Kitzingen district

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coat of arms Germany map
Coat of arms of the Kitzingen district Map of Germany, location of the Kitzingen district highlighted

Coordinates: 49 ° 45 '  N , 10 ° 16'  E

Basic data
State : Bavaria
Administrative region : Lower Franconia
Administrative headquarters : Kitzingen
Area : 684.19 km 2
Residents: 91,155 (Dec. 31, 2019)
Population density : 133 inhabitants per km 2
License plate : KT
Circle key : 09 6 75
Circle structure: 31 municipalities
Address of the
district administration:
Kaiserstrasse 4
97318 Kitzingen
Website :
District Administrator : Tamara Bischof ( FW )
Location of the district of Kitzingen in Bavaria
Weiden in der Oberpfalz Straubing Würzburg Schwabach Schweinfurt Regensburg Rosenheim Nürnberg Nürnberg Passau Landshut Memmingen Kaufbeuren Kempten (Allgäu) Ingolstadt Fürth Hof Erlangen Coburg Bayreuth Bamberg Augsburg München Aschaffenburg Amberg Ansbach Landkreis Würzburg Landkreis Wunsiedel im Fichtelgebirge Landkreis Weißenburg-Gunzenhausen Landkreis Weilheim-Schongau Landkreis Unterallgäu Landkreis Traunstein Landkreis Tirschenreuth Landkreis Straubing-Bogen Landkreis Starnberg Landkreis Schweinfurt Landkreis Schwandorf Landkreis Rottal-Inn Landkreis Roth Landkreis Rosenheim Landkreis Rhön-Grabfeld Landkreis Regensburg Landkreis Pfaffenhofen an der Ilm Landkreis Regen Landkreis Passau Landkreis Ostallgäu Landkreis Oberallgäu Landkreis Nürnberger Land Landkreis Neu-Ulm Landkreis Neustadt an der Waldnaab Landkreis Neustadt an der Aisch-Bad Windsheim Landkreis Neumarkt in der Oberpfalz Landkreis Neuburg-Schrobenhausen Landkreis München Landkreis Mühldorf am Inn Landkreis Miltenberg Landkreis Miesbach Landkreis Main-Spessart Landkreis Lindau (Bodensee) Landkreis Lichtenfels Landkreis Landshut Landkreis Landsberg am Lech Landkreis Kulmbach Landkreis Kronach Landkreis Kitzingen Landkreis Kelheim Landkreis Hof Landkreis Haßberge Landkreis Günzburg Landkreis Garmisch-Partenkirchen Landkreis Fürth Landkreis Fürstenfeldbruck Landkreis Freyung-Grafenau Landkreis Freising Landkreis Forchheim Landkreis Erlangen-Höchstadt Landkreis Erding Landkreis Eichstätt Landkreis Ebersberg Landkreis Donau-Ries Landkreis Dingolfing-Landau Landkreis Dillingen an der Donau Landkreis Deggendorf Landkreis Dachau Landkreis Coburg Landkreis Cham Landkreis Berchtesgadener Land Landkreis Bayreuth Landkreis Bamberg Landkreis Bad Tölz-Wolfratshausen Landkreis Bad Kissingen Landkreis Augsburg Landkreis Aschaffenburg Landkreis Ansbach Landkreis Amberg-Sulzbach Landkreis Altötting Landkreis Aichach-Friedberg Bodensee Schweiz Österreich Baden-Württemberg Hessen Tschechien Sachsen Thüringenmap
About this picture

The district of Kitzingen is located in the southeast of the Bavarian administrative district of Lower Franconia . The county seat is Kitzingen . The district is a member of the Nuremberg Metropolitan Region and the Main Franconia Regiopole Region .



The Schwanberg forms the center of the district

The district of Kitzingen is located in the south-eastern part of Lower Franconia at the main triangle . The eastern vertex of the river flows through the district from north to south. In addition, the district has a share in the Steigerwald low mountain range , with several mountains over 450 m. The closest regional centers in Lower Franconia are Schweinfurt in the north, with a distance of around 35 km to the city of Kitzingen, and Würzburg in the west, which is around 17 km away. The regional center Bamberg in the Upper Franconia district plays a role with a distance of 33 km for the eastern district area around Geiselwind .

The district has a share in the Main Franconia region and is located in the Bavarian planning region of Würzburg , two places in the district area (Kitzingen and Volkach) are assigned to the regional center of Würzburg as medium-sized centers . The planning regions Main-Rhön (in the north), Upper Franconia-West (in the northeast) and West-Central Franconia (in the south) border directly on the area of ​​the district. In addition, the district is part of the Nuremberg metropolitan region and since the exit of the city of Würzburg in 2010 has formed its north-western end with a distance of over 50 km to the city of Nuremberg .

Viticulture has played a major role in the region for centuries. Thus the district of Kitzingen share of the wine-growing area Franconia with its areas Maindreieck and Steigerwald. The "Weinlandkreis" has the largest cultivation area in the entire wine region (around the center of the region alone, the Volkacher Mainschleife , over 1100 hectares are planted with vines).

The center of the district is the Schwanberg , which also mediates between the Maintal / Steigerwald foreland and the actual Steigerwald. The highest places in the district of Kitzingen are then the village of Schwanberg and the Abtswind district of Friedrichsberg with 474 and 465 m above sea level. NN. In the main valley is with Segnitz at about 183 m above sea level. NN to find the lowest place. The northernmost point of the district can be found in the district of Gaibach , the easternmost is the district of Wasserberndorf . Unterickelsheim is located at the southernmost point , while the district area extends to Westheim in the west .

Panorama of the so-called Weininsel in the north of the district, taken from the Vogelsburg. In the center you can see the wine-growing community of Nordheim am Main , on the right the village of Escherndorf with the ascent to the Gäuflächen. On the left in the background you can see the mountains of the Steigerwald.

Neighboring areas

The district of Kitzingen forms the south-eastern end of the administrative district of Lower Franconia. Districts from the other two Franconian districts of Upper and Middle Franconia border on it. The Bamberg district forms the transition to Upper Franconia in the Steigerwald, while the Neustadt an der Aisch-Bad Windsheim district in the south is the Middle Franconian neighbor. (→ see also: Dreifrankenstein )

Schweinfurt district
Würzburg district Neighboring communities Bamberg district
Neustadt an der Aisch-Bad Windsheim district

Natural structure

The district has a share in the large natural region of the Southwest German stepland . Overall, it is divided into two main unit groups. The east is part of the Franconian Keuper-Lias-Land (11), the entire west is occupied by the Mainfränkische Platten (13). Five main units form the district, whereby these are in turn subdivided into sub-units:

151011-170501 Bene-Pano.jpg
Volkacher Mainschleife in the Main Valley
Segnitz Panorama.JPG
Segnitz in the Main Valley, behind the elevations of the Gäuf areas
1 Schwanberg 1.jpg
Steigerwald foreland from the Schwanberg

Central local structure

The fact that the district of Kitzingen has the highest number of cities and markets in the districts of Lower Franconia is due to the historical territorial fragmentation . There are eight cities, eleven markets and twelve village parishes. With the municipal reform in Bavaria in the 1970s, the Herrnsheim market was incorporated into the Willanzheim market.

The district is dominated by the large district town of Kitzingen with 21,346 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2017). The city is listed as a medium-sized center in the current Bavarian state development plan . In addition to the district office, there is a hospital, notaries, swimming pools and various shopping opportunities. The second medium-sized center Volkach with 8,811 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2017) with a significantly lower centrality index is the center of the northern district.

Because of the large number of formerly central locations, only a few cities could retain a central function. Many cityscapes in the district testify to a pre-industrial arable town . Local centers are Dettelbach with 7,260 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2017), Wiesentheid with 4,840 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2017), Iphofen with 4,587 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2017) and Marktbreit with 3,861 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2017) December 2017). All four locations were listed as small centers in earlier state development plans .


Prehistory and early history

The district has been inhabited continuously since the Paleolithic. For the early epochs, of which there are no written records of the residents, one is dependent on archaeological excavations or random reading finds . Only from early history are works by foreign authors (mostly Romans) available who report on the peoples in this area. The Gäuflächen, the Main Valley and the Steigerwald foreland were developed much earlier than the areas in the climatically disadvantaged Steigerwald. They also had a higher density of settlements.

Stone Age (around 150,000 to 1,800 BC)

The first evidence of human existence in Kitzinger country is a 150,000 year old quartzite - hand ax from the district of Dornheim . At that time the area between the Main and Steigerwald was probably a preferred hunting area for wandering groups. This is underlined by the finds of scrapers and blades from the area between Kitzingen and the Schwanberg. A blade tip from Neusetz could have served as a projectile head for a hunting weapon of the Stone Age people.

Stone Age flat ax from Astheim, 4,900–2,300 BC Chr.

During the Mesolithic period , the climate in Central Europe warmed up. Many finds in the north-western district date from this time, because the soil properties with a high proportion of sand preserved the objects better. The devices are very similar to those of the Paleolithic . Microliths were used as harpoons for fishing in the Main and its tributaries. A large number of these objects were discovered near Großlangheim .

Finds from the Neolithic period differ considerably from the remains of the previous eras. For the first time, people were not just nomads, but lived as arable farmers in a village community. Typical relics from this time are the so-called residential storage buildings of the band ceramic culture . In addition, cultic customs were introduced. In Repperndorf , figurative representations of people were excavated, in Mainstockheim and Schernau stone fertility idols were discovered.

Later the Rössen culture replaced the band ceramics. They also built defensive structures like the Wall-Graben-Werk northeast of Enheim . The end of the Neolithic Age began with the Corded Pottery culture . The people practiced a strict custom for the dead with the so-called double stool burials. At the same time, it must have been a warlike society, as the excavation of a battle ax near Dimbach proves . The people of the bell-cup culture were also warlike , of which only a few remains could be identified in the district. Stone thumb protection plates found on the Vogelsburg and Schwanberg are the only evidence of their existence.

Bronze Age (around 1,800 to 750 BC)

From around 1800 BC bronze processing prevailed and revolutionized the way people lived. The first object of this new culture was a mold for bronze axes that was discovered near Hüttenheim . At the same time, trade relations between the individual groups of people increased. A marginal ridge ax from northern Germany was recovered from the Main near Fahr .

In addition to the well-known body graves, the people of the Bronze Age also began to erect so-called fire graves . These innovations in the burial of the dead are seen as a sign of the transition to the Urnfield period , which began around 1200 BC in the Kitzinger Land and is represented by the particularly magnificent ensemble of women's jewelry from the area around the Schwanberg. Urn fields could also be identified in Düllstadt , Groß- and Kleinlangheim and Marktbreit.

