Mark an der Sann
The Mark an der Sann ( Sannmark , also County Soune, Soun, Saunien, etc.) is one of the areas in the brand belt of the Holy Roman Empire , which was established in the second half of the 10th century to protect the Empire against dangers from the East was built.
The area covers the entire catchment area of the Sann and extends in the south to the Save and in the east to the Sottla.
A "Mark an der Sawe" is mentioned as early as 895; whether it included the Sanntal is uncertain.
The Sann-Grafschaft is mentioned for the first time in 980 (at that time it also included the area of the Windischen Mark ):
- 980, October 24, Constance: Emperor Otto II gives Count Willihalm all his royal possessions in the County of Rachwins between the Dobritsch mountains north of Heilenstein / Polzela near Cilli , Stenitz south-east of Weitenstein / Vitanje near Lindeck and Wresen / Brezen southwest of Weitenstein to the property of Count Marchward and from there to the border of this county with the Sann county (DD 2, 264 n 235). It is about the later Gurk rule Weitenstein. (Wilhelm 3)
The mark was under the Duchy of Bavaria until 1002 , then to the Duchy of Carinthia .
During the second phase of colonization, the Archbishopric of Salzburg was held by the emperors Otto II and Otto III. confirms those possessions that it already had in Carolingian times around Rann on the Save .
Margrave Wilhelm an der Sann
- 1016, April 15th, Count Wilhelm II. , The son of Count Willihalm mentioned above and husband of Hemma von Gurk , received thirty royal caves in the Drachenburger Land in Bamberg from Emperor Heinrich II in his county of Sanntal and also all royal property between the rivers Save , Sann , Sottla and Neiring . These are the later episcopal cucumber dominions Windisch-Landsberg , Peilenstein , Wisell and Nassenfuß with Rohitsch , Montpreis , Hörberg and Königsberg . (Jaksch)
- In 1025 the Windische Mark an der Sann was spun off from the Duchy of Carinthia . (Mell)
- 1025, May 11th, Bamberg: King Konrad II gives Count Willihalm 30 Königshufen in his county Soun and between the rivers Kopreinitz , Köttnig or Kötting and Wogliena or Wogleina , and also between the rivers Gurk and Save (in Krain ) and his possession of mountains, valleys and forests there.
- 1028, December 30th, Augsburg: Emperor Konrad II gives / confirms his faithful, Count Wilhelm, 30 Königshufen in villa Traskendorf ( Drachenburger Land ) and the possessions of his predecessor Heinrich between Save and Sann , Sottla and Neiring "in pago et in comitatu Sounae ", which he dedicated to him, furthermore 30 royal hooves in the same county between five ( ? ) named rivers ...
- In 1036 Count Wilhelm II was killed by the deposed Carinthian Duke Adalbero von Eppenstein himself in revenge. After 1036, the Counts of Ebersberg held both Krain and the Sanngrafschaft.
Foundations of the Countess Hemma
- 1043, January 6th, handed over Wilhelm's widow, Countess Hemma , most of her property in Carinthia and the Marche (especially Reichenburg ) to Archbishop Balduin of Salzburg against baptismal, burial and tithe rights for Carinthian churches; the Sanntaler Allode later came to the bishopric Gurk : On August 15, 1043, through the hand of her bailiff Pretzlaus, Hemma dedicated her entire property in the Sanntale to her monastic foundation, that is, all of the above-mentioned areas from the years 980, 1016 and 1025. Hemma explicitly took from donated the villages of “Terenperch”, Köttnig / Kötting , “Steindorf” and Sirdosege, as well as Reichenburg, which was previously exchanged for Archbishop Balduin . (Jaksch)
Thanks to their kinship to Hemma, the Askuiner, as cucumber hereditary bailiffs, were able to exercise great influence and power in this area for a long time. This is how they built the Obercilli fortress as early as the 11th century .
