Organ glossary

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following is a list of terms related to the organ , organ building and organ music . Register names and general acoustics terms cannot be found here. For this see list of organ registers . Foreign-language terms, which can often be found in organ literature, are marked in italics.


discharged pipes
these are not located directly on the wind chest , but for example in the prospectus or on the side (for reasons of space) and are supplied with wind via so-called conductors from the wind chest.
matched bell
the length of the bell of a reed register is (as in the case of labial pipes ) in a fixed ratio to the pitch of the respective reed pipe; see. in contrast, tongues with short cups
Decay process of an organ pipe ; see. speech
Device for switching off an organ register or a group of registers, see register (organ)
turn off a register ; vlg. pull
narrow wooden bar or metal rod (rarely: wire rope), which is used in a mechanical action mechanism to transfer the movement between the key and valve
Drain pneumatics
In contrast to the supply pneumatics, there is always a working pressure in the conductors that only collapses when the button is pressed, whereby the sound valve opens.
(French for "manual coupling")
free software to simulate a pipe organ . It doesn't use samples , it creates the sound synthetically; see. Hauptwerk (software) or GrandOrgue (software)
Acronym for American Guild of Organists
ajouter (mettre)
(French "pull", "add")
acoustic bass
An image formed by combining a Oktavreihe and an overlying bottom row register which sounds an octave lower than the Oktavreihe (z. B. octave 16 '+ fifth 10 2 / 3 ' = acoustic 32 '), see Missing fundamental
see aliquot register
Aliquot register
Independent register that is not in an octave relation to the root note (e.g. fifth, third, seventh)
(French "tongue register")
Anches prepared
(French: "Prepared tongue register"): The tongue register and mixtures have already been pulled, but are still blocked by a shut-off valve.
Old paddock
Rare special form of the belt; see. Melody coupling
Altar organ
Organ that is in close proximity to the altar (often in the middle behind or above the altar), e.g. B. in the Dresden Frauenkirche
American Guild of Organists
American professional association of church and concert organists
attached pedal
Pedal keyboard without its own register, which is permanently linked to a manual (mostly: Hauptwerk)
Transient process of an organ pipe ; see. Consultation
(French for "shut-off valve")
Working wind
Organ wind, which is responsible for the valve control in the pneumatic action ; see. Play wind
Ars Organi
A German-language specialist journal, the organ of the Society of Organ Friends
to sit up
Do not build a register directly on the drawer, but attach it elevated with conductors .
attached labium
This is soldered into the body of the pipe, which is the rule with medium-sized and large metal pipes; see. indented labium
see rub out
see bell
opening tongue
Design for lingual pipes, the tongue hits the throat , the opposite of a resounding tongue
cold cuts
Opening between the upper and lower labium
Slicing width
also labium width
Slicing height
The distance between the upper and lower labia, primarily determines the sharpness of the sound
Cold cuts
Ratio of the height of the cut to the width of the cut of a pipe
Arrangement of the pipes on the wind chest; see. Chromatic, diatonic and third octave notation
Degree of curvature of the reed in lingual pipes
thin out
The wall thickness of the metal pipes becomes thinner towards the top in order to save material
Balancing bellows
small bellows , usually in the form of a float bellows
outlet valve
Prevents bellows from bursting. It opens by itself when it has reached its maximum extent.
rub out
the metal edge of a labial pipe is bent outwards with the tuning horn , the tone becomes higher; see. rub in
externally labeled
Usual design of a wooden labial pipe , in which the flattening of the upper labial is attached to the outside of the pipe body; see. internally qualified
automatic piano pedal
adjusts the volume (registration) of the pedal to that of the manual that is currently being played. For this purpose, a pedal combination is switched on as soon as a key of the corresponding manual is pressed, which then remains active until the key of another manual is pressed.
Procedure to create several registers in multiplex organs from a row of pipes .