Improved weapon technology and the increase in population led to frequent campaigns in the Bronze Age. Many settlements were abandoned during this period. People left settlements near Bibergau , Michelfeld and Obervolkach . A hoard found near Reupelsdorf indicates that the residents had fled. In these troubled times, people began to fortify the surrounding mountains. The focal points of the military defense were the Vogelsburg , the Schwanberg and the Bullenheimer Berg on the outermost edge of today's district area.

Iron Age (around 750 to 50 BC)

The Bullenheimer Berg is one of the most important sites around Kitzingen

The art of iron processing reached the area of ​​today's district around the middle of the 8th century BC. Initially the people of the Hallstatt period lived here , the appearance of which is shaped by objects that testify to extensive trade. Perhaps the people of this time can already be addressed as Celts because they dug very similar cremation graves to this one. These burial places arose especially along the Main. A particularly remarkable relic of this time is the Laushügel near Buchbrunn .

If there is no precise knowledge of the composition of the population for the early Iron Age , the people of the Latène period from 450 BC can be clearly identified as Celts. Furthermore, the people preferred to settle on the river, especially many Celtic settlements can be made out along the Main bend. A large burial mound was created here in the east of Volkach, which can be associated with the Vogelsburg as a Celtic fortification.

The people not only fortified the mountains as military retreat bases, but also began to populate the hills with civilians by creating so-called oppida (Latin for fortified cities). So-called Viereckschanzen (as the remains of these cities were called in later centuries) emerged in Bimbach and Marktbreit as places of worship. The most beautiful works of art could, however, be excavated in the vicinity of the Bullenheimer Berg or the Schwanberg.

Romans, Migration Period (up to 8th century AD)

A plaque today refers to the Roman camp Marktbreit

With the rise of the Roman Empire to the dominant power of Europe, more and more Roman art objects appeared in what was actually free Germania ( Germania magna ), indicating lively contact between people. In Bimbach a brooch in the shape of a dog was dug up , which was made in Rome. At the same time, the composition of the population also changed. The Celts were driven out by the migrating Elbe Germans from around 50 BC .

At the turn of the times, the Romans tried to push back the Germanic tribes in the east of their empire and to incorporate the areas into the empire. For this purpose, a 37 hectare Roman camp was built under Emperor Augustus above Marktbreit . The buildings offered space for around 10,000 soldiers (two legions ) and were built using wood and clay with trunks from Bullenheimer Berg. After the defeat in the Varus Battle , the facility, which also had a shipping pier on the Main, was soon abandoned ( see also: Römerlager Marktbreit ) .

During the Migration Period, the district was crossed by the Burgundians , who, however, left hardly any traces. The Alemanni , who temporarily settled here, were defeated by the Franks in 496 , who are now beginning their colonization. The Kleinlangheim cemetery is particularly significant for this change . It was documented from 150 AD until the 5th century; the tradition of cremation graves only ended with the victory of the Franks. At the same time, the resting place was moved to the place.

With the Frankish colonization, which in the first centuries of its emergence had hardly any noticeable effects on the people who settled here, the Christian faith and with it the written language slowly came into the area of ​​the Main Triangle. It was not until the 8th century that the Franconian rulers forced the country to expand with the construction or continued use of castles and the settlement of individual families in what is now the district area.

Early Middle Ages (up to around 1000)

First Franconian advances

The Franks also brought political stability to the region. They did not advance into an uninhabited landscape, but met a Germanic-Celtic mixed population. Although the written form of these cultures was not pronounced, linguistic remnants of the Celtic inhabitants have been preserved to this day. They named the river Main and the Iff for the first time . The place names Kitzingen and Volkach (on the stream of the same name) also refer to the Celts.

The Vogelsburg was an outpost of the Frankish advance

The Franconian newcomers did not reach the area between the Main and Steigerwald with a large number of settlers, but only settled the area with a small number of people from what is now Thuringia . Settlement locations that had already been secured were still used, the Vogelsburg and Schwanberg remained inhabited. The mountain spur of the Herrenberg above Castell was probably newly developed . The early Franconian-Latin name castellum , like castellum Virteburh ( Würzburg ), refers to a fortification and was later transferred to the settlement at the foot of the castle. In the 9th and 10th centuries the “advance” castles were still in the hands of the Franconian kings.

Although the Franconian Merovingians had not yet fully developed the country politically, they began to put their stamp on the often existing places in the Main Valley, on the Gäuf areas and in the Steigerwald foreland. The mostly still existing settlements with the home endings refer to this. This suffix often occurs in the south and in the center of the district area, which was particularly fertile and was probably settled from the deaf area. The places Enheim , Gnötzheim , Martinsheim and Unterickelsheim can be traced back to this phase. The settlement followed the banks of the smaller brooks via Hüttenheim and Dornheim to Mainbernheim and the two Langheim. A second advance took place along the creeks Kürnach and Pleichach, of which only Nordheim is in the district today. The prefixes often refer to Franconian first names, such as Nenzo bei Nenzenheim, whose owners founded the settlements.

Wendish settlement

Simultaneously with the Franconian advances, especially from the south and west, the district was also reached by Slavic settlers in the 6th and 7th centuries , most of whom came from the east. The leading was the tribal association of the Wends . Although the advance of these peoples took place independently of the Franconian settlement, the Wends quickly came under Franconian suzerainty. Place names ending in -wind, such as Abtswind and Geiselwind , and -nitz, such as Segnitz , still refer to Slavic development .

The Slavic settlers managed to reclaim other areas. In particular, the eastern Steigerwald foreland with less fertile soils was cleared by them , but they also left their mark on various fields and terrain names along the Main . The Wends eventually mixed with the Franks and the indigenous indigenous population, which was promoted by the rulers through a systematic Christianization. It is unclear to what extent acts of war also played a role.

Systematic development

The early medieval districts around 1000. Gozfeld, Iffgau and Volkfeld on the border between brown and purple

From the 7th or 8th century, the land on the Main appeared more clearly in the sources. The Franks increasingly moved their mansions from Thuringia to the navigable river. This local reorientation also accompanied the rise of the Carolingians , which began with the victory of Pippin the Middle over Neustria in 687. A second migratory movement quickly began, which was followed by systematic land development along the Steigerwald rise.

The Franks also founded new settlements, often on the edge of the larger forest areas. At that time places were created with the ending -hausen in combination with a Franconian personal name, because Franconian nobles often supervised the clearing, such as Etwashausen (from Otwin), Öttershausen (from Oterich) and Rüdenhausen (from Ruodo). At Atzhausen no person was the godfather for the name, but the prefix refers to the location of the place in the east of the Main.

Fundamental to the area-wide Frankish settlement was also the advancement of Christianization in the newly developed areas, especially by the Iro-Scottish wandering monks , who moved across the mainland from the end of the 7th century. In particular Boniface , less the Franconian saint Kilian , drove the religious renewal forward. In 742 he founded the diocese of Würzburg , which the Carolingian caretaker Karlmann equipped with 25 churches. Four of these original churches are located in today's district area. In Willanzheim it was the still existing Martinskirche , in Iphofen a church was consecrated to St. John the Baptist. The Andreas Church in Kirchheim and the Remigius Church in Kleindornheim are gone today, as are the two villages. The diocese churches were not the only places of worship at that time, at the same time similar places of worship were built all over the Steigerwald foreland.

The Carolingians also promoted the worldly development of the area. Six royal corpses in Pleichfeld, Prosselsheim , Dettelbach , Willanzheim, Iphofen and Ickelsheim with huge estates were located in today's district or in the surrounding area. They were assigned the so-called Gaue as larger political administrative units, three of which were partly in the Kitzinger Land, the Iffgau with the main towns of Seinsheim , Ippesheim and Iphofen, the Volkfeld with Volkach in the center and the Gozfeld with the central towns of Pleichfeld, Kitzingen and Dettelbach. They got their name from the most important main tributaries in their area.

The Mattons

The Münsterschwarzachs coat of arms shows the lion with rafters in its mouth, which is considered a symbol of the Mattons

During the Franconian development, the larger aristocratic clans in particular pushed ahead with the reclamation and later occupied important positions in church and politics. In the district these were mainly the Mattonen . The family belonged to the Reichsdienstadel and had already risen under the Merovingians. The development of the largely uninhabited Steigerwald is attributed to them.

The Mattons also founded monasteries to ensure the economic needs of their later sons and daughters. This is how the convent in Kitzingen, initially founded as a loose cell, with Mattonin Hadeloga came into being before 745 . The Benedictine monastery that emerged from this foundation was an important lordly pillar at the Main Triangle and remained under the control of the Carolingian king until 1007 as an imperial monastery. The close connection with the royal family suggests family relationships between Mattonen and Carolingians.

Around 788 the family founded another convent a little further up the Main on the Schwarzach . There Hruadlaug was installed as the first abbess. The monastery of Suuarzaha was also under the king's control. The Megingaudshausen monastery was built in the Steigerwald on Laimbach before 816 , named after its founder, Mattonen Megingaud, which was reserved for male family members. After the abbey on the Schwarzach was dissolved around 877, the monks of Megingaudshausen moved into the abandoned buildings of the nuns and founded the Münsterschwarzach monastery here , which later became one of the most important religious branches in the diocese of Würzburg.

Parish organization from the early days

At the end of the 10th century the diocese of Würzburg had reached its final expansion, the stock was only noticeably reduced when the diocese of Bamberg was separated in 1007. The network of churches was wide-meshed, so that the original or old parishes usually had to take care of huge parishes . Their areas are based on manorial connections, often the possessions of a gentleman were combined into a parish. Only in the Steigerwald were there only beginnings of parish structures until the High Middle Ages. Four or five original parishes were in the district area.

The center in the district was the parish of the Kitzingen nunnery in the abbey church in the north of the city. Their area of ​​influence extended in the west to Westheim , Lindelbach , Theilheim and Biebelried , in the north to Mainstockheim , Buchbrunn and Schernau . On the east side, only the places around Sickershausen , which are still part of Kitzingen today, were included. On the Volkacher Kirchberg stood the church for the places on the Mainschleife. The smallest original parish arose around Gerlachshausen , which included the places in the Schwarzacher basin with the exception of Stadtschwarzach.

The town of Stadtschwarzach formed its own original parish district. Since this parish also included the furnishings of the Megingaudshausen monastery after the monks moved to Münsterschwarzach, this church district extended far into the Steigerwald. Border towns in the east were Kirchschönbach , Großbirkach , Abtswind and Wiesentheid . The second Steigerwald parish had its main church in Iphofen and extended to Geiselwind, Birklingen and Einersheim .

High Middle Ages (until around 1300)

The high Middle Ages in the district of Kitzingen were also characterized by the rise of smaller rulers who came to land and influence at the expense of imperial power. One reason for this postponement was the weakness of the central government during the investiture dispute and the interregnum . In addition to the Würzburg monastery , which became the largest landlord between the Main and Steigerwald, aristocratic families and monasteries also succeeded in doing so.