Spanheimer and others
Under Konrad II (1024–39), Count Siegfried von Spanheim from Rhine Franconia married Richgard von Lavant , a Sieghardinger who was wealthy in the Mark and in Carinthia . Count Siegfried received extensive crown property, mostly with forest, from the German king, especially in the Drau and Sann areas, but also up to the Karst.
After 1036 the Sannmark was again separated from the Windischen Mark.
It has been proven that the Aribones in the Drau and Sanntal were also wealthy. In addition to these large landowners, there were also the Free von Kager, the Counts of Bogen and those of Heunburg as well as the Sanneckers and the High Free von Hochenegg in the Sanntal . She and her feudal people seem to have directed the great colonization in this space.
Perhaps 1105, but at least before 1122, the Askuiner Margrave Starkhand died, who still appears in 1103 with his brother Ulrich as a witness on the document, with which Duke Heinrich III. von Eppenstein endowed his St. Lambrecht Abbey ; his successor was Günther, a son of the Heunburg pilgrim von Hohenwart-Pozzuolo, the last margrave of Soune ( marchio de Cylie ). After his death in 1137/44 the margraviate was no longer occupied. Because there were many areas of immunity in the march: in the south-east lay the property of Salzburg and Gurk , in the west that of Aquileia and the Oberburg monastery , in the south the Spanish rule of Tüffer . The Spanheimers, on the papal side, had taken over part of the property in 1105/1106 during the investiture controversy that the Gurk hereditary bailiffs, Counts Askuin, Starkhand and Werigand, had lost.
Archbishop Konrad I came to Saunia in 1131 to make peace with the Magyars and to build the archbishop's border fortresses Pettau and Reichenburg against the Hungarians because the descendants of Countess Hemma were unable to effectively defend the eastern border.
Count Bernhard von Trixen-Spanheim died in 1147 ; Tüffer (and Sachsenfeld with Sachsenwart ) fell to the Styrian Margrave Otakar III. The rulership extended along the Sann from Cilli to the Save and next to the Save beyond Trifail , then the Save down to and including Lichtenwald . There it bordered on the approximately 300 km² large, owned and owned area of Lichtenwald-Rann, which was owned by the Archbishop of Salzburg and which may have arisen from the Reichenburg estate of Countess Hemma. Accordingly, Sachsenfeld, Sachsenwart and Hochenegg , the castles Klausenstein and Freudenegg as well as the office of Ratschach in Carniola also belonged to the great Tüffer rule .
Since the Styrian-ducal office attested to in 1182 and the court named Tüffer in 1227 extended across the Save and Schärfenberg was verifiably part of it in 1287 , H. Pirchegger believed that the later domain of the Otakare extended as far as the archdeaconate Sanntal . The rule of Tüffer was part of the ducatus , and from Tüffer the Styrian duke also managed to acquire the bailiwick over the nearby Gurk dominions.
In 1269, King Ottokar II of Bohemia combined the Carniola , Windische Mark , Windischgraz and the Sanntal to form the "Mark" after taking possession of the areas . (Mell)
In 1282 the sons of King Rudolf I were enfeoffed with Carniola and the Windische Mark (these countries were in fact subject to Meinhard von Görz-Tirol )
Around 1300 the Counts of Heunburg (expired in 1322) acquired the Cilli rule, the center of the Mark. It was not until around 1300 that the Free von Sanegg had an intensive enforcement of rule in the Sanntal.
Sanntal in Styria
On July 14, 1311, the Sanntal on both sides of the Sava was ceded to the Habsburgs by Duke Heinrich of Carinthia from the Meinhardin family and thus became part of Styria.
Count of Cilli
In 1323 Cilli came to the Counts of Pfannberg , in 1335 to the Sanneckers , who were appointed Counts of Cilli in 1341 ; after their extinction in 1456, Cilli and the associated lordships came to the Habsburgs in 1460.
Sources, web links
- Anton Mell: Outline of the constitutional and administrative history of Styria . Ed .: Historical Provincial Commission for Styria. Publishing house of the university bookstore Leuschner & Lubensky, Graz - Vienna - Leipzig 1929 ( literature.at ).
- Wilhelm 3