Intonation aid attached next to the pipe labia
Device in the valve box that reduces the pressure point, but a direct connection between button and valve is retained.
Balance step
Kick to open and close a blind sill
see bellows
Barker lever
Pneumatic relay device, whereby the playing weight is minimized, but the contact to the sound valve is completely separated.
Basse de ...
(French): Playing instructions solo in the bass part (left hand) see: Dessous de ...
Bass coupler
Special form of coupling in which only the lowest key played is amplified. Often used as an aid to playing electronic organs for people who have not (yet) mastered pedal play; vlg. also melody coupler
Acronym for Bund Deutscher Orgelbaumeister
BDO standard
see VOD / BDO standard 2000 . A standardization of gaming tables by the Association of Organ Experts in Germany (VOD) and the Association of German Organ Builders (BDO).
Upper part of a lingual pipe, which largely determines its timbre
Part of the length of the scale that can be changed over a row of pipes
a device for generating a puff or stream of air
  1. Part of the organ metal for the construction of organ pipes.
  2. Name for organ metal with 25% tin and 75% lead (4 solder), pure lead pipes are very rare.
Blind abstracts
very stable, immobile abstract that runs parallel to the movable abstract and holds angular bars to compensate for changes in length.
blind whistle
Whistle that doesn't sound, but only appears in the brochure for visual reasons
blind stops
(also called Ductus inutilis , Schweiger , Schwyger , Predigtabsteller , Vox ineffabilis , Vacat , Vacant , Vakant , Pro forma , Manum de tabula , Nihil , noli me tangere etc.) no sound, no effect and (in contrast to the non-acoustic stops ) also no action causing stop pulls, mostly only attached for reasons of symmetry, or (with newer organs) for later planned extensions. These are sometimes with funny labels such as “Preacher”, “nihil sine me” (“nothing without me”), “ Noli me tangere ” (“don't touch me”) or “Schwyger 32 ′” (Schwyger = silent, silent ) Mistake. Often, however, these trains are simply labeled with “Vacat” or “Vacant” (from Latin vacare , “missing” ) or not at all.
historical form of the wind chest; it is not possible to switch individual rows of pipes on or off here
Surface pattern on pipes made of natural cast
Boîte (accoublés / séparés)
(French for "swell coupled / uncoupled")
Plank drawer
the drilled ark was so named in earlier times
Bourdon point
An important setting point for the intonation of a reed pipe.
Parapet organ
Organ which is embedded in a gallery parapet
Part of an organ that is placed at chest level, i.e. below the main organ
Association of German Organ Builders
an association of German organ and organ pipe builders and their suppliers


see Kalkant .
the hundredth part of an equal semitone step, a unit of measure for pitch intervals
see horizontal trumpet
Choir organ
Independent organ or part of an organ that is installed in the choir room of a church. It is primarily used to accompany the liturgy of worship .
Chromatic lineup
Arrangement of the whistles on the wind chest in a block so that whistles stand next to each other with an interval of a small second (music) ; see. also diatonic and thirds .
Claviers accouplés / séparés
(French "manuals coupled / uncoupled")
A wind indicator in the form of a register (on the Friedrich Friese III organ of the Ludwigslust town church )
Crescendo roller
see sill


Lateral limitation of the loops of a slider drawer .
Steam organ
Organ that is operated not with air but with steam.
is the name of the closure at the upper end of a closed metal labial pipe ; see. bung
Dessus de ...
(French): Playing instructions solo in the upper part (right hand) see: Basse de ...
Monument organ
Historical organ of importance
Diatonic constellation
Arrangement of the whistles on the wind chest in two blocks (C and C sharp sides), so that whistles stand next to each other at a distance of one major second; see. also chromatic and thirds .
Digital organ
an electronic organ with digital sampling technology
[ˌDaɪəˈpeɪsən] ("principal")
the entire layout of an organ, including the layout of its registers;
An effect register that produces a sound similar to the rumble of thunder
Double choir
double rows of pipes in a mixed voice , e.g. B. 2 '+ 2' + 1 1 / 3 '+ ...
Double drawer
a wind chest with two valves per tone, so that the registers can be played from two manuals
Double pedal
  1. in organ music the term for two-part passages in the pedal
  2. in organ building a construction with two pedal keyboards
Double registration
mechanical key action , which has electrical controls and so with an electronic translator may be provided
double curved pedal
special design of the pedal
Double-tone whistle
Rare design of an organ pipe that uses valves to generate several tones per pipe
Rotary cone coverage
rotatable attachment of a lingual pipe , with the help of which the size of the air outlet holes can be adjusted
Barrel organ
also organ grinder, is a mechanical musical instrument operated with a hand crank
triple curly pedal
see radial pedal
Pressure point
In the case of a mechanical action, the moment the valve opens, which is noticeable as a slight resistance when a key is pressed
couple through
a special property, especially mechanical coupling . For example, if coupling II-I and III-II are pulled (III-I but not), III-I will still be "coupled through"
resounding tongue voice
Design for lingual pipes, the tongue swings freely in the throat; see. opening tongue
pushed through drawer
see twin drawer
the unintentional ringing of neighboring whistles through leaks in the wind chest