The Steigerwald as a border area

Around the year 1100 the areas in the middle Steigerwald were also developed. Wiesenbronn was first mentioned in the sources as early as 889, and Feuerbach and Wiesentheid were mentioned in 918 , so that the western Steigerwald can be considered to have been developed much earlier. Place names further east on the heights of the low mountain range such as Haag , Weiler , Langenberg , Gräfenneuses , Neuses am Sand , Brünnau and many others refer to a foundation in the 11th century.

The colonizers of the mountain areas must be considered to be the Mattons, who had already driven clearing here in the centuries before. However, the beneficiary of the cleared areas was the Bishop of Würzburg, who was able to acquire some rights from the central authority in the developed Steigerwald. Emperor Heinrich II gave the Würzburg bishop Meginhard I the ban on wild animals over the Steigerwald in 1023 , so that the bishop was now allowed to exercise sole hunting rights here.

In the following years the Würzburg bishops received further such privileges and slowly rose to secular masters who had their own territories under themselves. This “wave of privileges” was seen as reparation, because in 1007 Heinrich II had removed the parish of the Bamberg diocese from the previous holdings of the Würzburg diocese. The Steigerwald in today's Kitzingen district became a border region. Today the eastern parishes are mostly part of the Archdiocese of Bamberg.

The Counts of Castell

The Herrenberg Castle with the Altcastell tower and the Upper Castle

In addition to the Würzburg bishops, smaller aristocratic families also managed to rise between the Main and Steigerwald. The Counts of Castell , who named themselves after the castle of the same name on the Herrenberg, were particularly influential . Possibly the Castellers were related to the Mattonen. Many properties were already developed by the Mattonen and were later part of the extensive holdings of the counts. So the influence of the family in the west with the later market and Obernbreit as far as the Main and extended east to Ilmenau in the Steigerwald.

Rupert de Castello ( see also: Rupert I. zu Castell ) was first mentioned in a document in 1091. The rise of the family was preceded by great social changes that had taken place without knowledge of the sources. The family quickly began to acquire their own rights to their property. In the first half of the 12th century, the Casteller received the right from the Würzburg bishop to provide the bailiffs over the Benedictine monastery in Münsterschwarzach, which has now become part of the bishopric .

By the 13th century at the latest, the Lords of Castell had risen to become a hereditary count family . They had extensive holdings, especially in the far northwest of today's district along the Mainschleife, and also interacted with the other lords who were able to expand their power along the river. The conflict with Würzburg , which soon competed with the counts for the most important possessions, was pre-programmed .

In a dispute with the two Würzburg bishops from the House of Lobdeburg, Castell was defeated in 1230 and had to cede large parts of its territory to the Bishopric of Würzburg. However, the bishop gave many of the goods back to the counts as fiefs , thus ensuring their loyalty. In the following decades the core area of ​​the counts relocated to the Steigerwald, because the estates here were not affected by the events of 1230.

Another loss of power went hand in hand with the division of the castellian possessions between 1265 and 1267. The brothers Hermann and Heinrich zu Castell belonged to different political camps. While Hermann leaned toward the Würzburg bishop Poppo , Heinrich stood on the side of the Hennebergers who wanted to limit the bishop's influence. The dispute between the brothers led to a split in lines. At the same time, the conflict between Würzburg and Henneberg escalated in the so-called Cyriakus Battle between Sulzfeld and Kitzingen, in which Castell-Henneberg was defeated by Würzburg.

Ebrach and the other monasteries

The High Middle Ages in the Kitzingen district are also associated with the founding and establishment of the Ebrach Cistercian Abbey . The monastery itself is not located in what is now the district area, but it had a major impact on the development of the Kitzinger Land. Ebrach itself was founded in 1127 by two low-nobility brothers as the first southern German Cistercian monastery in a Steigerwald valley. The foundation was supported by the Staufer , who wanted to increase their influence.

The Ebracher Klosterhof in Elgersheim

The surrounding aristocratic families soon gave the monks of Ebrach rich donations from the land and people. The Counts of Castell gave them rich property in Fahr and Elgersheim an der Mainschleife, which was later organized into a separate office. Although the Ebrach monks found settled land in the Steigerwald, they pushed ahead with the development of the still heavily forested area. So-called Novalland was created. The place Greuth , which can be considered the last re-establishment of a village in the district area, was probably founded during this time .

The monks of Ebrach promoted a new type of land management. So an attempt was made to manage large parts of the property by the monks themselves and to refrain from leasing. The Cistercians combined their possessions into so-called grangia with larger arable land. So it could be managed more effectively. Only at the end of the 13th century was the leasing system introduced because the abbey had experienced a decline in conversations .

The other two large monasteries, which were of crucial importance for the early medieval development of the country between the Main and Steigerwald, Kitzingen and Münsterschwarzach, lost their influence in the High Middle Ages. With the establishment of the diocese of Bamberg, Kitzingen lost its imperial immediacy and Münsterschwarzach came under the influence of the Würzburg bishops. However, the abbey in Schwarzach remained an important spiritual institution and promoted the high medieval reform movements such as the renewal of Gorze , which especially Abbot Egbert promoted.

The Hohenlohe

The family coat of arms of Hohenlohe

A little later than the Counts of Castell, the Lords of Hohenlohe rose to become important landlords in the Kitzinger Land. The aristocratic family had their seat further south off the Main near Uffenheim . They belonged to the Hohenstaufen camp and were accordingly sponsored directly by the ruling house. In particular during the Interregnum (1256–1273) they managed to acquire many rights at the expense of their former patrons.

So they brought the former Reichslehen Seinsheim , Herrnsheim and Iffigheim into their possession along with others outside of the Kitzinger Land. Already under Friedrich Barbarossa in the 12th century, the family had succeeded in placing the bailiff over the Benedictine nuns of Kitzingen and the neighboring, up-and-coming settlement. The Hohenlohe could possibly even be considered the actual founder of the later town of Kitzingen.

The acquisition of what were later known as the six main villages , i.e. the places Sickershausen , Steft , Obernbreit, Gnodstadt , Martinsheim and Oberickelsheim (which is no longer part of the district), was particularly significant . But the family also acquired rights in the Steigerwaldvorland, for example in Rödelsee , Mainstockheim, Enheim and Schernau. The acquisition of Broite, i.e. Marktbreit, was also elementary, so that the Hohenlohe people controlled large parts of the southern district area at the end of the High Middle Ages.

The rise of the cities

The high Middle Ages are marked by the rise of urban settlements. Central trading centers had already sprung up beforehand , which due to their location were expanded into hubs . But it was only in the 12th and 13th centuries that these settlements emerged through their appearance with a curtain wall and their legal position vis-à-vis the surrounding villages. The diversity of gentlemen in the Kitzinger Land, who established themselves during this time, led to the rise of several localities to cities, although this process was not yet completed in the High Middle Ages.

Stadtschwarzach , Volkach, Kitzingen and Iphofen can be counted among the representatives of the so-called first urban class , but all four cities were created under different conditions. Stadtschwarzach was probably built as a planned settlement next to the long-established Klosterschwarzach around the year 1230 on the green field . Probably Abbot Herold von Münsterschwarzach and Bishop Hermann I von Lobdeburg pushed ahead with the construction of the city, which soon received a wall, market rights, its own measure and a central court .

The Volkach settlement, only a few kilometers up the Main, can be described as much older. Already in the early Middle Ages it was a central trading place on the Mainschleife. At first the village was part of the sphere of influence of the Fulda monastery , but in the 11th century the Counts of Castell rose to become landlords. The counts began to build the most important settlement in their territory into an administrative center. In 1258, Volkach was first referred to as a city, although the place was probably never officially raised to such a status.

Like Stadtschwarzach, Kitzingen rose in the shadow of a monastery. In addition to the Benedictine Abbey, a settlement was established in the south, which is first documented in 1090. Its location on an important long-distance traffic link soon led to a concentration of trade in the direction of the Main , which was additionally cemented by a ford . The lords of Hohenlohe probably founded an urban settlement on the site of the monastery village around 1226, as the rectangular plan of the city wall refers to. Kitzingen was first mentioned as a city in 1290.

The elevation of Iphofens to the city was similarly planned and formed a territorial stabilization for the Würzburg bishop in the foreland of the Steigerwald . The place was mentioned in a document as early as 1023 in the deed of the Steigerwald Wildbann. But only Bishop Manegold of Neuchâtel forced the development of the settlement as a bulwark against the Lords of Hohenlohe and the Counts of Castell. He elevated Iphofen to town with a document dated February 22, 1293. In the following years it was surrounded with walls, ramparts and moats .


Regional courts

Before 1800, the area of ​​today's Kitzingen district belonged mainly to the Würzburg monastery and the Counts of Castell . Between 1804 and 1814 the area became part of Bavaria. The district courts of Kitzingen , Dettelbach and Volkach were established as early as 1804 . They belonged to the Lower Main District (from 1838 Lower Franconia and Aschaffenburg, from 1945 only Lower Franconia ). In 1853 the regional court of the same name was created from the previous Marktbreit court.

District Office

In 1862, the district courts of Kitzingen and Marktbreit were combined to form the district office of Kitzingen and the district courts of Dettelbach and Volkach to form the district office of Volkach . On August 1, 1870, the city of Kitzingen left the district office and became a city ​​directly within the district .

In 1872 the Volkach District Office was dissolved. The communities in the north around Volkach came to the Gerolzhofen district office and the communities in the south around Dettelbach to the Kitzingen district office.

On the occasion of the reform of the layout of the Bavarian district offices, the Kitzingen district office received the municipality of Wiesenbronn from the Gerolzhofen district office on January 1, 1880 .

On July 1, 1932, the district office handed over the communities Bullenheim and Gnötzheim to the district office of Uffenheim.


On January 1, 1939, as everywhere in the German Reich, the designation district was introduced. So the district office became the district of Kitzingen.

On April 1, 1940, Kitzingen was reintegrated into the Kitzingen district, but this was reversed on April 1, 1948.

As part of the regional reform , on July 1, 1972, today's district of Kitzingen was converted from the old district of Kitzingen (excluding the three communities Dipbach , Oberpleichfeld and Prosselsheim , which came to the district of Würzburg), the independent city of Kitzingen , the southern part of the district of Gerolzhofen , the western part of the Scheinfeld district as well as the communities Bullenheim , Gnötzheim and Unterickelsheim of the Uffenheim district. The city of Kitzingen received the status of a large district town for the loss of district freedom .

