the SCO countries met in Saint Petersburg to sign the SCO charter, which laid down the goals, principles, structure and actions of the organization. With this charter, the SCO received its current international legal framework.

    At the SCO summit in Tashkent ( Uzbekistan ), which took place from 16 July to 17 July 2004 decided the SCO to establish a regional anti-terror network (Региональная антитеррористическая структура地区反恐怖机构, Diqu fǎnkǒngbù Jigou , RATS, Eng .: Regional Counter-Terrorism Structure, RCTS), which started work on January 1, 2007 in Tashkent. The first director of the RATS was Myrzakan Subanov from Kyrgyzstan.

    At the 2006 summit in Shanghai , the administrative secretariat of the SCO was expanded into a general secretariat . At the summit in September 2008, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadineschad was also present, and he also attended the summit in Yekaterinburg next year . This was his first visit abroad after his re-election .

    In 2010, the two founding members China and Russia resolved their decades-long border conflicts and were able to bring their two countries closer together.

    In mid-May 2011, the foreign ministers of the SCO countries met in Alma-Ata (Kazakhstan) to agree the agenda for the tenth summit, which is scheduled for June in Astana (since 2019 Nur-Sultan) (Kazakhstan). Various agreements should be signed at the summit, including: a. the anti-drug strategy until 2016. Shortly before the preparatory meeting, Afghanistan underlined its interest in observer status.

    Overview map of the SCO as of June 2017: members (blue), observers (dark green), dialogue partners (yellow), guests / states interested in membership (turquoise)

    Turkey made an official application for a dialogue partnership in October 2011, which was accepted on June 7, 2012. This makes Turkey the first country to maintain a dialogue partnership with the SCO and at the same time to be a member of NATO . This step was received critically in the West, particularly in view of the accession negotiations with the EU . In an interview, the Turkish Prime Minister Erdoğan remarked : "Then we'll say goodbye to the EU". He repeated his request in November 2016 and led the accession negotiations with the EU, which had been stalling for 53 years. Full SCO membership would enable his country to “act much easier”. At the Turkish suggestion, the allies have also decided to chair the organisation's energy club for one year each. According to the unanimous agreement, Ankara will take over this post in 2017.

    In September 2014 in Dushanbe ( Tajikistan ), India and Pakistan submitted applications for membership, which were put to a vote at the summit in July 2015 in Ufa ( Russia ). During the 15th summit meeting on July 9th and 10th, 2015 in Ufa , Russia , the future accession of India and Pakistan was decided. At the following summit in Tashkent, further memoranda were signed, which led to the admission of both states in 2017 in Astana.

    Summit meeting

    17th summit in June 2017 in Astana (since 2019 Nur-Sultan) in Kazakhstan with the admission of India and Pakistan as new member states
    Group photo for the SCO summit in Qingdao
    date place comment
    July 14, 2001 Shanghai Admission of Uzbekistan
    June 7, 2002 St. Petersburg Signing charter
    May 28 to May 29, 2003 Moscow
    July 16 to July 17, 2004 Tashkent Establishment of the anti-terror network
    July 5, 2005 Astana (Nur-Sultan since 2019)
    June 15, 2006 Shanghai Establishment of the general secretariat
    June 28, 2007 Bishkek
    August 28, 2008 Dushanbe
    June 15 to June 16, 2009 Ekaterinburg
    June 10 to June 11, 2010 Tashkent
    June 14th to June 15th 2011 Astana (Nur-Sultan since 2019)
    June 6th to June 7th, 2012 Beijing
    September 13 to September 14, 2013 Bishkek
    September 12 to September 13, 2014 Dushanbe Membership applications India and Pakistan
    July 9th to July 10th 2015 Ufa
    June 23 and June 24, 2016 Tashkent
    June 8th to 9th, 2017 Astana (Nur-Sultan since 2019) India and Pakistan become member states
    June 9-10, 2018 Qingdao
    June 14th to 15th, 2019 Bishkek

    organization

    The highest organ of the SCO (ger .: Shanghai Cooperation Organization ( SCO ), Chinese  上海合作組織  /  上海合作组织 , Pinyin Shànghǎi Hezuo Zǔzhī ; Russ. : Шанхайская организация сотрудничества, ШОС ) is the Council of Heads of State ( Council of Heads of State ). A joint center for combating terrorism was set up in Tashkent (Uzbekistan) in 2002, and a secretariat for the SCO in Beijing followed two years later . The members observe the principle of non-interference. Decisions are made by consensus. The organization's working languages are Chinese and Russian .

    General Secretaries

    period Surname Country of origin
    2007 to mid-2011 Bolat Nurghaliev Kazakhstan
    Mid 2011 to 2012 Muratbek Imanaliev Kazakhstan
    2013 to 2015 Dmitry Mesentsev Russia
    since 2016 Rashid Alimov Tajikistan
    since January 1, 2019 Vladimir Norov Uzbekistan

    The general secretary is appointed at the SCO summit for a three-year term.

    Military maneuvers

    Major maneuvers 2005

    At the beginning of 2005, China and Russia jointly carried out the Peace Mission 2005 maneuver on the Chinese Shandong peninsula . Air and naval landing units practiced the invasion of a coast with other arms. Almost 10,000 soldiers took part on both sides. With regard to the Taiwan conflict , the maneuver was politically explosive. On the other hand, assurances were given by both the Chinese and Russian sides that the exercise was directed exclusively against terrorism and extremism .