Echo register
Quieter registers of a subsidiary work
Part of an organ; mostly the quietest manual or the furthest away
one-armed button
In contrast to the two-armed key , this is at the end and not in the middle and therefore has no key tail
indented labium
This is pressed into the body of the pipe, which is the rule with small metal pipes; see. attached labium
inserted labium
see attached labium ; see. indented labium
Inlet valve
Relatively large valve, e.g. for switching on a register in the cone door
rub in
the metal rim of a labial pipe is bent inwards with the tuning horn , the tone becomes deeper; see. rub on / out
Individual storage
With it, a single register can be switched off so that it no longer sounds even in fixed combinations
electronic organ
A keyboard instrument with electronic tone generation is generally referred to as an electronic organ
Close choir
Term for the entirety of all closely mensored stops ("strings") in an organ
... in the waist
(French): playing instructions solo in tenor (left hand or pedal)
European Organ Society
A valve for emptying the bellows at the end of the game
Special form of the tuning device for open pipes
Eccentric contact system
serves as a rubbing and thus self-cleaning contact point for electrical actions


Factory organ
Negative designation of the followers of the organ movement for the late romantic organs.
Catch valve
First valve in the winch, it closes when the scoop bellows compresses its air through the non- return valve into the magazine bellows .
Color register
another name for aliquot register
decreasing scale length
In proportion, the pipes of a register become narrower and narrower in height; see. increasing scaling
Bellows , mostly made of thin wooden panels and skived leather strips
Window organ
The organ's prospect visually surrounds a window
Part of an organ that is not directly related to the other works, but z. B. in the roof area of ​​a church;
fixed variable length
Fixed value (also addition constant )
Fixed part of the length of the scale via a row of pipes
Numbers below / above the notes, either already printed in the music edition or noted by the organist himself. They symbolize the individual fingers (1 = thumb, 2 = index finger, etc.), which are best used to play individual passages
Flat field
an element of an organ prospectus. Several pipes are set up on a line and together create the impression of a surface.
Double door
with them the pipe work of the organ from the Renaissance could be completed.
 Frequency ranges in which the overtones are particularly amplified by resonance and are therefore primarily decisive for the timbre
(French for “basic register (labial)”) see Jeux de fond
free combination
Registration aid where register combinations can be freely selected
Free pipe prospectus
Brochure made of organ pipes only, without (visible) casing
Freely variable scale length
sometimes also fittings, denotes a mixture of the piano, the manual or the musical mechanism, i.e. a sound crown, consisting of 3-6-fold combinations of octaves and fifths of higher order from 2 'upwards, in the pedal as a rauschpfeife or backrest on a 4' basis
  1. Blowing device on wooden labial pipes
  2. Air release valve that allows creeping wind to escape, but blocks play wind
Fundamental board
The central element of a wind chest is located above the clay chambers and under the loops
Unit of measurement in which the length of the lowest pipe of a register is given, see footnote number
Hole in the base of the pipe, through which the wind is also guided
Foot set
Sign for performing pedal play. A distinction is made here between left and right foot as well as between point and heel.
Footnote number
the indication of the pitch of a register, where 8 ′ denotes the normal position (e.g. as on a piano);
Foot switches for game aids; also Piston (organ)