On January 1, 1978, the district of Kitzingen was enlarged to include the community of Ilmenau in the district of Bamberg, which was incorporated into Geiselwind . At the same time he ceded the community Bullenheim, which was incorporated into Ippesheim , to the district of Neustadt an der Aisch-Bad Windsheim. On May 1, 1978, the Gnodstadt community moved from the Würzburg district to the Kitzingen district and was incorporated into Marktbreit .

Population development

Population development in the district of Kitzingen from 1840 to 2018 according to the table below

From 1988 to 2008 the district of Kitzingen grew by 9,000 inhabitants or by over 11%. From 2005 onwards the trend was after a high of approx. 89,500 inhabitants declining; since 2012 the population has increased again slightly. In the period from 1988 to 2018, the population of the district rose from 79,976 to 90,909 by 10,933 inhabitants or 13.7%. The following figures refer to the territorial status on May 25, 1987.

Population development
year 1840 1900 1939 1950 1961 1970 1987 1991 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2018
Residents 58,410 58,496 63,675 85,937 78,812 81,074 79,304 83,968 87,386 88,986 89.501 88,397 89,306 90.909


More than 60 desert locations can be identified in the area of ​​the Kitzingen district . The villages mostly disappeared during the late medieval desert period between 1300 and 1525, which was triggered, among other things, by the agricultural crisis . In particular, the late foundations in the Steigerwald foreland and in the Steigerwald itself were affected by this. After villages were abandoned again during the Thirty Years War, the settlement population remained relatively stable. Only hamlets and wastelands with a few inhabitants fell into desolation.


District Administrator

Tamara Bischof (Free Voters) has been District Administrator since 2000.

District council

The district council consists of 60 members who are distributed among the parties and groups of voters as follows ( district council election 2014 ):

Parties Seats local elections 2014 Seats local elections 2020
CSU 22nd 18th
FW Lkr 15th 16
SPD 9 6th
Free Citizens' Community of Voters (FBW) 4th 4th
GREEN 4th 8th
ÖDP 2 1
Independent Social Voting Group (UsW) 2 1
FDP 1 2
Bavaria Party 1 1
AfD 0 3

coat of arms

Coat of arms of the Kitzingen district
Blazon : "In blue under golden Rebstück a silver stone bridge with two arches; under the front arch a red label with three silver tips inside, under the rear arch a small label crossed in red and silver. "
Founding of the coat of arms: Today's district of Kitzingen has consisted of parts of the former district of Kitzingen from 1955 and the large district town of Kitzingen as well as parts of the former districts of Gerolzhofen, Scheinfeld, Uffenheim and Bamberg since 1972. The two little heraldic shields indicate the most important rulers in the district until 1803, when the old empire came to an end. The front label shows the coat of arms of the Hochstift Würzburg (the Franconian rake ). Almost the entire district belonged to him. The rear label with the crossing of red and silver is the coat of arms of the Counts of Castell, who have been in the district since the 11th century. Their main branches, Castell Castle and Rüdenhausen are in the district. The crossing and the silver tips are taken from the coat of arms of the old district of Gerolzhofen. The tips were included in both the coat of arms of the old Gerolzhofen district and that of the old Scheinfeld district. The bridge stands for the city of Kitzingen and the vineyard indicates the importance of viticulture in the district.

The coat of arms was awarded on October 23, 1974.

Old county coat of arms
Old county coat of arms from 1955 to 1972
Blazon : "Divided, split above, square in front of silver and black, behind six times split of silver and blue, below three silver tips in red."
Justification of the coat of arms: The crossing in the upper part of the shield is the coat of arms of the House of Hohenzollern. A large part of the district area was owned by the Margraves of Brandenburg-Ansbach, a branch of the Brandenburg Hohenzollern family. The rear quarter contains the coat of arms of the Counts of Seinsheim, who had their castle and their territory in the district area. The lower part contains the coat of arms (the Franconian rake) of the Würzburg bishopric, which owned a large part of the district area.

The coat of arms was awarded on February 25, 1955.


Economy and Infrastructure

In the 2016 future atlas , the Kitzingen district was ranked 148th out of 402 districts, municipal associations and independent cities in Germany, making it one of the regions with a “balanced risk-opportunity mix”.



Acreage (2017)
local community Area (in hectares)
Volkach 627.2
Nordheim am Main 319.0
Iphofen 299.3
Dettelbach 236.0
Sommerach 232.2
Sulzfeld am Main 158.7
Rödelsee 106.9

The designation "Weinlandkreis", which was placed on the information boards at the district boundaries, is not just an advertisement to attract tourists, but also refers to the long wine-growing tradition in the Kitzinger Land. Of the 31 municipalities in its area, 27 today operate viniculture to varying degrees ; a total of around 50 districts have vineyards in their districts (as of 2017). With an area of ​​over 2,000 hectares (1984: 2,320 hectares, 1993: 2,050 hectares), the district combines the largest cultivation area in the Franconian wine-growing region .

However, not all areas are evenly planted with vines. Once again, basic natural features play a decisive role in viticulture. Viticulture is carried out in the Kitzinger Land (from west to east) on the Gäuflächen, in the Middle Main Valley, in the Steigerwald foreland and in the Ifftal area, only on the heights of the Steigerwald there are no vines to be found. The southernmost wine-growing community is Martinsheim , in the north you can still find vineyards in the district of Gaibach . In the east, the Steigerwald rise forms the border, the vineyards line up along the Kirchschönbach line in the north, via Abtswind and Castell, to Possenheim in the south.

Map of the vineyards around Volkach

In the course of the Wine Act of 1971, the Franconian wine- growing region was divided into so-called areas that were supposed to produce wines of the same taste. The district had a share in the Main Triangle area and the Steigerwald area . A comprehensive redesign of these areas in 2017 led to a greater division of the wine regions. Today the locations in Kitzinger Land are in a total of five areas. These are (from north to south): Volkacher Mainschleife around Volkach, Weinpanorama Steigerwald around Prichsenstadt , Schwanberger Land around Abtswind, Castell and Iphofen, MainSüden around Kitzingen and Weinparadies around Hüttenheim .

The center of viticulture in the district is the Volkacher Mainschleife around the municipality of the same name, on whose area the largest wine area in the growing area can be found with over 600 hectares. As everywhere in the Main Valley, the wine grows on shell limestone soils . The high average annual temperatures make viticulture possible in this region. Pure wine-growing communities arose around Volkach, which for centuries depended on the yield of the annual harvest and the quality of the wines grown. Further down the Main, the climatic conditions are worse, so that in addition to viticulture, agriculture is also practiced.

Another important wine town is Iphofen in the Steigerwald foreland . Here the vines grow on Letten or gypsum keuper areas . The vineyards are lined up along the western and southern slopes of the Steigerwald climb, in particular the Schwanberg is covered with vineyards around its base. Kitzingen is one of the historical centers of the wine trade in the district. Here and in the other market places, the cultivated products were sold.

Wine culture

Viticulture has a very long tradition and goes back to the Frankish colonization in the 7th century. In many early medieval documents relating to communities in the district, vineyards are already mentioned. When Volkach was first mentioned in 906, “vinetis campis”, or vineyards, appeared. Individual vineyards were only named late medieval diplomas. The Rödelsee "Swanliten" (Schwanleite) was first mentioned in 1295. During the Middle Ages, places also operated viticulture for self-sufficiency, which today no longer grow wine. A total of more than 18,000 hectares in the district were planted with vines. The monasteries promoted the professionalization of wine growing.

Land-adjusted vineyards around Rödelsee

The medieval and early modern wine industry experienced a comprehensive decline due to secularization and mediatization at the beginning of the 19th century. The monasteries ceased to exist as viticulture specialists and as important sales markets, while beer also began its triumphal march in Main Franconia. In the second half of the century, phylloxera and other vine pests spread in the district, so that many sites soon had to be completely abandoned. After the Second World War, the vineyard area had sunk to less than 1,800 hectares.

A number of measures made it possible to stabilize the wine-growing region again. The winemakers began to organize themselves and to form cooperatives in order to increase their expertise and to minimize costs. The first wine cooperative in the Franconian wine-growing region was founded in Sommerach in 1901 , and other establishments followed. With the Franconian regional cooperative, a kind of umbrella organization was created, which was initially based in Iphofen. Today this cooperative operates under the name Winzergemeinschaft Franken and is based in the Kitzingen district of Repperndorf .

The head office of the Sommerach wine cooperative

Just as elementary as the cooperatives was the land consolidation for the revitalization of viticulture. Even before the Second World War, several wine-growing communities, including Volkach and Iphofen, converted their districts, which had been fragmented by the centuries-old practice of real estate division, into large areas. From the 1950s onwards, a special vineyard land consolidation was developed. The land consolidation led to an increase in yields, but also promoted the impoverishment of the landscape through huge monoculture areas .

At the same time, from the 1970s onwards, a more centralized marketing of wine, supported by the newly formed large communities, was reflected in the establishment of community- owned vinotheques and educational wine trails. This led to a strong professionalization of self-marketing winegrowers who are not organized in a cooperative. Today, important wineries receive prizes and associations take care of marketing strategies. A total of twelve wineries in the Kitzingen district are organized in the Association of German Predicate and Quality Wineries (VDP), by far most of them in one district. In Escherndorf alone four quality winegrowers have their headquarters. The VDP also classified nine locations in the district. They are: Astheimer Karthäuser , Casteller Schlossberg, Escherndorfer Lump , Hallburger Schlossberg , Iphöfer Julius-Echter-Berg, Iphöfer Kronsberg, Rödelsee kitchen master, Sulzfelder Cyriakusberg and Volkacher councilor .

Today the wineries are just one aspect of the diverse wine culture in the Kitzingen district. This also includes the hedge taverns , which also open in the small towns, especially in the summer months, to serve the home-grown wine. The most sensible expression of wine culture, however, are the many wine festivals that established themselves after the Second World War. The largest wine festival in the district is the Franconian Wine Festival in Volkach, and the festivals in Rödelsee, Castell and Kitzingen are also important. In many wine towns today, a wine princess (or a wine prince) is chosen to represent the local wine.


The smaller of the two hospitals in the district: The Helios Klinik Volkach

In the Kitzingen district, there have only been two clinics in Kitzingen and Volkach since the 1990s , which ensure basic medical care for the population and are listed in the Bavarian hospital plan. Before that there were other houses in Dettelbach, Iphofen and Marktbreit.

  • Kitzinger Land clinic , district hospital with 206 beds, several specialties (including internal medicine, surgery, gynecology), affiliated specialist center as a medical care center (MVZ)
  • Helios Klinik Volkach , private hospital with 32 beds, specializing in surgery, affiliated specialist center as an MVZ.


Railway lines

The Bavarian State Railways opened two main lines from Würzburg:

Decades later there were three local railways with a total length of 36 km:

After passenger traffic was discontinued on these branch lines (1960: Dettelbach train station – Dettelbach city 6 km, 1968: Seligenstadt – Escherndorf – Volkach 5 km, 1981: Kitzingen – Gerolzhofen – Schweinfurt 25 km) it only stayed on the main lines (41 km) receive.

