|State :||Czech Republic|
|Region :||Olomoucký kraj|
|Area :||3823 ha|
|Geographic location :|
|Residents :||11,192 (Jan. 1, 2019)|
|Postal code :||790 01|
|License plate :||M.|
|Street:||Šumperk - Głuchołazy|
|Railway connection:||Hanušovice – Głuchołazy|
|Mayor :||Zdeňka Blišťanová (as of 2018)|
|Address:||Masarykovo nám. 167/1
790 01 Jeseník
The city is located in the Sudetenland , in the Jeseníky Mountains at the confluence of the Staritz ( Staříč ) in the Biela ( Bělá ) at 423 m above sea level. NN, about 61 kilometers northwest of Troppau ( Opava ). To the northeast rises the Goldkoppe ( Zlatý Chlum ) with 875 m, southeast of the Orlík with 1204 m and south of the Altvater ( Praděd ) with 1491 m. To the southwest is the Kepernik mountainous area with the 1423 m high Kepernik. To the west lies the Reichenstein Mountains .
Jeseník consists of the districts Bukovice ( Buchelsdorf ), Dětřichov ( Dittershof ) and Jeseník ( Freiwaldau ). Basic settlement units are 9. května, Bobrovník ( beaver pond ), Dětřichov-Seč, Dětřichov-západ, Jeseník-střed, Kalvodova, Krameriova, Křížový vrch, Lázně Jeseník ( Bad Gräfenberg ), Podertrickí, Sváměmý vímoví, Náměmý vrch Železnou horou, Smetanovy sady, U České Vsi, U nemocnice, U slunka, U vlečky and Vavřinec. Jeseník also includes the residential areas Dlouhá Hora, Hamrová ( Hammerhau ), Mýtinka ( Fietzenhau ), Pasíčka ( Streitenhau ) and Seč ( Frankenhau ).
The municipality is divided into the cadastral districts of Bukovice u Jeseníka, Jeseník and Seč u Jeseníka.
Freiwaldau emerged in the middle of the 13th century during the colonization of the Jeseníky Mountains and was first mentioned in a document in 1267. At that time, the place belonging to the Neiss diocese already had city rights and since 1290 the soft image law has been passed down, which included ten villages. Freiwaldau was an unfortified city with a moated castle that was the seat of the city bailiff. In the 14th century, a flourishing iron metallurgy developed with ironworks and hammer mills that processed the ore extracted in the area. Gold and silver were also mined. Because of the abundant ore deposits, the Fuggers acquired the city. In 1506 Freiwaldau was raised to a mountain town by Johannes V. Thurzo and received the city arms.
After mining had passed its prime before the middle of the 16th century, the Fuggers sold their property in the Jeseníky Mountains in 1547 to the Breslau bishop Balthasar von Promnitz , who in turn incorporated the area into the episcopal principality of Neisse . With the decline of mining, handicrafts and linen weaving became the livelihoods of the city's residents.
During the Thirty Years' War , the city, which was on an important link from Silesia to Moravia , suffered from the influx of soldiers. During this time the witch hunts began , in which between 1622 and 1684 102 residents of the city were burned at the stake.
When the border was drawn, the linen weavers lost many of their Silesian markets, and it was not until the first half of the 19th century that an economic boom began. In 1822 Adolf Raymann founded his canvas factory, which later developed into the largest company in the city and exported worldwide. The Regenhart & Raymann company also included mechanical weaving and spinning mills as well as a bleaching mill . At this time Vincenz Prießnitz began his cold water cures in Graefenberg (Lázně Jeseník) and the first hydropathic institute was established in Graefenberg .
After the abolition of manorial rule in Austria, Freiwaldau became the seat of a district authority in 1850 , which also included the cities of Zuckmantel and Weißwasser . The Blühdorn glove factory founded in 1890 was another important company. The basis for the industrial boom was the construction of the railway from Hannsdorf to Ziegenhals , which started operating in 1888.
The Moravian-Silesian Sudeten Mountains Association (MSSGV) began to develop the surrounding mountains for tourism. In 1899 a 26 m high massive observation tower was built on the Goldkoppe ( Zlatý Chlum ) with the Freiwaldauer Warte ( Frývaldovská stráž ) .
After the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy , Freiwaldau came to the newly founded Czechoslovakia in 1918 . From 1919 the city became a stronghold of the German Social Democratic Workers' Party . During this time, there was a state-ordered, increased influx of the Czech population into the previously purely German-speaking area, mostly military and administrative officials. In 1931 a police operation during a demonstration of unemployed workers resulted in ten deaths, including a 60-year-old woman and a 14-year-old girl. As a result of the global economic crisis , the Sudeten German Party gained more and more influence from 1933 onwards. After the Munich Agreement , the city was incorporated into the German Empire together with the Sudetenland .
After the Second World War Freiwaldau came back to Czechoslovakia. The Sudeten Germans were expelled in 1945 . In 1947 the name of the town was changed from Frývaldov to Jeseník . During this time, many Czechs from the interior, Slovaks, repatriates and Roma settled here .