see Grand Orgue
Fork coupling
Design of the mechanical coupling
Organ motor or fan system; see winch
broken scale
broken octave
Keyboard with structurally shortened bass octave
Dacked, daked
Organ pipes that are closed at one end, they are only half as long as an open pipe with the same pitch; see. overblowing whistle
pressed labium
see indented labium ; see. attached labium
Back bevel
Chamfer on the lower labium, opposite the core bevel
mixed voice
a series of pipes of the same timbre, usually extending over the entire range, which can be switched on or off as a unit
General contractor
Repels all registers. (turns them off)
curly pedal
Pedal keyboard whose keys are not the same length and height
Society of Organ Friends
short GDO designated
split loop
The loop of a register is divided into two halves so that bass and treble can be registered differently.
Pouring bench
long, flat workbench covered with linen for casting organ metal plates .
Casting slide
Device which, filled with liquid organ metal, is moved from the beginning of the pouring bench to its end.
pounded wind chest
Chests are closed with glued pieces of wood on the underside
pried wind chest
Chests are pried out or milled
turned punch tongue
also Zacharias tongue whistle , a hybrid of labial and lingual whistle that does not get out of tune with the labial whistle and whose volume can be swelled up and down over an extremely large dynamic range through changes in wind pressure.
domed cold cuts
the upper edge of the labium is cut in an arc shape
floating on the same level
Tuning system in which all semitones are exactly the same size and therefore all intervals are slightly out of tune; see. Hovering voices
or : GO : see Grand-Orgue
grand jeu
(French) Lingual plenum with 8 ′ and 4 ′ reed parts and Cornet, in the main work Trompette 8 ′ + Clairon 4 ′ + Cornet 8 ′ 5f. + Bourdon 8 ′ + Prestant 4 ′, in the positive also with Cromorne 8 ′ + (Bourdon 8 ′ +) Prestant 4 ′, there also referred to as petit jeu ; see. plein jeu
Grand Orgue
  1. (also GO , GO , G ) (French "main work")
  2. Software sampler for pipe organs, see GrandOrgue (software)
(French): main work with coupled positive
(French): main work with coupled positive and swell


hanging action
  1. the action including one-armed keys "hangs" on the tone valves and pulls them open, only possible with small organs
  2. With this type of action, the angles under the wind chest are not fixed, but freely floating. One also speaks of a "self-regulating" action, see also action tensioner
hanging pipes
are attached with the pipe base upwards and are also supplied with wind from above
Hook coupling
Design of the sliding coupling ; The keys are mechanically coupled by means of hooks on the lower manual, which, after being moved, engage in the eyelets of the upper manual; see. Block coupling
Half-closed, half-closed
Whistles that are only partially closed at the top, e.g. B. Lochgedackte ; the reed flute is also one of the half-dumped.
Half register (half register)
Register that is not available for the entire scope of the manual
Hamburger prospectus
A standardized arrangement of the organ parts in the baroque era
Hammond organ
an electromechanical organ named after its inventor Laurens Hammond
Hand registration
the main register circuit in contrast to the small switches of a free combination or to the register swell. With the "hand register for free combination" game aid, hand registration supplements the registration of the free combination instead of canceling it.
Main work
  1. largest part of an organ
  2. Software sampler for pipe organs, see Hauptwerk (software)
House organ
Small organ for installation in private rooms
Home organ
an electronic organ
Organ pipe that cannot be switched off completely due to an error (e.g. the playing or stop action); see. failure
High pressure register
Register that is operated with increased wind pressure
Horizontal trumpet
(Spanish trumpet) reed voice protruding horizontally into the room
a mechanical organ instrument performed signal functions comparable to a siren


internally qualified
Rare design of a wooden labial pipe with the flattened upper labial on the inside of the pipe body; see. externally labeled
Sound design of the organ pipes in relation to each other and to the room
Voicing box
Rudimentary organ in an organ workshop, which is used for the pre-intonation of pipes
Voicing slot
Slot in the cup of a lingual pipe (similar to a tuning slot of a labial pipe but with a different function)


Fair organ
also called fair or carousel organ, belongs to the genus of mechanical musical instruments and is closely related to the barrel organ or the fixed orchestrion.
Louvre rocker
see swell box
jeux de combinaisons
(French) higher and mixed votes (above the jeux de fonds )
jeux de funds
(French) set of basic voices (up to about 4 ′, labial)