Rail buses run as museum trains on the Main Loop Railway from Seligenstadt to Astheim . A discussion broke out about reactivating the Mainschleifenbahn and the Steigerwaldbahn between Kitzingen and Schweinfurt for regular passenger traffic, which is also politically carried out.

Road traffic

Road traffic forms the backbone of the district's traffic development. All road types are represented in the district. The most important traffic junction is the Biebelried motorway junction in the area of ​​the municipality of the same name northwest of Kitzingen. The more subordinate state roads in the district are still important connecting roads that run on historical routes.

  • E43 (A 3, A 7) runs in the far west of the district (Biebelried) as federal highway 3, further south as federal highway 7.
  • E45 (A 7, A 3) runs in the north-western district as federal highway 7, cuts through the district to the east as federal highway 3.
  • A3 runs from Würzburg in an easterly direction through the middle of the district.
  • A7 runs from Schweinfurt-Würzburg / Estenfeld in a southerly direction through the far west of the district.
  • B8 runs from Würzburg through Kitzingen (as Hindenburgring or Mainbernheimer Straße) in a south-easterly direction through Mainbernheim, past Iphofen (development of the Knauf gypsum works) and Markt Einersheim.
  • B22 begins in Kitzingen (motorway exit Kitzingen / Schwarzach) and runs in a north-easterly direction past Stadtschwarzach, through Neuses am Sand, in the direction of Oberschwarzach / district of Schweinfurt through the northern district.
  • B286 runs from Schweinfurt / Gerolzhofen through the municipality of Prichsenstadt (Neuses am Sand), Wiesentheid, Rüdenhausen and Castell in the eastern district.
  • St 2271 runs from Kolitzheim in a southerly direction through Volkach, Schwarzach, Kitzingen, Marktsteft and Marktbreit along the Main in the western district.
  • St 2450 branches off from Bundesstraße 8 and runs past Dettelbach in the direction of Schwarzach / Steigerwald.

Local transport

After the Iphofen train station in December 2006, the Kitzingen train station was also incorporated into the Greater Nuremberg Transport Association (VGN) in December 2007 . Until January 31, 2009, the Kitzinger Nahverkehrsgemeinschaft was a district-wide transport association. Since February 1, 2009, the district has been part of the tariff area of ​​the Verkehrsverbund Mainfranken .

Main ferries

Of the original 13 ferry connections across the Main in the Kitzingen district, four still exist. The ferry locations developed from old fords that made it easier to get across the river. Initially, the ferries were operated as individual companies. Later the village lords were able to increase their influence and decide on tariffs and travel times.

With the mediatization , the ferries mostly came into the ownership of the municipalities. During the first half of the 19th century, the Main ferries were able to maintain their importance for traffic. It was only with the expansion of the so-called district roads, which ran parallel to the river, and the advent of the automobile in the first half of the 20th century, that ferries became a losing business. As a result, many ferries were abandoned in the 1950s.

The following main ferries currently still exist in the Kitzingen district:

Archives and Libraries

Protected areas

There are 15 nature reserves , three landscape protection areas and 19 geotopes and ten designated FFH areas in the district . (As of August 2016)

See also:

Culture and sights

Sites and ensembles

The old town of Kitzingen with the parish church, market tower, monastery church and Main bridge
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Marktbreit with town hall and Malerwinkelhaus

A large number of historical sites have survived in the Kitzingen district. Particularly noteworthy here is the Main Valley , where higher populations already settled in the Middle Ages than in the Steigerwald and its foreland. The economically strongest places were walled and became cities during the High and Late Middle Ages . Most of them have retained their characteristic appearance to this day.

From north to south, five cities can be identified along the river Main. Volkach as a two-gate town is dominated by its high towers. The upper gate tower and the characteristic octagonal tower of the parish church of St. Bartholomew and St. Georg are particularly characteristic of the cityscape . The town hall with the steep gable roof and the double flight of stairs in front of it can be described as typically Main Franconian. The town hall of Dettelbach is similar to its Volkach counterpart. Dettelbach itself is more winding, the city wall is characterized by the many smaller towers, some of which are still inhabited today. → see also: Old Town (Volkach) and Old Town (Dettelbach)

Further to the south, the city of Kitzingen forms the center of the district. Unlike the other Main cities in the district, it has always been oriented towards the river, which is underlined by the Main Bridge from the 13th century. Today it mediates between the core town of Kitzingen and the former suburb Etwashausen , which was included in the Kitzinger wall ring in the 15th century. Kitzingen suffered some destruction during the Second World War. The cityscape is still dominated today by the tower of the Catholic Johanneskirche, today's Lutheran monastery church, the market tower next to the town hall and the so-called Falterturm with its leaning dome. The former synagogue with its two orientalizing turrets dates from the 19th century.

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Karlsplatz Prichsenstadt with late medieval buildings
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Baroque castle in Wiesentheid

Sulzfeld am Main, a neighboring town of Kitzingen and actually not a city, is much more small-town. It is dominated by the mighty nave of the St. Sebastian Church , which sits enthroned on a hill in the southwest of the town. The two gates to the Main were important for the people because the ferry to the opposite Marktsteft was to be found here. Marktsteft itself only became a town in 1819 and therefore does not have the typical medieval features.

The end of the Main cities in the extreme northwest of the district is the city of Marktbreit. Marktbreit was also only named a town in 1819, but had already been able to establish an urban appearance thanks to its market rights received in 1557 and the constant promotion of its manorial power. Particularly noteworthy are the Wertheimer Haus, the Malerwinkelhaus and the Renaissance town hall of the master builder Hans Keesebrod . The early economic architecture on the Main, such as the old crane from the 18th century, is also significant . → see also: Altstadt (Marktbreit)

Castell in front of the Steigerwald

While the cities along the Main today attract large numbers of tourists, the places away from the river have a harder time. Iphofen is an exception. Like Volkach, it was for a long time an official town of the Würzburg monastery and has retained its medieval old town to this day. In Iphofen, the outer works of the city gates have mostly been preserved and underline the closed character of the city. In addition, the pointed church towers of the parish church of St. Veit and the pilgrimage church of St. Blood tower above the houses. → see also: Old Town (Iphofen)

The denominational division in the early modern period, combined with the splintering of the rulers that had existed since the Middle Ages, led to neighboring places with very different appearances in the district several times. This contrast is particularly attractive in the areas of Prichsenstadt-Wiesentheid. While the predominantly Lutheran Prichsenstadt presents itself as a small medieval town with mighty city gates and a high, defiant church tower , the situation in the Catholic Wiesentheid is different. The Counts of Schönborn sat here in the 17th and 18th centuries and transformed the place into a baroque one Settlement with wide streets and a mighty castle in the center. → see also: Altstadt (Prichsenstadt)

Smaller places often still have closed townscapes today. Particularly noteworthy is the multiple award-winning Sommerach with its village wall and the magnificent Renaissance buildings in the core. Abtswind is a counterpart in the Steigerwald foreland. On the other hand, Castell, the residence of the family of the same name at the foot of the Steigerwald, is influenced by classicism . The Johanneskirche by Joseph Albert towers over the place .

Churches and chapels

Before the Reformation

The Romanesque portal in Gnötzheim

In the Kitzingen district there are churches and chapels from every era since the Middle Ages. They were built in almost every village in the district. However, only a few tangible remains from the Romanesque era have survived in the churches. From the old monastery church of Münsterschwarzach Abbey, which had already been built around 1023, a corner stone with two griffins was attached as a spoiler in the subsequent building . The same sculptor's workshop was perhaps also responsible for the so-called Dimbach crucifixion relief, which was one of the oldest Frankish stone sculptures in the village church of the former monastery. The column portal of the Gnötzheimer church from the 12th century also takes up the forms of the Romanesque.

On the other hand, Gothic churches are far more common in the district. In the High and Late Middle Ages , many churches were rebuilt, so that the large town churches of Iphofen (1414–1612), Kitzingen (1402 – around 1460) and Volkach (1413–1544) are still largely closed and Gothic on the outside. Inside, however, there is often a mixture of styles, because in later centuries new fashion trends replaced the old (“old Franconian”) furnishings. Since the Kitzingen parish church was already completed in the 15th century and later underwent only a few changes both outside and inside, the (late) Gothic epoch can best be read on it. In particular, the rich sculptural decoration of the portals is unique in the entire district.

The Veitskirche Iphofen with the Michaelskapelle

Iphofen with its town church St. Veit and the neighboring Michaelskapelle is a typical Gothic ensemble. The Michaelskapelle was built around 1380 as an ossuary right next to the church. The bones of the deceased can be seen here again today, which makes the chapel unique in the district. St. Vitus, built as a three-aisled basilica with a high tower, contains several Gothic figures of saints inside, some of which can be attributed to Tilman Riemenschneider or his workshop. Many such figures can also be found in St. Jakobus-Großlangheim . The most important work of art from Riemenschneider's hand, however, is the Rosary Madonna in the Volkach Church of Maria im Weingarten .

Typical Gothic fittings are also the richly decorated winged altars . In contrast to the neighboring administrative region of Middle Franconia, only two of these altars have been completely preserved in the district area. Both are in today's Lutheran houses of worship in Abtswind and Füttersee . Both were, at least temporarily, assigned to the Michael Wolgemut school . The relics of a medieval winged altar can also be found in the parish church of Kitzingen. The Gothic sacraments for storing the holy of holies are also distributed across the district. In the Johanneskirche in Kitzingen and the Sebastianskirche in Reupelsdorf two particularly valuable houses have been preserved.

After the Reformation

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St. Eucharius, Sommerach with a real helmet
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St. Laurentius, Nordheim with a real helmet

The Reformation at the beginning of the 16th century can be seen as the greatest cultural and historical turning point in the history of the district . It has left its mark in and on the churches to this day. The Lutheran village and town lords continued to use the traditional church buildings, but soon began to change the furnishings. With the Counter-Reformation , which was mainly promoted by the Prince-Bishops of Würzburg in the district, the churches also received external features of the respective denomination .

This demarcation between Catholic and Protestant churches along the Volkacher Mainschleife is particularly evident. In Escherndorf , Fahr , Nordheim am Main and Sommerach , the so-called real helmets with their typical tips were put on the Catholic churches. They symbolized the regaining of the region for the Catholic faith. The churches, for example St. Johannes-Escherndorf, were rebuilt according to uniform plans in the post-Gothic style.