    Major maneuvers 2007

    The Presidents of Russia and China, Vladimir Putin and Hu Jintao during the 2007 military exercise

    From 9 to 17 August 2007 (u. A. Airfield Schagol) on the surrounding military bases from Chelyabinsk the large maneuvers in Russia Peace Mission 2007 carried out under the SCO, attended by Russian forces and units from Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and the People's Republic China participated. China sent 14 aircraft and 32 helicopters around 2000 km to the training area especially for this purpose. Russia deployed up to six Il-76 transport aircraft , nine Su-25 combat aircraft and 31 Mi-24 and Mi-8 attack helicopters . The Russian forces were also by units of the 34th Infantry Division of the Volga-Ural military district, army and front air forces of the Fifth Army Air Force and air defense units of paratroopers troops and the willingness of Interior Ministry troops, the Central Prison and the Border Service of the FSB supported . The number of participating soldiers was about 6500 men. The maneuver was accompanied by senior military representatives and defense ministers from the SCO member states.

    Major maneuvers in 2009

    From July 22nd to 26th, 2009 another major maneuver was held by the SCO states (predominantly participation by Russian and Chinese soldiers) in three areas. The first phase of the maneuver with strategic consultations with the Chiefs of Staff of the armed forces of both countries began on July 22nd in Khabarovsk . The other sections followed on the territory of the People's Republic of China. This included the preparation and implementation of an anti-terrorist operation from July 23 to 26, 2009, as well as an airborne exercise on the maneuvering area near the Chinese city of Taonan near Baicheng in Jilin Province . Around 3,000 soldiers (including 1,600 Russian soldiers) and over 300 combat vehicles (including T-80 battle tanks and BMP-1 armored personnel carriers) as well as 45 military aircraft (including Su-24, Su-25 and Su-27) and helicopters took part in the Shenyang military district part. In preparation for the maneuver, a Chinese fighter plane crashed on July 19, 2009, killing both pilots.

    criticism

    Robert Kagan , advisor to former US presidential candidate John McCain , made a sharp polemic against the alliance. The Shanghai Cooperation Organization was founded by China and Russia to withstand the growing US influence in Central Asia ( Silk Road Strategy ). In Russian newspapers, according to Kagan, the alliance is already being referred to as anti-NATO and the second Warsaw Pact . The question of whether the SCO should be seen as an alliance opposing the growing US influence in Central Asia, or rather as a neutral international organization to strengthen regional stability, is difficult to answer due to the SCO's short history. Studies attest the SCO an anti-US, but not a fundamentally anti-Western stance. They also refer to the Kazakh rocking policy between NATO and the SCO, which has hitherto prevented the SCO from expanding into an organization comparable to the Warsaw Pact.

    literature

    Web links

    Commons : Shanghai Cooperation Organization  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

    Individual evidence

    1. ^ Regional cooperation in Asia and the Pacific, Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). Foreign Office of the Federal Republic of Germany.
    2. ^ Andreas Heinemann-Grüder: Russia and the international organizations Federal Agency for Civic Education, June 12, 2019.
    3. Sputnik: Minsk gains observer status with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization .
    4. Sputnik: SOZ takes on new partners - Putin .
    5. Nepal Becomes Shanghai Cooperation Organization Dialogue Partner. The Diplomat, accessed June 26, 2016 .
    6. Sputnik: Sputnik Germany - Current top news and analyzes: photos, videos, infographics .
    7. ^ Regional cooperation in Asia and the Pacific, Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). Foreign Office of the Federal Republic of Germany, accessed on June 26, 2016 .
    8. ^ Sputnik: Minister: Syria wants to join Shanghai cooperation organization and BRICS .
    9. Why Ukraine wants to become SCO's partner / SCO Shanghai Cooperation Organization .
    10. a b c web.archive.org on the SOZ website, in Russian
    11. a b web.archive.org , where the story is summarized
    12. 上海 合作 组织 大事 年表 , sectsco.org
    13. A meeting of the Council of Heads of State of the SCO member states took place in Dushanbe - on the official side of the organization
    14. End of a long border dispute. Russia and China. May 17, 2010, accessed November 19, 2014 .
    15. Interview with Willy Wimmer. KenFM in conversation with Willy Wimmer about: The crash of the MH17 and the instrumentalization. Retrieved November 19, 2014 (minute 25).
    16. Vladimir Radyuhin: Afghanistan may join SCO . May 15, 2011.
    17. Мезенцев стал генсеком ШОС. Interfax.ru, June 7, 2012, accessed on July 27, 2012 (in Russian, paragraph at the bottom).
    18. Thomas Seibert: Turkey's Foreign Policy Change? February 13, 2013, accessed July 22, 2013 .
    19. NEX24: Shanghai Pact: Turkey will take over chairmanship of the Energy Club in 2017 | nex24.news. Retrieved October 22, 2017 (German).
    20. ^ SCO .
    21. Welcome to SCO Website .... . 3rd April 2016.
    22. PTI Jun 9, 2017, 18:28 Ist: India, Pakistan become full members of SCO - India News - Times of India .
    23. Rashid Alimov of Tajikistan Becomes new SCO Secretary General . June 26, 2016.
    24. Шанхайская организация сотрудничества - ШОС. Retrieved June 16, 2020 .
    25. "Russia and China regard the West as hostile" , Interview Spiegel online with Robert Kagan, July 16, 2008
    26. ^ Enrico Fels: Assessing Eurasia's Powerhouse. An Inquiry into the Nature of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization . Winkler Verlag: Bochum, 2009.