Cabinet organ
Organ positive , mostly with a neat character
Channel tremulant
Movable, springy wooden or leather flap built into the wind tunnel, which sets the play wind vibrating
Pulpit organ
Organ that is symmetrical to the pulpit on a church wall
a chamber in the wind chest , into which air is let in, depending on the design, by pressing a button (tone chamber) or by pulling a register (register chamber)
old name for a person who operates the bellows .
Carousel organ
see fair organ
Box beard
Beard on a labium in the form of a box
Box bellows
Bellows made of two nested boxes
Box drawer
Design of the wind chest in which all the pipes stand on a single cockpit and each individual pipe is controlled by an electric valve assigned to it.
Cone drawer
Design of the wind chest from approx. 1860
Semicircular, inside hollow and half-open component of the reed or lingual pipe on which the reed sits
Wedge bellows
Bellows , made of thin wooden boards and skived leather strips with a wedge-shaped appearance
Separating sheet from the labial pipe to the foot
Core bevel
Bevel of the core towards the core gap
Core column
Narrow gap between the lower labium and the core through which the wind escapes and is blown against the upper labium.
Core stitches
Fine notches that are filed into the core to improve the response of the pipe.
Cinema organ
Organ in a cinema, very often provided with special sound effects to support the plot
Church organ
serves among other things liturgical purposes and the accompaniment of the congregation singing
Fair organ
see fair organ
refers to a series of keys used on piano, organ, celesta, accordion, hurdy-gurdy, key fiddle, etc. v. a. a mechanism, action or electronics are activated for the purpose of sound generation or pitch control.
Small organ
Small organ or organ positive
Small pedal
Small footed voices of a pedal, mostly on their own drawer
Block coupling
Design of the sliding coupling ; The mechanical coupling to the keys of the other manual is made by means of wooden blocks standing on top of one another; see. Hook coupling
Block pedal
The pedals of an organ are not designed like normal keys, but protrude as "blocks" from the floor
Collective train
Registration device for simultaneous actuation of several registers
a game aid to simplify the registration
combined action
The action mechanism is mechanical, but the stop action mechanism is built electrically.
(from Latin conducere ' to merge, to connect' )
  1. Pipes that supply wind to individual pipes. Is used, for example, for prospect whistles that are not directly on the wind chest
  2. Tubes with a pneumatic action that guide the working wind from the keys to the valves (ø 5 to 9 mm)
constant scale length
Counter valve
Concert organ
representative organ, mostly used for concert purposes
Coupling beam
see rocker bar
Coupling manual
Manual without its own register, which is permanently linked to the other manuals. It is not necessary to pull a manual coupler and sound changes are easy to manage.
Technical device to be able to play individual parts of the organ on a different manual or pedal or in a different position
Coupling loop
Coupling rocker
Component of the rocker coupling
static heart of the reed pipe, also called nut
Bending an organ pipe when the space does not allow it to stand upright
Crown positive
Part of an organ that is at the top of the case. Also called Kronwerk.
Goiter valve
Copper pipe
Copper pipe, is usually installed in the prospectus for optical reasons
Curve gauge
short-bellied tongue voice
Tongue voice in which the cup length does not correspond to the pitch, but is considerably shorter. They don't sound as full as z. B. a trumpet, but rather rough and rasping. Examples are the Vox Humana or the shelf .
short octave
In old organs (mostly only) affects the lowest octave, from today's perspective it starts on the E key, but on which the C sounds. This is followed by F, D, G, E, A, B and H. The other octaves are structured as usual today.


(Lip pipe ) One of the two most important types of organ pipe
see labium gauge
Flattening for generating vibrations on the front side of the conical or cylindrical body of a labial pipe , which is divided into the upper and lower labial by the cut .
Labium width
Width of the labium , determines the volume of a labial pipe
Labium censorship
Ratio of the width of the labium to the circumference of the pipe
Length measurement
Course of the pipe length over a row of pipes
Empty cell
Sound chamber without valve and whistle, which is built in the bass between the active chambers, on the one hand to be able to accommodate the pipes on the wind chest and on the other hand not to let the active chambers become too big.
Idle coupling
Originally a mechanism to separate the keyboard from the action of a manual. Later registration aid
Lingual pipe
(Reed pipe ) One of the two most important types of organ pipe
Lip whistle
see labial pipe
Design of a closed labial pipe with a small hole in the lid at the top, see half-closed
Solder , soldered
Unit to describe the purity of a metal. "16-solder" = pure, 8-solder = 50% etc.