After the Thirty Years' War an agreement was reached between the denominations, from which it emerged that some villages remained divided into an Evangelical Lutheran and a Roman Catholic population. Here conventions regulated the establishment of so-called Simultanea for the use of the churches by both denominations. Such simultaneous churches still exist in Kaltensondheim , Schernau and Markt Herrnsheim , which makes the district, together with the Palatinate and the Amberg district, a center in Germany. In Dornheim , Neuses am Berg and Rödelsee , the denominations even got their own houses of worship.

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Neumann's Kreuzkapelle in Etwashausen
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Marchini's mock architecture in Wiesentheid

At the end of the 17th century the pompous baroque found its way into the churches in the district. In Kitzingen itself, a new building for the Ursulines was built as early as 1685 on the site of the old Benedictine monastery church . The builder was the Italian Antonio Petrini , who had a pioneering role for the Baroque in Main Franconia. After being profaned in the meantime, the monastery church is now the largest Lutheran church in Lower Franconia. The Würzburg bishops from the Schönborn family pushed the baroque style in their area, especially with the buildings of Balthasar Neumann . Neumann built the Kreuzkapelle (1741–1745) in Etwashausen and the Dreifaltigkeitskirche (1743–1745) in Gaibach. The monastery church he built (1727–1743) in Münsterschwarzach was demolished in the 19th century.

The Mauritius Church (1728–1732) in Wiesentheid was also built according to the master builder's plans . However, it is mainly famous for its pseudo-architecture, which was created by the painter Giovanni Francesco Marchini and shows a collapsing hall. Marchini created something similar for the Jakobskapelle in Wiesentheid, the burial place of the Lords of Schönborn. In Volkach, the parish church of St. Bartholomew was given its current furnishings in the baroque period, which was also created by important artists.

In the Lutheran territories, the splendid furnishings of the Catholic counterparts were dispensed with in the 18th century. The churches, on the other hand, received the simple objects in the style of the so-called margrave style . Especially the so-called

St. Michael on the Schwanberg

The pulpit altar and the surrounding galleries were installed in the Protestant houses of worship and are still preserved today in many churches in the district, for example in Prichsenstadt , Rüdenhausen and Mainbernheim . One of the most important churches in terms of art history was built in Castell with St. Johannes and symbolizes the transition between baroque and classicism with its pulpit altar. The only Moravian hall church in Bavaria has been preserved in Rehweiler .

In the 19th century only a few new churches were built in the district, the neo-Romanesque church of Enheim , built by Eduard Bürklein , can be cited as a typical example. The monastery church of the Münsterschwarzach Abbey, which was built between 1935 and 1938 as a three-aisled four- tower complex by the architect Albert Boßlet , is still an important representative of the so-called Heimatschutz movement of the 1920s and 1930s .

After the World War, small Catholic communities emerged in the purely Protestant towns as a result of the displaced persons, who were supported by the diocese of Würzburg with their own places of worship. In terms of art history, the churches in Kitzingen-Siedlung ( St. Vinzenz ) and Kleinlangheim ( St. Hedwig ) by Hans skull are particularly significant . On the Lutheran side, St. Michael on the Swan Mountain by Alexander von Branca should be mentioned.

Fortified churches

Gate of the fortified church Mönchsondheim

Mainfranken and thus also the district of Kitzingen is a center of the so-called fortified churches . They are probably also due to the territorial fragmentation during the Middle Ages. Cities were able to build city walls to protect their populations from possible enemies. The financially weaker villages, however, limited themselves to a village moat with hedges and bushes, the so-called Dorfhaag . In addition, so-called fortified churches were often built around the church yards and the churches themselves were fortified as fortified churches .

Three types of these fortified churches can be identified in the Kitzingen district. The simplest only have a wall around the cemetery. Later, single-storey storehouses with deep cellars, the so-called Kirchgaden, were built on the walls . This is how the Gadenkirchen castles came into being, which are most common in the district. In contrast, fortified churches with corner towers and battlements were rarely built. Originally, almost every village in the district had a fortified church, remains testify to this. Six plants are still completely or largely preserved. Most of the fortified churches can be found south of Iphofen.

Fortified church Marktsteft: Inside with Gaden
Hüttenheim Kirchenburg 010.jpg
Fortified church Hüttenheim: interior with Gaden

  • Kirchenburg Markt Herrnsheim : The fortified church is dominated by the Romanesque tower of the church from the 12th century. The nave with its gable roof protrudes over the building, the defensive wall around the fortified church prevented an expansion of the church. The churchyard is almost rectangular, with a pointed arched gate on the south side. Inside, the typical Kirchgaden characterize the complex.
  • Fortified church Hüttenheim : The fortified church is located in the middle of the village of Hüttenheim. It is oriented slightly to the northwest and comprises a rectangular area with the parish church as its center. In Hüttenheim, the complex is also dominated by the Romanesque church tower. As a typical fortified church, the small slit windows of the High Middle Ages were attached to the tower. The gate to the fortified church was built in 1596. The town hall, prison and school are grouped around the castle.
  • Fortified church in Kleinlangheim : The fortified church in Kleinlangheim has a particularly high walling that was built between the 12th and 14th centuries and is up to six meters high in places. In the past, the fortified church was also surrounded by a deep moat. The typical Gaden can also be found inside. Their cellars were separate and used by different families in peacetime.
  • Kirchenburg Markt Einersheim : The Einersheimer Kirchenburg towers above the village and was built as a square complex on a hilltop. The town hall was included in the Kirchgaden. The oldest element of the castle is the church's choir tower from the 13th century. A gate tower was built in 1414. In 1734 and 1735 the walls of the complex were completely renewed.
  • Kirchenburg Marktsteft : The fortified church is located in the middle of the Marktsteft town center. The fortified church was probably built in the 12th century. The fortified church surrounds the church on three sides. Remnants of the wall have been preserved in the east, the walling continues in the south. The former teacher's apartment and the old town hall are located on the inner wall to the west. To the west rises the Town Musicians Tower, which today is the most representative part of the castle.
  • Mönchsondheim fortified church : The Mönchsondheim fortified church is a special feature of the Kitzingen district. Today, the complex is the center of the open-air museum in Mönchsondheim. In the 15th century, the church was surrounded by the castle that still exists today. Almost all of the Gaden are two-storey and thus already differ externally from comparable systems.

Historic town halls

The town hall of Dettelbach

The district of Kitzingen has a very large number of historical town halls with over 30 buildings . Some of the buildings are still used by the administration today. They reflect the development and self-confidence of the middle class in the district. The first town halls were built at the end of the Middle Ages , when some settlements could develop into cities . The splitting up of the region played a role, as did the highly developed local craftsmanship.

After the cities played a kind of pioneering role in the establishment of town halls, smaller towns followed suit in the 16th century. Above all, the larger villages in the Steigerwald foreland and along the Main raised the necessary financial security to put their own administrative building in the center of the settlement. Only the Steigerwald rise formed a kind of barrier . There are no representative town halls here.

The town halls of the early modern period were by no means just administrative buildings, but were used as multifunctional buildings. Markets were held here or people invited to a dance. In larger communities, the madhouse for public shame was usually housed in the town hall. Most of this diverse use ended with the transfer to Bavaria, when the administration became more professional. At the latest in the course of the municipal reform in the 1970s, purely administrative buildings were built.

The current stock of former or existing town halls is diverse. While the cities and larger villages built three-story buildings in some cases, two-story buildings predominate in the district. The construction of pure stone buildings was reserved for the cities until the 18th century, while in the country one was content with half-timbered town houses . The appearance of the town halls is as diverse as their current use.

Museums and collections

The decentralized structure, which also characterizes the district itself, is continued in the museum landscape. The small central places usually have museums in urban sponsorship , and genuine in Kitzingen Marktbreit and Volkach city museums exist. In smaller communities, mostly private collectors have arranged for an exhibition to be set up. There are important private museums with the German Carnival Museum in Kitzingen and the Knauf Museum in Iphofen. The museums are mostly housed in representative monuments.

There is not a single state-sponsored exhibition in the district. However, the private or municipal collections have a large number of important objects that have been recognized by the state office for non-state museums in Bavaria . With a total of six objects that were included in the list of 100 Bavarian home treasures, the district has the highest density of all regional authorities in Bavaria. They are: The Miracle Book of Eucharius Sang in Dettelbach, the "Fasenickl" from Kipfenberg in Kitzingen, the midwife book of Anna Dorothea Rosen in Marktbreit, the Ceratit in Prichsenstadt, the Volkacher Salbuch in Volkach and the Ballotage in Wiesenbronn.

The logo of the City Museum Kitzingen
The Knauf Museum is housed in the old Iphöfer Rentamt

Protestant cemeteries and pulpits

Together with Brittany and Thuringia , the district of Kitzingen is one of the regions in which there are a particularly large number of so-called cemetery or open pulpits . Overall, the Gottesacker in the district has a high density of monuments, be it cemetery arcades as walling, epitaphs of higher-ranking deceased or artistic portals. The cemeteries as burial places were relocated from the church yards to the outskirts at the beginning of the early modern period and a separate decorating culture developed.

The cemetery portals in the district mostly go back to the 16th century. In particular, the local rulers who had joined the Reformation decorated the cemeteries with Renaissance portals . The cities of Kitzingen and Prichsenstadt started in 1542, and Mainbernheim received its cemetery portal in 1546. The portal in Eichfeld dates from 1588 and was built by Count Georg II zu Castell as a memory of his deceased wife. With the portal in Segnitz from 1607, the massive portals disappeared again. → see also: Friedhofportal (Eichfeld)

In the new cemeteries, the priests needed a prominent location to give the funeral sermons in particular. In the 16th century, the landlords in the district who had become Lutheran cultivated close ties to Wittenberg and the other centers of the Reformation and promoted the preaching of the Word of God, one of the most important elements of Lutheran worship. That is why, closely based on the Thuringian models, cemetery pulpits and arcades were also created here. The Catholic village lords largely renounced the decoration of "their" cemeteries, but forced the erection of wayside shrines (the cemetery in Fahr can be considered an exception ).

