Lying is a mining - geological location designation for rock that is underlying a reference layer. The horizontal does not necessarily have to be older than the reference horizon. However, the term has a slightly different meaning in the various geoscientific disciplines. The location designation for rock that overlies a reference horizon is hanging wall .
Engineering geology and mining
Lying is in mining the label for the rock in the sole a distance, usually under a seam deposited rock layers or for the below a deposit lying Mountains , where "mountains" of the mining expression for rock is.
In geology, the term lying is usually understood in a more general way. Here, too, the term is used on quite different positional relationships.
- The lying is the sequence of rocks that topographically lies below a certain horizon or a geologically particularly interesting layer;
- the rock layer ( foot wall ) that is located directly under a shear zone or a fault that is not too steep . The layer above is called hanging wall (engl. Hanging wall ).
- Large-scale thrusts ( tectonic nappes ) are also referred to as lying and hanging nappes or hanging and lying nappes. In a tectonic window , the lying or the lying ceiling can be unlocked. In this case, the lying or the lying ceiling is usually younger than the hanging wall or the hanging ceiling.
- If the term is specified as “stratigraphically lying”, this means that the lying is actually older than the reference layer.
- The term lying fold, on the other hand, initially has nothing to do with this mining-geological relationship, but simply means that a fold has overturned and lies on the sub-camp. In the ideal lying fold, the two legs of the fold run approximately parallel to the base, in reality mostly at an acute angle or at differently acute angles. On the other hand, the term prone leg (a lying fold) is used again in the positional relationship described here. It describes the lower leg of a lying fold.
The use of the terms "lying areas" or "lying layers" for the deeper part of a sequence of layers is not recommended because of the ambiguity. These terms undifferentiated only designate the underlying layers of a layer sequence. So one should not speak of the "prone parts" of a formation when referring to the lower (or lower) parts of the formation.
- Walter Bischoff , Heinz Bramann, Westfälische Berggewerkschaftskasse Bochum: The small mining dictionary. 7th edition, Verlag Glückauf GmbH, Essen, 1988, ISBN 3-7739-0501-7
- Hans Murawski & Wilhelm Meyer: Geological dictionary . 10., rework. u. exp. Ed., 278 p., Enke Verlag, Stuttgart 1998 ISBN 3-432-84100-0 .
- Lexicon of Geosciences. Instr to Nor. 486 pp., Spektrum / Akademischer Verlag Heidelberg 2001 ISBN 3-8274-0422-3
- Lexicon of Geosciences (2001: p. 272).
- Murawski & Meyer (1998: p. 126).