During the subsequent communist rule, the cityscape was affected by the construction of new buildings in place of the historical building fabric. On July 1, 1960, Jeseník lost its status as a district town and was incorporated into the Okres Šumperk . After the Velvet Revolution, the Okres Jeseník was rebuilt on January 1, 1996 and the city's district seat.
|1834||1,422||German Catholic residents|
|1857||3,690||on October 31st|
|1900||4,953||as a community 6,333|
|1921||6,722||thereof 6,055 Germans|
|1930||8,251||including 1,257 Czechs|
The name Freiwaldau (originally Vriwald ) comes from the founding time of the place, which was created in an unwooded basin at the confluence of the Staritz in the Biele. The current name is that of the surrounding Jeseníky region, consisting of Hrubý Jeseník (Jeseníky Mountains ) and Nízký Jeseník (Lower Jeseníky).
- 1921-1933: Alois Bulla
- 1933–1936: Adolf Hanig
- 1936–1936: Hans Schlögl
- 1936–1938: Max Gross
- 1939–1945: Karl Bittmann
- 2006–2010: Petr Procházka
- since 2010: Marie Fomiczewová
- town hall
- Castle of the Prince-Bishop of Wroclaw
- Catholic Church
- Protestant church
In the city park and on the Graefenberg, around 100 natural springs were collected, named and - mostly by grateful spa guests - provided with spring monuments, often elaborate stone carvings, mainly between around 1840 and 1930. In 1945 these monuments were either violently destroyed or at least the German inscriptions were knocked out.
- Polish source
- Prussia source
- English source
- Unity source
- Sibling source
Already at the end of the 19th century there were factories for linen and damask goods , bleaching and finishing plants , glove manufacturing and a beer brewery in the village . The company Regenhart & Raymann was a linen and damask weaving mill of world renown with branches in all parts of the world and supplies to almost all royal courts in Europe.
The station is located on the former state railway line Hannsdorf – Ziegenhals ( line Hanušovice – Głuchołazy ). ČD trains run to Olomouc and Moravian Ostrava.
sons and daughters of the town
- Vinzenz Prießnitz (1799–1851), natural healer
- Adolf Weiss (1837–1894), Austrian botanist and university professor
- Edmund Weiss (1837-1917), astronomer
- Wilhelm zu Dohna-Schlodien (1841–1925), large landowner
- Károly Khuen-Héderváry (1849–1918), Ban of Croatia and Prime Minister of Hungary
- Theodor Hugo Micklitz (1856–1922), Austrian forester, hunting director of Emperor Franz Joseph I, professor at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences in Vienna
- Sigmund Hein (1868-1945), lepidopterist
- Paul Stadler (1875–1955), sculptor
- Walter Reder (1915–1991), SS-Sturmbannführer and holder of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross and convicted war criminal
- Diether Kunerth (* 1940), German painter
- Johannes Stüttgen (* 1945), German artist and author
- Jiří Švub (1958–2013), cross-country skier
- Jirko Malchárek (* 1966), Slovak car racing driver and politician
- Loukas Mavrokefalidis (* 1984), Greek national basketball player
- Hana Nitsche (* 1985), German photo model and mannequin
Associated with Jeseník
- Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf , composer and governor
- Vincenz Prießnitz , founder of the cold water cure and naturopathy
- Josef Weiss (medic) (1797–1847), medic, built a cold water sanatorium in Freiwaldau
- Adolph Weiss , botanist and director of the Botanical Garden in Lviv
- Richard Victor Werner , medic
- Engelbert Kaps , sculptor
- Rudolf Fochler (1914–2001), popular educator and home curator, specialist journalist
Arts and Culture
- Priessnitz - Czech alternative band
- Bojnice , Slovakia
- Głuchołazy , Poland
- Moree , Australia
- Neuburg an der Donau , Germany
- Nysa , Poland
- Prague 1, Czech Republic
- Faustin Ens : The Oppaland, or the Troppauer Kreis, according to its historical, natural history, civil and local characteristics. Volume 4: Description of the location of the principalities of Jägerndorf and Neisse, Austrian Antheils and the Moravian enclaves in the Troppauer district. Gerold, Vienna 1837, pp. 212–220 .
- Gustav Krause: Sources and monuments in the spa town of Freiwaldau-Graefenberg. Moravian-Silesian Sudeten Mountains Association, Kirchheim unter Teck 1999.
- Český statistický úřad - The population of the Czech municipalities as of January 1, 2019 (PDF; 7.4 MiB)
- Faustin Ens : The Oppaland or the Opava district, according to its historical, natural history, civic and local peculiarities. Volume 4: Description of the location of the principalities of Jägerndorf and Neisse, Austrian Antheils and the Moravian enclaves in the Troppauer district. Gerold, Vienna 1837, p. 214 .
- Statistical overviews of the population and livestock in Austria . Vienna 1859, p. 52, left column .
- Meyer's Large Conversational Lexicon. Volume 7: Franzensbad to Glashaus. 6th, completely revised and enlarged edition, new impression. Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig et al. 1907, p. 78 .
- Ernst Pfohl: Ortlexikon Sudetenland. Helmut Preußler, Nuremberg 1987, ISBN 3-925362-47-9 , p. 135.
- Rudolf Hemmerle : Sudetenland Lexikon (= German Landscapes in Lexicon. Vol. 4). 2nd Edition. Adam Kraft, Mannheim 1985, ISBN 3-8083-1163-0 , p. 152.
- Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. Freiwaldau district (Czech. Jeseník, formerly Fryvaldov). (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
- Jesenik rada mesta ( Memento of the original dated February 8, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.