Mainbernheim, Friedhof-002.jpg
The Mainbernheim cemetery portal
1 Wiesenbronn cemetery 2.jpg
Pulpit and arcades in the Wiesenbronn cemetery
Marktbreit, Friedhof, Holzlauben-002.jpg
Epitaphs in the arcades in Marktbreit
List of cemeteries with pulpits or arcades
place Pulpit / arcade Brief description
Abtswind Pulpit and arcade Pulpit (sermon chair) made of wood, colored, first mentioned in 1757; double-sided arcade, first mentioned in 1767
Buchbrunn pulpit Pulpit (sermon chair) made of stone, 1612
Kitzingen arcade Arcade, 1628, 1820 Demolition of large parts, the eastern part preserved
Mainbernheim Pulpit and arcade Pulpit (sermon chair) made of stone, around 1600 by Erhard Schilling; three-sided wooden arcade → see also: Alter Friedhof (Mainbernheim)
Market wide Pulpit and arcade Pulpit (sermon chair) made of stone, around 1600; two arcade halls (today here pulpit)
Marktsteft Pulpit and arcade Pulpit (sermon house) made of stone, 1603; Arcade with entrance gate
Prichsenstadt Pulpit and arcade Pulpit (sermon house) made of stone, 1605; one-sided, elongated arcade → see also: Friedhof (Prichsenstadt)
Repperndorf Pulpit and arcade Pulpit (sermon chair) made of stone, 1612; two-sided arcade
Segnitz arcade Arcade, possibly 17th century, one-sided, elongated
Sickershausen pulpit Pulpit (sermon chair) made of stone, 1690
Wiesenbronn Pulpit and arcade Pulpit (sermon house), around 1600; two-sided arcade, spatially separated

Catholic shrines and small memorials

While the Protestant village lords promoted the new faith by building particularly magnificent cemeteries, the Catholic authorities took other paths. Since the end of the Middle Ages, so-called wayside shrines , stone pillars with Christian motifs , have been built all over Franconia . Similar to the Eifel and Austria , both of which are also among the centers of this type of monument, most wayside shrines (or tortures) can be traced back to the initiative of private individuals. The village lords, however, welcomed the establishment and encouraged it.

Wayside shrines in the Kitzingen district
Wayside shrine around 1460, Volkach
Wayside shrine from 1501, Großlangheim
"Monolith" from 1588, Sommerach
"Graue Marter" from 1519, Sommerach
Wayside shrine from 1618, Hörblach
Altar stick with Kreuzschlepper from 1716, Obervolkach

The Würzburg prince-bishops with their official cities of Dettelbach, Iphofen and Volkach in today's district were the greatest sponsors of the wayside shrines. During the so-called Counter-Reformation in particular, they had numerous monolithic shrines built with the crucifixion of Christ as the main motif. The tortures on the roads clearly separated the Catholic areas from the Protestant areas as they wandered through. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the sticks were an expression of Catholic popular piety and the representations varied.

The tradition of wayside shrines is still used today, and contemporary artists keep reinterpreting these religious monuments. In the 1970s the district of Kitzingen pushed ahead with the collection and renovation of its wayside shrine ("wayside shrine"). A large part of the shrines was threatened by the land consolidation that had begun . Even today, the number of monuments is steadily decreasing because they are damaged or completely removed.

The centers of the wayside shrines are the Catholic towns and communities in the district (Volkach 48, Iphofen 46, Dettelbach 34; status 1980). One of the oldest examples can be found in Volkach in front of the Lower Gate . The stick was set up around 1460 and, with the depiction of St. George, refers to the location of the so-called dragon saga. There are particularly many specimens in and around Großlangheim. The oldest is from the year 1501. The Counter-Reformation is symbolized by the monoliths made from one stone. Such a stick is particularly splendid in the center of Sommerach. In Sommerach you can also find “Franconia's most famous wayside shrine”, the so-called gray torture of 1519. Its builder is assigned to the Riemenschneider School . → see also: Crucifixion shrine (Volkach, around 1460) , Crucifixion shrine (Sommerach, 1588) and Graue Marter

In later centuries the appearance of the wayside shrines began to differentiate. The so-called Vitus shrine in Hörblach from 1618 takes up Renaissance forms. He was the entire village in honor of the patron donated . The wayside shrines of the 18th century presented themselves completely differently. More and more often, Christ was portrayed as a "cruiser". At the same time, wayside shrines were created, which were worked as altars with canopies . A combination of both types can be found in Obervolkach. → see also: Vitusbildstock (Hörblach) and Kreuzschlepperbildstock (Obervolkach)

Jewish cemeteries and synagogues

The Jewish cemetery in Rödelsee

The area of ​​the Kitzingen district was a center of Jewish life in Franconia. Until 1942 there were still twelve Jewish communities in what is now the district area. They left synagogues and cemeteries as stone testimonies that still exist today. A total of four Jewish burial sites can be made out in the district, of which only two are visible outside the villages. The cemeteries in Dettelbach and Rehweiler have been largely destroyed, a tombstone in Rehweiler commemorates the place.

The largest cemetery in the district is that in Rödelsee, which is also one of the largest Jewish burial sites in Bavaria. It was first mentioned in a document in 1432. In addition to the Jewish residents of Rödelsee, the deceased from Großlangheim, Hohenfeld, Hüttenheim, Kitzingen, Kleinlangheim, Mainbernheim, Mainstockheim, Marktbreit, Marktsteft, Obernbreit, Segnitz and Wiesenbronn were also buried here. More than 2500 tombstones from several centuries have been preserved. A Tahara house for washing corpses , desecrated in 1938 , was rebuilt in 1983. → see also: Jewish cemetery (Rödelsee)

The synagogue in Wiesenbronn

The smaller cemetery in Hüttenheim is much smaller and younger than its Rödelsee counterpart. In 1818 the first Jew found his final resting place in the Jewish cemetery in Hüttenheim. Also dead from the surrounding communities Dornheim, Mainbernheim, Marktbreit and Nenzenheim were buried here. The Tahara house was also burned down in 1938. Here a memorial was placed on the square of the house. Both cemeteries can only be entered on special occasions. → see also: Jewish cemetery (Hüttenheim)

The situation at the synagogues is completely different. They were created in the middle of the villages and towns. The synagogue in Kitzingen can be considered the most magnificent. It is located on Landwehrstrasse in the southeast of the old town. It was built between 1882 and 1883 in a round arch style. The interior was based on the so-called Moorish style . On November 10, 1938, the synagogue burned down during the Reichspogromnacht and was rebuilt in 1993. Today cultural events take place here. → see also: Synagogue (Kitzingen)

The other synagogues in the district were mostly built in the villages and therefore do not have this representative character. The existing buildings are still threatened (the synagogue in Altenschönbach), and existing synagogues were demolished in the 1990s. Today the former places of worship are maintained by sponsoring associations (for example in Obernbreit), used as a Christian church (in Mainstockheim) or as a residential building. A particularly impressive example of a rural synagogue can be found in Wiesenbronn. → see also: synagogue (Altenschönbach) , synagogue (Obernbreit) , synagogue (Mainstockheim) and synagogue (Wiesenbronn)


(Residents on December 31, 2019)


  1. Dettelbach (7295)
  2. Iphofen (4667)
  3. Kitzingen , large district town (21,940)
  4. Mainbernheim (2219)
  5. Market wide (3953)
  6. Marktsteft (1993)
  7. Prichsenstadt (3058)
  8. Volkach (8852)


  1. Abtswind (841)
  2. Hostage wind (2501)
  3. Grosslangheim (1553)
  4. Kleinlangheim (1692)
  5. Market Einersheim (1195)
  6. Obernbreit (1720)
  7. Rudenhausen (886)
  8. Schwarzach am Main (3620)
  9. Seinsheim (1071)
  10. Wiesentheid (4834)
  11. Willanzheim (1597)

Other communities

  1. Albertshofen (2286)
  2. Biebelried (1193)
  3. Buchbrunn (1095)
  4. Castell (811)
  5. Mainstockheim (1941)
  6. Martinsheim (1000)
  7. Nordheim am Main (1026)
  8. Rödelsee (1822)
  9. Segnitz (822)
  10. Sommerach (1339)
  11. Sulzfeld am Main (1259)
  12. Wiesenbronn (1074)
Landkreis Bamberg Landkreis Schweinfurt Landkreis Würzburg Landkreis Neustadt an der Aisch-Bad Windsheim Wiesenbronn Segnitz Rüdenhausen Rödelsee Obernbreit Martinsheim Marktsteft Markt Einersheim Marktbreit Mainstockheim Mainbernheim Kleinlangheim Kitzingen Geiselwind Castell (Unterfranken) Buchbrunn Albertshofen Abtswind Willanzheim Wiesentheid Volkach Sulzfeld am Main Sommerach Seinsheim Schwarzach am Main Prichsenstadt Nordheim am Main Iphofen Großlangheim Dettelbach Biebelried Landkreis HaßbergeMunicipalities in KT.svg
About this picture

Administrative communities

  1. Großlangheim
    (Großlangheim and Kleinlangheim markets, Wiesenbronn municipality)
  2. Iphofen
    (City of Iphofen, Markt Einersheim and Willanzheim markets, Rödelsee municipality)
  3. Kitzingen
    (based in Kitzingen; member communities: Albertshofen, Biebelried, Buchbrunn, Mainstockheim and Sulzfeld a.Main)
  4. Marktbreit
    (cities Marktbreit and Marktsteft, markets Obernbreit and Seinsheim, communities Martinsheim and Segnitz)
  5. Volkach
    (City of Volkach and the communities of Nordheim a.Main and Sommerach)
  6. Wiesentheid
    (Abtswind, Rüdenhausen and Wiesentheid markets and the municipality of Castell)

No unincorporated areas

Parishes of the old district of Kitzingen

Before the regional reform, the Kitzingen district had 51 municipalities. The churches that still exist today are written in bold :

Albertshofen Albertshofen KT
Bibergau Dettelbach KT
Biebelried Biebelried KT
Bridge Dettelbach KT
Buchbrunn Buchbrunn KT
Dettelbach , city Dettelbach KT
Dipbach Bergtheim
Effeldorf Dettelbach KT
Enheim Martinsheim KT
Your field Dettelbach KT
Fröhstockheim Rödelsee KT
Gerlachshausen Schwarzach am Main KT
Großlangheim , market Großlangheim KT
Haidt Kleinlangheim KT
Herrnsheim , market Willanzheim KT
Hoheim Kitzingen KT
Hohenfeld Kitzingen KT
Hörblach Schwarzach am Main KT
Hüttenheim in Bavaria Willanzheim KT
Iffigheim Home of being KT
Kaltensondheim Biebelried KT
Kleinlangheim , market Kleinlangheim KT
Mainbernheim , city Mainbernheim KT
Mainsondheim Dettelbach KT
Mainstockheim Mainstockheim KT
Marktbreit , city Market wide KT
Marktsteft , city Marktsteft KT
Martinsheim Martinsheim KT
Michelfeld Marktsteft KT
Münsterschwarzach Schwarzach am Main KT
Neuses on the mountain Dettelbach KT
New set Dettelbach KT
Obernbreit , market Obernbreit KT
Oberpleichfeld Bergtheim
Prosselsheim Prosselsheim
Püssensheim Prosselsheim KT
Repperndorf Kitzingen KT
Rödelsee Rödelsee KT
Schernau Dettelbach KT
Schnepfenbach Dettelbach KT
Schwarzenau Schwarzach am Main KT
Segnitz Segnitz KT
Seinsheim , market Home of being KT
Sickershausen Kitzingen KT
Stadtschwarzach , market Schwarzach am Main KT
Sulzfeld am Main Sulzfeld am Main KT
Tiefenstockheim Home of being KT
Wässerndorf Home of being KT
Westheim Biebelried KT
Wiesenbronn Wiesenbronn KT
Willanzheim Willanzheim KT

License Plate

On July 1, 1956, the district was assigned the distinctive sign KT when the vehicle registration number that is still valid today was introduced . It is still issued today.


