The expression Gaden (also Gadem , mostly neuter, in Swiss German mostly male) designates a one-room house or a single room in architecture. The word can also be found as an old measure for timber.
In Old High German , gadam or gadum means ' room , chamber , barn '. The Latin term aedes (classical Latin) means the same thing: an apartment consisting of one room , a chamber, a room, a cell ( monastery cell ). An Old High German gloss translates aedum with the terms: cadum , cadhum , kadum . These are obviously Latinized forms of Gaden. So the two words have no common origin. The original origin of the word Gaden is unclear. This is what Kluge's Etymological Dictionary also means .
Initially, the expression should generally encompass the enclosed space , the house in the original sense, and then move on to other terms in the course of the Middle Ages, but disappears from modern vocabulary:
- 'Small property ' about the early design of the one- roof courtyard - this expression disappears with this simple design
- or it stands for 'permanent house' as a storage building (see box ) or cellar or as a term staingadmis for the stone-built residential building (1st half of the 14th century in South Tyrolean documents); here the word is displaced from the general house and building
- and on the other hand - similar to chamber - the partitioned room within a building, but also in the sense of a storey (for which “chamber” cannot stand), for example “pauen… dar zwair gaden high” (“building that is two floors high ist “) in the Austrian Land Law 1298. The room as a word for the living space in - better and more modern - block construction superseded the word already in the late Middle Ages, later the heated room . Changed construction technology (fixed ceilings) also leads to more modern words for the floors ( floor from the half-timbered building , floor next to walls, later also floor )
In the High Middle Ages, the word is also a measure of construction timber , probably about the amount necessary to build a simple building as a legal term about allocations.
"The old German fable of the twelve who come to the Tursen (giant), and which warns the woman beforehand and means to get on the Gaden, is only morally different."
The plural is Gaden , Gäden , Gademe or, rarely, Gädmer .
The streets of the churchyards
In Germany we encounter the Gaden in connection with fortified churches (also: Church castle , fortified church ), especially in southern Germany. On the inside (outside windowless) storage rooms were added to the outer walls of the fortified church, in which the harvest supplies could be safely stored in quiet times in an emergency, in troubled times constantly. Within the walls there was usually also the cemetery, through which the driveways to the Gaden also led. In the 17th century, a chronicler mentions Gaden as " well-kept cellars, vaults and chambers, which the residents of the village inherit and keep their best goods in them during wars because they used to be more shy of consecrated places and spared them from robbery and plunder " .
The fortification of churches required the episcopal approval, the construction of the storage rooms (Gaden) around the church was probably also the clever evasion of the church regulations.
The flat sales houses built on the outside of the Gangolf Church near Trier's main market are still called Gädemscher (High German perhaps 'Gademchen').
The term `` Obergaden '' of the church building comes from these additions , for the row of windows that overlooks the gaden and later the side aisle roofs and distinguishes the basilica from the pseudo-basilica (relay hall).
Gaden near castles, residential towers and churches
In connection with Swiss and South German residential towers , in particular , one speaks of Gaden or Obergaden ("Oberstübchen") when the residential tower has a mostly one, sometimes two-story structure, mostly made of wood. As a rule, the wooden cladding protrudes beyond the last brick floor.
In various landscapes, numerous gaden have been preserved to this day, they are often hereditary and are partly still used or preserved as a sight. The term is no longer very widespread, but it is still partly used in place names or proper names , for example in endings in -gad (en) . In places with preserved gaden, the term was also used in everyday language. However, it is pronounced differently depending on the landscape and written accordingly differently. The Duden has decided to use the Gaden spelling.
- A restaurant on the Wartburg near Eisenach
- A reference
- Gutenberg project
- Example of a Swiss castle with a cliff
- View of the wooden upper aisle of the same castle
- Photograph of an upper aisle, as it was typical for towers in castles
- Elias von Steinmeyer : The old high German glosses. Weidmann, Berlin 1879, Volume I: Glosses on Biblical Scriptures. 28, 19 - Entry Gadem, Gaden. I I1, in: German Legal Dictionary (DRW).
- Entry Gadem, Gaden. In: German legal dictionary (DRW), Heidelberg Academy of Sciences (drw-www.adw.uni-heidelberg.de)
- Hannes Obermair , Helmut Stampfer : Urban living culture in late medieval Bolzano. In: Runkelstein Castle - the picture castle. Edited by the city of Bozen with the participation of the South Tyrolean Cultural Institute , Bozen: Athesia 2000. ISBN 88-8266-069-9 , p. 397–409, reference p. 407.
- Entry Gadem, Gaden. IV 2, in DRW
- In: Ernst von Schwind, Alfons Dopsch (ed.): Selected documents on the constitutional history of the German-Austrian hereditary lands in the Middle Ages. Innsbruck 1895, reprint Aalen 1968. pp. 101–105 - according to entry Gadem, Gaden. IV 2, in DRW, trans. Wikipedia
- Entry Gadem, Gaden. IV 1, in DRW
- Note on Hansel and Gretel , in: Brothers Grimm: Children and Hausmärchen. Volume 3, p. 26
- Christoph Höcker : Metzler Lexicon of Ancient Architecture. 2nd edition Metzler, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-476-02294-3 . P. 101