Magazine bellows
Bellows between the blower (or scoop ) and wind chest , which ensures even wind pressure of the play wind
Magazine blower
Blower system with a magazine bellows that is fed by one or more scoops
The keyboards (rows of keys) on the gaming table that are played with the hands; see. pedal
Only playing on the manuals (without pedal)
(or Manubrie; Pl. Manubrien; lat = handle, handle, arm.) Register knob / handle a register train, especially during mechanical key action , usually lathed
Dimensional series
mechanical combination
Register pulls that can be "preprogrammed" by a mechanical device, so that they can then usually be called up with a mechanical kick
mechanical action
Action design in which the connections are made mechanically with abstracts
Melody coupling
a coupling that only couples the highest key played, the “melody”, in order to emphasize it. It is possible as a normal or super octave coupling and requires a pneumatic or electric action mechanism (is only very rarely built today).
Scale length
The ratio of the size values ​​of the pipes in a register, in particular the diameter (with round metal pipes) or the sides of the rectangle (with rectangular wooden pipes) to the sounding length, depending on the pitch
Brass is a copper alloy with up to 40% zinc. Other metals can be added in smaller proportions.
Tuning system with pure thirds (frequency ratio 5: 4), often on old organs
(English / French Mixture, Italian Ripieno) Mixed voice that mostly only contains octave and fifth choirs with principal gauges
Mixer setter
freely adjustable series of overtones
Abbreviation for " millimeter water column "; The usual measure of wind pressure in organ building
Muzzle correction
an open labial pipe must be built a little shorter than calculated, see organ pipe
Multiplex system
( Latin multum 'much' , plexus 'braid' ) Register concept in which one row of pipes is used for several registers; mainly used in cinema and theater organs
the middle part of a lingual whistle (i.e. without a bell or boots) consisting of a (voice) crutch, nut, wedge, throat and tongue
free software sampler for pipe organs; is currently no longer developed; see. GrandOrgue (software) , Hauptwerk (software)


Nasal formant
Accumulation of overtones in the range around 1500 Hz, which can have a negative effect on the sound
Natural cast
Name for organ metal with 50% tin and 50% lead (8 solder)
see standard censorship
Normal coupling
All manual and pedal couplings that couple in the same position. Super / sub octave, bass or melody couplings are not included.
Normal gauge
see standard censorship
Standard censorship
standardized scale length in 19th century organ building
Standard principal
labial register that has the standard censorship .
Core and static heart of the lingual pipe (reed pipe)


Upper labium
Upper part of the labium , above the cut
  1. Name for an organ register
  2. Designation for the components that sound along with the fundamental tone of almost every musical tone produced instrumentally or vowel.
Overtone structure
Sound spectrum of an organ or a single organ pipe
Overtone register
see aliquot register
Upper work
Part of an organ that is installed above the main work
open pipe
Design for labial pipes, cf. Dumped
Carvings attached to the left and right of a baroque organ that arose from the double doors
Octave repeater
Repetition of lower octaves in registers that are not fully expanded upwards or in mixtures ; see. Quart-fifth repeater
Octave transmission
Coupling of a single register to another work, offset by an octave up or down
Organ - journal for the organ
A German-language specialist magazine
Organum plenary
lat. "full work"; briefly "plenary"; wrongly “organo pleno” (meaningless ablative formation) instead of “in organo pleno” or “pro organo pleno” as a registration instruction in baroque sources (e.g. in J. S. Bach); Depending on the organ type and nationality, a registration with (all) principals and mixture (s) of a work, in manuals on a 16 'or 8' basis, in the pedal work on a 32 'or 16' basis. In the German Organum Plenum - especially in the pedal work and depending on the organ landscape - reeds can also play.
A musician who plays the organ
An aerophone, mostly played by means of keys, with pipes as sound generator
Organ bench
Seating for the organist while the organ is playing
Organ building
a craft, a science and certainly an art
Organ builder
deals with the design, construction, manufacture and sound design of organs. In addition, his task is to maintain, repair, renovate, restore and reconstruct existing organs.
Organ movement
Renewal movement of the 20th century, which reintroduced the sound ideals of the baroque organ.
Organ bracket
Colloquial term for an organ bench
Organ metal
Alloy from which the metal pipes are made
Organ pipe
Organ sound generator
Organ point
is the name in music for a long sustained note or a repeated note in a certain rhythm, to which other voices move freely in harmony.
Organ expert
is a person who deals with the organ as an expert and advises the appropriate bodies or organ owners.
Organ Wolf
a term for the wolf fifth that is common in organ building


