St. Valentin (Marzoll)
The parish church of St. Valentin is a Catholic church in the Bad Reichenhall district of Marzoll . It stands on a hill above Marzoll Castle in the middle of the cemetery and is currently being looked after by the parish of St. Zeno in Bad Reichenhall .
The church and the district were mentioned for the first time in 788/90 in the Salzburg registers of goods.
At first the church was dedicated to St. Laurentius consecrated. Later, on September 8, 1142, she was given to St. by Bishop Hartmann von Brixen . Consecrated to Valentin von Terni . This ordination was supplemented on April 9, 1143 by a second consecration by Bishop Hartmann. Research took this as an opportunity to adopt a "two-story church". The consecration of 1142 therefore applied to the basement of the church under renovation, whereas that of 1143 was the "main floor and thus to be assigned to the completion of the church".
From around 1140 it belonged as a branch church to the Augustinian canons of St. Zeno near Reichenhall. From the 14th century it was then a branch church of the parish of Gmain ( Großgmain ), which was also looked after by St. Zeno. From around 1500 until the period of secularization (1803) the church was the destination of an important pilgrimage to St. Valentine, the patron saint against epilepsy and other diseases. The characteristic offerings to St. Valentine were black chickens locked in a cage behind the altar. Most of the pilgrims came from today's Flachgau and the Rupertiwinkel . The lively population made the church the wealthiest pilgrimage church in the whole area. Therefore, all renovations and the Baroque style could be financed from our own resources. In the course of secularization, the monastery of St. Zeno was abolished. Until 1808, the southeast corner of Bavaria (east of the Inn) belonged to the archdiocese of Salzburg , and since then to Munich-Freising. The elevation of St. Valentin to the parish church took place in 1809.
In its long history, numerous alterations and structural changes were made to the church until it corresponded to its current state. In place of the church mentioned in 788/90, a Romanesque new building was erected until 1142/43, some of the nave walls of which are still there. A conversion in the Gothic style, in which the tower with a pointed helmet and a new choir were built, took place in the 15th century. The current appearance of the church with onion dome and baroque facade is the result of the baroque transformation in the middle of the 18th century.
The way into the interior of the church leads through a vestibule with splendid tombstones of the lords of the castle from the 15th to the 18th century (families Fröschl v. Marzoll, v. Freysing and Aichach and Lasser v. Lasseregg). The late Gothic portal from around 1500 leads to the interior, which is closed off by a wrought iron grille from 1650 under the gallery. The interior of the church is characterized by the Rococo stucco by Salzburg's Benedikt Zöpf from 1748. a. also the stucco work in the collegiate church St. Peter in Salzburg. Instead of ceiling frescoes, Zöpf has placed religious symbols made of stucco in the frames: The Eye of God, a Jesus monogram (JHS) and a Mary monogram . In the spandrels there are liturgical implements such as censer, chalice, book, etc. The use of such "lifeless" objects for decorative purposes already refers to the classical style (see pulpit attachment). The Salzburg court carpenter Simon Thaddäus Baldauf created the high altar in 1729. The figures (1729) of St. Laurentius (left) and Ulrich (right) come from the Reichenhall sculptor Johann Schwaiger. The joint representation of the two saints is said to go back to the battle on the Lechfeld : Bishop Ulrich von Augsburg had successfully defended his city against an attack by the Hungarians in 955; a day later, on the day of St. Laurence (August 10th), they were defeated by an army under King Otto I, which banished the danger of further raids by these cavalry hordes forever. The high altar painting by an unknown painter around 1780 shows the church patron Valentin. At his feet the healing of a sick person is represented by him. The Latin text can be read in a cartouche above it: "Saint Valentine, bishop and martyr, you salvation for the sick!" The excerpt shows a coronation of the Virgin Mary, which took place in the 19th century. was heavily painted over. Behind the high altar there used to be a cage for the chickens that were sacrificed as votives. On the left side wall next to the high altar, late Gothic wall paintings were uncovered in 1967, which indicate a former sacrament house at this point. On the right of the choir arch is a sculpture of St. Valentin by Hans Waldburger from the earlier high altar from 1626. The old high altar in St. Peter in Salzburg also came from Waldburger. The lack of attributes in this figure, as well as in the representation on the high altar, raises the question of whether it is actually Valentin von Terni . From an iconographical point of view, it could also be Valentin von Raetia , since he was also called in case of epilepsy. Moreover, popular piety has continued to mix these two forms over the centuries. The altarpieces from the previous altars (by B. Werkstätter) from 1747 were taken over into the classicist side altars from 1819. They show St. Anna on the left in the midst of the holy clan and on the right Antonius of Padua in front of Mary, God the Father and the Holy Spirit. On the left of the choir arch there is a replica of the "Strasbourg Madonna" from 1967. The pulpit from 1791 is designed in the transition style from Rococo to Classicism. Also on the left wall of the nave are two oratorios (boxes) for the rulers of the castle. The large pictures of the Stations of the Cross on the walls were created by the Salzburg painter Benedikt Werkstätter in 1750. The individual parts of the interior furnishings from early classicism are well coordinated with the baroque furnishings. This results in a harmonious overall impression. In 2009 the sculptor Johann Brunner created the new people's altar from Untersberg marble . The surfaces of the altar and canteen consist of triangles, squares and octagons and are supposed to represent the resurrection of Jesus Christ and the Trinity . The ambo has a similar geometric design in a different variation. The altar was consecrated in February 2010 by Archbishop Reinhard Cardinal Marx .
The small romantic organ on the highest point of the staggered rear gallery consists of a manual and a pedal keyboard. The look of the case is baroque. The disposition is:
The game table stands in front of the housing with a view of the chancel.
The open belfry of the mighty tower houses a wooden belfry with three bells. All three of them come from the Czudnochowsky bell foundry (Erding). They were cast in 1950 from the substitute alloy Euphon. On the back there is the inscription "Marzoll 1951" on all three. A decorative frieze adorns the shoulders.
|No.||Casting year||Foundry, casting location||Nominal||inscription|
|1||1950||Karl Czudnochowsky, Erding||f sharp 1||"Ave Maria!"|
|2||1950||Karl Czudnochowsky, Erding||a 1||"St. Valentin, protect Marzoll! "|
|3||1950||Karl Czudnochowsky, Erding||h 1||"Requiescant in pace."|
The clock strikes on bells 2 (1/4) and 1 (1/1).
- Walter Brugger: Church leader St. Valentin. Marzoll 1997.
- Andreas Hirsch: St. Valentin - helpers against the "Frais". Marzoll was once a much-visited place of pilgrimage . Heimatblätter No. 2, in: Reichenhaller Tagblatt February 14, 2009.
- Johannes Lang : History of Bad Reichenhall. Ph. CW Schmidt publishing house, Neustadt ad Aisch 2009. ISBN 978-3-87707-759-7 , p. 112.
- Martin Bitschnau , Hannes Obermair : Tiroler Urkundenbuch, II. Department: The documents on the history of the Inn, Eisack and Pustertal valleys. Volume 2: 1140-1200 . Universitätsverlag Wagner, Innsbruck 2012, ISBN 978-3-7030-0485-8 , p. 27 ff., No. 404 and 409 .