  • Hans Bauer: The Kitzinger Land. Valuables, monuments, curiosities. Volume I . Volkach 2004.
  • Hans Bauer: The Kitzinger Land. Valuables, monuments, curiosities. Volume II . Volkach 2007.
  • Hans Bauer: Historic town halls in the Kitzingen district. The town hall of Dettelbach a. M. as an example . In: More beautiful home. Heritage and Mission. 82nd year / 1993. Issue 2 . Munich 1993. pp. 69-75.
  • Hans Bauer: District of Kitzingen. An art and culture guide . Market wide 1993.
  • Hans Bauer, Friedrich Grosch, Karl Schneider: wayside shrines, stone crosses and other small monuments in the Kitzingen district. Part 2 . Mainbernheim 1979.
  • Bavarian State Ministry of Finance and for Heimat (Ed.): 100 Heimatschätze. Hidden insights into Bavarian museums . Lindenberg im Allgäu 2019.
  • Andreas Brombierstäudl: Iphofen. A small Franconian town through the centuries . Iphofen 1983.
  • Franziskus Büll: The Monastery Suuarzaha. A contribution to the history of the Münsterschwarzach women's monastery from 788 (?) To 877 (?) . Münsterschwarzach 1992.
  • Gerhard Egert: From the villa (village) to the civitas (city) Volkach . In: Ute Feuerbach (ed.): Volkach. 906-2006 . Volkach 2006. pp. 7-10.
  • Yearbook for the district of Kitzingen. Under the spell of the Schwanberg .
    • Michael Steinbacher: Slavic traces along the Volkacher Mainschleife . In: Yearbook for the district of Kitzingen 2017. Under the spell of the Schwanberg . Dettelbach 2017. pp. 303–323.
  • Margarete Klein-Pfeuffer: Troops of Emperor Augustus at the top of the Main Triangle: The Roman camp of Marktbreit . In: Margarete Klein-Pfeuffer, Markus Mergenthaler (ed.): Early MainGeschichte. Archeology on the river . Iphofen 2017. pp. 141–157.
  • District Administrator and District Council of the District of Kitzingen (ed.): District of Kitzingen . Münsterschwarzach 1984.
    • Hans Bauer: Remarkable art monuments in the cemeteries . Pp. 222-226.
    • Hans Bauer: wayside shrines and field monuments . Pp. 208-218.
    • Hans Bauer, Rudi Krauss: Fortified churches . Pp. 204-207.
    • Dieter Böhm: The central local structure in the district of Kitzingen . Pp. 426-429.
    • Heribert Haas: Land consolidation - an aid for rural areas . Pp. 325-331.
    • Walter Härtling: Agriculture-Viticulture-Horticulture . Pp. 316-324.
    • Alfred Herold: Small characteristics of the district of Kitzingen . Pp. 12-23.
    • Walter Scherzer: The settlement history of the early period . Pp. 109-121.
    • Walter Scherzer: Territorial power relations and administrative structures until the end of the Old Reich . Pp. 122-139.
    • Erich Schneider: Small art history of the district of Kitzingen . Pp. 164-183.
    • Ludwig Wamser : On prehistory and early history . Pp. 76-108.
  • Otto Meyer: The Castell house . In: Hellmut Kunstmann, Otto Meyer: Castell. State rule, castles, class rule . Neustadt an der Aisch 1979. pp. 9–51.
  • Otto Meyer: In the harmony of church and empire . In: Lower Franconian History. Volume 1. From the Germanic conquest to the high Middle Ages . Würzburg 1989. pp. 205-253.
  • Andreas Pampuch (ed.): Nature and landscape of the district of Kitzingen I. Volume . Kitzingen 1979/1980.
  • Andreas Pampuch (ed.): Nature and landscape of the district of Kitzingen II. Volume . Kitzingen 1981/1982.
    • Andreas Pampuch: The Franconian wine landscape . In: Andreas Pampuch (ed.): Nature and landscape of the district of Kitzingen II. Volume . Kitzingen 1981/1982. Pp. 105-110.
    • Barbara Holtz: The vineyard names in the Kitzingen district . In: Andreas Pampuch (ed.): Nature and landscape of the district of Kitzingen II. Volume . Kitzingen 1981/1982. Pp. 124-160.
    • Johann Niedermeier: Vegetable growing in the Kitzingen district . In: Andreas Pampuch (ed.): Nature and landscape of the district of Kitzingen II. Volume . Kitzingen 1981/1982. Pp. 224-237.
    • W. Schubert: Fruit growing in the Kitzingen district . In: Andreas Pampuch (ed.): Nature and landscape of the district of Kitzingen II. Volume . Kitzingen 1981/1982. Pp. 238-244.
  • Franz Pfrang: The history of viticulture on the Main loop . In: Ute Feuerbach (Ed.): Our Main Loop. 1978-1992 . Volkach 2008. pp. 23-28.
  • Wolf-Dieter Raftopoulo: Steigerwald cultural guide. Documentation of an old cultural landscape . Dettelbach 2003.
  • Rotraud Ries: Right among us. Country Jews in Lower Franconia from the Middle Ages to the 20th century. The traveling exhibition in the book . Wuerzburg 2015.
  • Karl Treutwein : From Abtswind to Zeilitzheim. History, sights, traditions . Volkach 4 1987.

Web links

Commons : Landkreis Kitzingen  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. "Data 2" sheet, Statistical Report A1200C 202041 Population of the municipalities, districts and administrative districts 1st quarter 2020 (population based on the 2011 census) ( help ).
  2. Geography Giersbeck: Map 152 Würzburg , PDF file, accessed on January 8, 2019.
  3. ↑ State Development Bavaria: LEP partial update February 2018 , accessed on December 9, 2018.
  4. See: Böhm, Dieter: The central local structure in the district of Kitzingen . Pp. 426-429.
  5. Wamser, Ludwig: To the prehistory and early history . Pp. 76-86.
  6. Wamser, Ludwig: To the prehistory and early history . Pp. 88-95.
  7. Wamser, Ludwig: To the prehistory and early history . Pp. 95-101.
  8. Wamser, Ludwig: To the prehistory and early history . Pp. 102-104.
  9. Klein-Pfeuffer, Margarete: Troops of the Emperor Augustus at the tip of the Main Triangle . P. 156.
  10. Wamser, Ludwig: To the prehistory and early history . Pp. 105-108.
  11. Scherzer, Walter: The history of settlements in the early days . Pp. 109-111.
  12. ^ Streinbacher, Michael: Slavic traces along the Volkacher Mainschleife . Pp. 305-307.
  13. Scherzer, Walter: The history of settlements in the early days . Pp. 111-115.
  14. Scherzer, Walter: The history of settlements in the early days . Pp. 117-119.
  15. Mahr, Johannes: Münsterschwarzach. 1200 years of a Franconian abbey . Pp. 7-12.
  16. Scherzer, Walter: The history of settlements in the early days . P. 119 f.
  17. Scherzer, Walter: The history of settlements in the early days . P. 117.
  18. Meyer, Otto: In the harmony of church and empire . P. 228.
  19. Meyer, Otto: The Castell House . P. 16.
  20. Scherzer, Walter: Territorial power relations and administrative structures until the end of the Old Empire . P. 118.
  21. Scherzer, Walter: Territorial power relations and administrative structures until the end of the Old Empire . P. 130.
  22. Scherzer, Walter: Territorial power relations and administrative structures until the end of the Old Empire . P. 131.
  23. Scherzer, Walter: Territorial power relations and administrative structures until the end of the Old Empire . P. 122.
  24. ^ Büll, Franziskus: Das Monasterium Suuarzaha . P. 51 f.
  25. Egert, Gerhard: From the villa (village) to the civitas (city) Volkach . P. 8.
  26. Scherzer, Walter: Territorial power relations and administrative structures until the end of the Old Empire . P. 122.
  27. Brombierstäudl, Andreas: Iphofen . P. 20.
  28. ^ Wilhelm Volkert (ed.): Handbook of Bavarian offices, communities and courts 1799–1980 . CH Beck, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-406-09669-7 , p. 497 .
  29. ^ Wilhelm Volkert (ed.): Handbook of Bavarian offices, communities and courts 1799–1980 . CH Beck, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-406-09669-7 , p. 97 .
  30. Entry on the coat of arms of the Kitzingen district  in the database of the House of Bavarian History , accessed on September 5, 2017 .
  31. Future Atlas 2016. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on October 2, 2017 ; accessed on March 23, 2018 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  32. Bavarian State Institute for Viticulture and Horticulture (LWG) Veitshöchheim: List of vineyards in the vineyards, planted vineyards on July 31, 2017.
  33. ^ Härtling, Walter: Agriculture-Viticulture-Horticulture . P. 317 (map).
  34. Government of Lower Franconia: Vineyards in Bavaria broken down by area ( Memento of the original from July 28, 2018 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , PDF file, accessed June 15, 2019. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  35. ^ Härtling, Walter: Agriculture-Viticulture-Horticulture . P. 320.
  36. ^ Pfrang, Franz: The history of viticulture on the Main loop . P. 27.
  37. ^ Haas, Heribert: Land consolidation - an aid for rural areas . P. 327.
  38. VDP-Franconia: Classified locations , PDF file, accessed on June 15, 2019.
  39. See: Herold, Alfred: Small characteristics of the district of Kitzingen .
  40. ^ Bauer, Hans (among others): Kirchenburgen . Pp. 204-207.
  41. ^ Bauer, Hans: Historical town halls in the district of Kitzingen . P. 70.
  42. Bavarian State Ministry of Finance and Home (Ed.): 100 Heimatschätze. Hidden insights into Bavarian museums . P. 176 f. (Map).
  43. ^ Kitzinger-Land: Museums , accessed on December 8, 2019.
  44. ^ Bauer, Hans: Remarkable art monuments in the cemeteries . P. 224.
  45. ^ Bauer, Hans (among others): wayside shrines and stone crosses. District of Kitzingen Part II . Pp. 5-8.
  46. ^ Bauer, Hans: wayside shrines and field monuments . Pp. 209-217.
  47. Riess, Rotraud: In the middle of us . P. 22 (map).
  48. "Data 2" sheet, Statistical Report A1200C 202041 Population of the municipalities, districts and administrative districts 1st quarter 2020 (population based on the 2011 census) ( help ).