(French "Positif" = positive, back positive)
Parallel pedal
Design of the pedal keyboard in which all keys are arranged in parallel; vlg. Radial pedal
see Pédalier
a row of keys played with the feet
(French for "pedal")
Pedal combination
Combination that are only effective for the pedal
Pedal tower
Housing in which the pedals are housed. Either two pedal towers to the left and right of the main work or a single pedal tower are common
Pedal switching
see pedal combination ; for automatic pedal switching see automatic piano pedal
Pedal mechanism
all stops belonging to the pedal, with the exception of transmissions from other sub-works
Pendulum valve
small check valve
petit jeu
(French) see grand jeu
Whistle speech
see address
Pipe bank
usually denotes higher registers above the drawer (bench)
Pipe boards
Boards in which the metal pipes inside the organ are held. Also known as locking boards.
Pipe fields
Optical arrangement of prospectus pipes in the prospectus
Pipe shape
Dimensional design of pipes
Whistle foot
the lower part of a labial whistle which does not belong to the acoustically effective length and which stands on the wind chest
Pipe body
consists of the wall of the pipe
Pipe length
affects the pitch of the pipe; is measured from the core column
Whistle mouth
see cold cuts
Pipe mouth
see cold cuts
Pipe mouth
top of a pipe
Pipe cross-section
is determined by the scale length
Whistle fading
Pipe stick
Stable board with wind temptations on which the pipes stand
Pipe width
see pipe cross-section
(English "piston") see footstep
Plein Jeu
french Form of the “Organum Plenum”; in the Grand Orgue (main work) with (Montre 16 ′ +) (Bourdon 16 ′ +) Montre 8 ′ + Bourdon 8 ′ + Prestant 4 ′ + doublette 2 ′ + fittings + cymbals + Pos-GO, in the positive (back positive) with (Montre 8 ′ +) Bourdon 8 ′ + Prestant 4 ′ + Doublette 2 ′ + fittings + cymbals.
a term used in organ building for a full-sounding register combination.
pneumatic action
Action type that works with air pressure
portable small organ
see positif
(French: "Positive, Rückpositiv")
  1. a small organ, see positive (musical instrument)
  2. a partial work, to be played in multiple manual organs as a return positive mostly via the lowest manual, as an internal positive often via the second manual.
practical shortening
see muzzle correction
open labial pipe of medium length
Principal base
The lowest principal register of a sub-plant
Principal choir
The entirety of all medium-tight registers of an organ
Principal plenary
Registration with all principals and sound crowns of a partial work
Principal Deputy
Gedackt in a lower position, which is built in place of the lowest principal if there is a lack of space, a Gedackt 16 'is often used in place of a principal 16' in the main work
Test tin
Designation for organ metal with 75% tin and 25% lead (12 solder)
(French for "extension"): see key chain
Proportion scale
Visible face of the organ
Organ without prospectus
The organ is hidden behind a privacy screen (e.g. a grille).
Prospect whistle
Organ pipes visible in the prospectus of an organ are mostly principal pipes , see also prospectus
Small sack-like seals made of leather that prevent air from escaping when pull-off wires are passed through a hole.
Tuning system with perfect fifths (frequency ratio 3: 2)


