Extempore ( Latin ex tempore : "immediately", " impromptu ") is an older but still used term for creating something in an art form (especially in the theater or as a speaker) without preparation. Since around the middle of the 20th century and with the emergence of musical genres such as jazz (see also the film Improvisation by Norman Granz ) or improvisation theater , the term " improvisation " has been used more and more in the German-speaking area usually more space than an extempore.
Extempores or improvisations as an interlude in drama , a speech or in music usually require a sound mastery of the respective art form and demand a lot of talent from the artist in order to be successful. In the fine arts, on the other hand, the invitation to the event of an extempores is usually addressed to both professional artists and laypeople.
Extempores are sentences spoken spontaneously into the situation. The term is also used less often to refer to prepared statements that are not in the official text. In addition to improvised prose, there are verse, poem and song forms in which traditional extemporations have taken place, such as couplet , gstanzl , limerick .
The Extempore is a traditional, very differently valued stylistic device in the theater and at public appearances. The ability and the courage to go extemporaneously were and are valued as a talent for improvisation - but also feared by fellow actors, authors (and at some times also by the censors ; see below: Hanswurst dispute ). Because the modern theater has developed out of the impromptu theater, which has been increasingly literary, the Extempore has been pushed back since the 18th century, but was given a certain freedom again in the 19th century.
In the "Hanswurst controversy" (1747–1783), Joseph von Sonnenfels , one of Maria Theresa's advisors, fought the Volkstheater and the Hanswurst . He enforced the censorship of the empress and, in 1752, an "extemporization ban" and the banishment of Joseph Felix von Kurz alias Bernadon , so that the end of the impromptu theater was sealed by official intervention . Theater should represent, teach and educate bourgeois life. In the “ rule drama ” of Aristotelian stamping, the course of action had to be logical and its content and form had to be determined by reason. Written texts in verse were required, the preferred literary genre was tragedy . The most important exponent of this direction was the Leipzig literature professor Johann Christoph Gottsched , who vehemently opposed the Hanswurst popular on German traveling stages and in this respect worked together with the famous Neubersche troupe , which finally banned the Hanswurst publicly from the stage in an allegorical game in 1737.
The Protestant enlightenment paradigm continued u. a. also in Vienna and literature began to play a dominant role in the theater. So was Johann Nestroy still in 1826 a stage ban and in 1836 a prison sentence, which he served from 16 to 21 January due Extemporierens.
In music, Extempore has been the term since the 16th century for the free variation of a melody to a given voice (mostly the bass part, see figured bass ), but also of decorations that can delay the process. In jazz, on the other hand, one speaks of improvisations.
In the painting says Extempore u. a. the production of a painting within a certain period of time, for which an empty picture carrier is shown at the beginning and stamped by a jury. For example, from June 21 to 24, 2012, the municipality of Ramsau near Berchtesgaden, as the official organizer, organized an “ Open ExTempore for Visual Art in the Berchtesgadener Land ” for the first time in the region . Within the given time frame, new pictorial works on two topics related to the environment were created on site as part of an open art symposium with competitive character. These Extempore works were then exhibited in the Klausbachhaus and awarded a prize there. Further “Open ExTempores for Visual Art in the Berchtesgadener Land” took place in Berchtesgaden in 2013 , again in Ramsau in 2014 and in 2015 in Schönau am Königssee .
- Latin-German concise dictionary: zu tempus and ex tempore . Georges: Latin-German / German-Latin, p. 55721 (cf. Georges-LDHW Vol. 2, p. 3052).
- See also Duden (online): Extempore .
- Ruedi Graf: The theater in the literary state. Literary theater on the way to educational power, Tübingen: Niemeyer 1992, p. 148. ISBN 3-484-18117-6 .
- On Johann Nestroy see: Basic Course Austrian History
- Christian Holzner: Open Art Symposium at Hintersee ( Memento of the original from June 4, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ; a contribution to the "international 'ExTempore' for visual art" from June 21st to 24th, 2012 in Ramsau for the regional television Upper Bavaria on May 10th, 2012.
- See review: PROJECTS - u. a. to Open ExTempores for visual art in the Berchtesgadener Land , online at salz-der-heimat.eu .
- Christian Holzner: Painters' symposium on Hintersee begins ( Memento of the original from June 4, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ; a contribution to the “international 'ExTempore' for visual art” from June 21st to 24th, 2012 in Ramsau for the Upper Bavaria regional television on June 22nd, 2012.
- kp: Extempore: Pictures with regional references online at bgland24.de on June 27, 2012.