Jewish Center Munich
|Jewish Center Munich|
Jewish Center Munich with Jakobsplatz
|Address:||St.-Jakobs-Platz 18, 80331 Munich
Bavaria , Germany
|Purpose:||Orthodox Judaism Synagogue|
|Local community:||Israelite community in Munich and Upper Bavaria|
The Jewish Center Munich is the community center of the Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Munich and Upper Bavaria in the old town of Munich . It includes the Ohel Ja'akov main synagogue , consecrated in November 2006 ( Hebrew אהל יעקב 'Jakobs tent' ), a culture and community center (with assembly rooms, elementary school and grammar school , kindergarten , youth center and restaurant ) and the Jewish Museum , which was opened in March 2007 under the sponsorship of the City of Munich.
Between 1947 and 2007 the community center with the former main synagogue and a small museum was located at Reichenbachstrasse 27.
The buildings are located on Sankt-Jakobs-Platz between the Schrannenhalle , the Catholic monastery of the poor school sisters with the affiliated church of St. Jakob and the Oberanger. The Munich City Museum is located north of the main entrance .
After the destruction of the main synagogue by the National Socialists , the second largest Jewish community in Germany once again has a domicile in Munich's old town with the Jewish Center . The planning was entrusted to the Saarbrücker Büro Wandel, Hoefer and Lorch , which won a two-stage architecture competition and had previously designed the New Synagogue in Dresden .
The base of the 28-meter-high synagogue, which has 585 seats, is reminiscent of the Western Wall , the only remaining part of the Jerusalem Temple . Above it - in a rectangular skylight - nested Stars of David made of steel are enthroned. They are glazed and covered with a bronze-colored metal net. The skylight should let in light during the day and emit light into the surroundings at night. The sun's rays are refracted several times and bathe the interior of the synagogue, which is clad with cedar wood from Lebanon and bright Jerusalem stone , in a warm light. The glass structure suggests a tent that symbolizes the 40-year migration of the Jews through the Sinai desert . The six meter high portal was made in Budapest . On it are (from top to bottom, from right to left) the first ten letters of the Hebrew alphabet ( Hebrew א ב ג ד ה ו ז ח ט י), which is also used for counting in Hebrew; they are reminiscent of the Ten Commandments .
The Ohel Jakob synagogue bears the same name as the Orthodox synagogue on Herzog-Rudolf-Strasse that was destroyed in the pogrom night of 1938 . Like all synagogues, the Ohel Jakob church is laid out in a west-east direction . At the east , d. H. after Jerusalem located wall is of a dark blue Parochet obscured, the Torah ark . The Eternal Light burns before him . As is customary in Ashkenazi- Orthodox synagogues, the lectern ( bima ) is in the middle of the room. The rows of chairs in the middle of the hall are intended for the men, while the women take their places in the slightly raised side galleries.
Museum and community center
The two other buildings in the center (museum, parish hall) consist of rectangular, functional solitaires. Variously structured travertine panels from the Swabian Alb serve as a uniform material surface .
In the kindergarten , which is located in the community hall, five groups of 18 to 25 children each are cared for. The Sinai primary school , which, like the kindergarten, is also open to non-Jewish children, is designed as an all-day school for 150 children. The Jewish Adult Education Center offers courses on Jewish history, religion and culture as well as language courses . There is also a reference library and archive in the community center that collects newspapers, magazines and documents on Jewish life then and now. In the restaurant Einstein on the ground floor of the community center is kosher food prepared. A sports hall in the basement of the center is used by TSV Maccabi Munich , among others . Classes in Israeli folk dance are given by Matti Goldschmidt .
In a 32 meter long, underground corridor of remembrance between the community center and the synagogue, around 4500 names of Munich Jews who were murdered during the Nazi era are immortalized .
In October 2008, the Munich Jewish Center was awarded the German Urban Development Prize.
Laying of the foundation stone and inauguration
The foundation stone was laid on November 9, 2003 in the presence of Federal President Johannes Rau . For this day, the neo-Nazi association " Comradeship South " planned a bomb attack on the site, which the police thwarted. According to the then Bavarian interior minister Günther Beckstein , the investigators secured 14 kilograms of explosives and assassination plans. A total of eight women and men were sentenced to long prison terms in two trials.
As originally planned, the topping-out ceremony for the synagogue was celebrated on October 28, 2005. The start of construction had been delayed several times because medieval foundations were unexpectedly found and an emergency excavation was therefore necessary. The synagogue was inaugurated on November 9, 2006 - exactly 68 years to the day after the Reichspogromnacht of 1938. High-ranking guests from home and abroad took part in the ceremony, such as Federal President Horst Köhler , Bavarian Prime Minister Edmund Stoiber and the entire Bavarian Cabinet, Israel's Ambassador Shimon Stein , the Chief Rabbi from Tel Aviv , Israel Meir Lau , and numerous representatives of political parties and denominations. The opening ceremony was chaired by Charlotte Knobloch , President of the Central Council of Jews in Germany , who grew up in Munich . In the morning, many Munich residents had accompanied the move of the nine solemnly decorated Torah scrolls from the old to the new synagogue; Clarinetist Giora Feidman played Shalom Chaverim (“Peace, friends!”) in the church. More than 1,500 police officers were called in to secure the area around Sankt-Jakobs-Platz.
Three days after the official opening, the people of Munich had the opportunity to visit the synagogue and the community center on a “day of encounter”. The unexpectedly great interest of the population meant that after a few hours a queue several hundred meters long formed in front of the synagogue. The police had to regulate further access to the square for security reasons. A total of 15,000 people viewed the new facilities.
Tenth anniversary of the inauguration
On November 9, 2016, the tenth anniversary of the inauguration of the Ohel Jakob Synagogue was celebrated in a ceremony. During the ceremony, Chancellor Angela Merkel was awarded the Ohel-Jakob-Medal in gold - the highest honor of the Israelite community of Munich and Upper Bavaria . In addition to many political celebrities, the previous winners such as Christian Ude , Günther Beckstein , Hubert Burda , Harald Strötgen , Hans-Jochen Vogel and Horst Seehofer were present .
According to information from the weekly newspaper Die Zeit, the new Jewish Center cost a total of 57 million euros. The project was financed by the state capital Munich, the Free State of Bavaria , the Israelite Community and donations. The contribution of the state capital and the state government amounts to around 30 million euros. A further 20.5 million euros were obtained from the sale of the property on Herzog-Max-Strasse, on which the old main synagogue of the then Reformed community stood. The buyer was Karstadt Warenhaus GmbH , which was able to expand its neighboring Oberpollinger department store . The city of Munich made the 5500 square meter area at Sankt-Jakobs-Platz available free of charge , following a proposal by Mayor Christian Ude . An inscription inside the synagogue reminds us that the Archdiocese of Munich and Freising under Archbishop Cardinal Friedrich Wetter and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria also donated a sum of money to build the center.
On March 13, 2007 was special brand of Deutsche Post AG presented, which is dedicated to the Jewish Center; The stamp was first issued on March 1, 2007. It was designed by Barbara Dimanski from Halle. The circulation of the 55 cent stamp was 6.5 million copies.
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