The Obergaden , also known as Lichtgaden or Fenstergaden ( Latin claristorium or clerestorium , English clerestory or overstorey , French claire-voie , Italian cleristorio ), is the upper wall surface of the central nave of a basilica .
The upper storey is located above the roofs of the side aisles and is pierced with windows. Similar to a roof lantern , the upper aisle as a wall of the high nave and high choir pierced by windows enables direct exposure of the central nave. The windows on the outer walls of the side aisles are also referred to as the lower aisle in comparison to the upper storey .
In contrast to the basilica, the central nave of a hall church has no upper cladding and is lit from the windows of the side aisles. If the upper aisle is clearly formed but windowless, one speaks of a pseudo-basilica . In (other) relay halls , the central nave also rises higher than the side aisles, but there are no or hardly any walls above the arcades.
The top arcade can be designed very differently. In addition to the difference in height between the nave eaves and the aisle roofs, what is important is the height of the central nave vaults in relation to the aisle roofs and upper aisle windows.
Notre-Dame de Paris , warriors of the vaults at the height of the window centers, gallery basilica
Choir of Magdeburg Cathedral , vaults and windows about the same height, gallery above the ambulatory
Origin of the term
The upper storey towers above the farm buildings of the Middle Ages, the Gaden built on the church wall (also: Gadem , 'Verschlag', 'Schuppen', 'Haus'), and therefore receives its name, which it also retains in the later multi-nave church buildings move the extensions further away from the main nave. By the way, free-standing churches have only been in use since the middle of the 19th century; in medieval urban planning, the churches were permanently enclosed.
Paris, 16th century, Notre-Dame (model): The free spaces around the town churches are an urban “invention” of the 19th century.
Vienna, St. Stephen's Cathedral : Remains of the Gadenbauten have been preserved until today
- Wilfried Koch: Baustilkunde , 33rd edition 2016, ISBN 978-3-7913-4997-8 , p. 465
- Barbara Schock-Werner: The buildings in the Prince Bishopric of Würzburg under Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn 1573-1617 - structure, organization, financing and artistic evaluation . Schnell + Steiner, 2005, ISBN 9783795416232 , p. 269.
- Hans-Eckhard Lindemann: Historic town centers in Mainfranken. History, structure, development . Callwey, 1989, ISBN 9783766709189 , p. 90 ff.