Cross-section measurement
Quart-fifth repeater
(also mild repetition ) Repetition of mixed voices with alternating fifth and octave choirs; see. Octave repeater


see Récit
rank (s)
(English "pipe row (s)") is particularly important for American giant organs, since there the number of pipe rows does not match the number of registers, cf. Transmission .
Radial pedal
a rearward-tapering pedal (organ) , in which the keys are arranged in a radial pattern; see. Parallel pedal
On French organs up to the early romantic period, the pedal was often expanded to F 1 or G 1 . This extension is called ravalement . In musical instrument making, this term is also applied to harpsichords, the scope of which has been expanded in the bass and treble.
Feedback mechanism in the nervous system , which is important when playing with a mechanical action .
  1. Solo work on a French organ, often made of swell.
  2. Solo position for the right hand.
an octave repeater in the lower register , see register .
portable small organ that is only equipped with lingual pipes . It is called a bible shelf when the keyboard disappears into the collapsible bellows in an imitation book.
a series of pipes of the same timbre over the entire pitch range (usually)
Register shackle
is a game aid that allows you to re-register during the game without these changes taking effect immediately.
Register group
Registers can be divided into many different register groups according to timbre, type or application .
Register drawer
Design in which all pipes of a register stand on a common cockpit; see. Sound canister drawer
Tab tilt button
electric form of manubrie
Register button
see manubrie
Tab bar
Component of the spring drawer that opens the spring valves .
Register manual
Arrangement of the rocker switches or buttons in the form of a manual, so that you can change registrations very quickly
Step sills
A device attached to the gaming table that automatically switches registers on or off when actuated, thus creating a crescendo or decrescendo.
Register button
Design of register switches with electrical register action ;
Register action
Action, which, in contrast to the game action, does not connect the keys but the stops with the wind chest.
Register rocker
Design of the register switches from approx. 1900 - today for organs with pneumatic or electrical register actions ; see.
first design of the register switch of an organ, especially today for instruments with mechanical register action ; see manubrium
Assistant to the organist
Registration aid
Technical facility for quick re-registration of the organ without registrants
the selection from registers to be used when performing a (part of) piece of music
Repetition of tones in registers that are not fully expanded up or down.
retancher (ôtre)
(French for "repel")
Giant organ
Organ with a very large number of pipes and registers (around 100 sounding registers).
Plenum of all principal registers of a work or, less often: outdated designation of the mixtures in Italian organs
Tube pneumatics
Action controlled by lead, plastic or aluminum tubes with compressed air
Roll beard
Beard of a pipe, which is additionally provided with a roll in front of the labium. Mostly used with strings.
Roll sill
see sill
Rolling valve
Throttle valve of a bellows to regulate the incoming air from the fan
Part of an organ, mostly attached to the gallery parapet behind the organist.
check valve
Only allows wind flow in one direction. Applications can be found between the bellows in the winch as well as in the execution of transmissions .
Backflow valve
a check valve that is located between the scoop bellows and the magazine bellows .
Round tower
architectural element of an organ prospect. Several pipes are set up in a segment of a circle (mostly a semicircle) and together create the impression of a tower; see. Spire


digital recording of a single organ pipe
Whisper register
very quiet and tightly bored labial register
Sound bodies of reed pipes
Sliding coupling
historical type of paddock; the manual to be coupled is shifted, mostly in the direction of the player
Shuttle throat
Special optical design of a throat in reed pipes.
Veil board
architectural elements on the prospectus of an organ. They are used to decorate the organ and 'disguise' the empty spaces between the pipes and the case frame.
Name-giving component of the slider drawer , a wooden bar with holes, below the pipes in the windchest, for register control
Slider drawer
most built form of the wind chest
Drag magnet
Magnet for operating register loops
Centrifugal fan
Design of an electric fan
Cutting tone
A precursor tone that arises when the cold cuts resonate
Scoop bellows
Air-compression bellows , now mostly replaced by electric blowers.
Swallow's Nest Organ
Term for an organ that hangs on a wall and does not stand on a gallery
Hovering voices
register slightly out of tune compared to the other pipes, which leads to a beating of the tone
Swell box
Housing with slats that can be opened or closed from the console
Organ work that is in a swell box
Float bellows
Design of a magazine bellows
Organ with badly designed fan system. Sounds out of tune and dull in the tutti.
Side beard
Component of the organ pipe used for intonation and tuning; improves the whistle response
Seraphone register
High pressure registers in which two labia are adjacent to each other at the front of the pipe and are at right or an obtuse angle to each other
Sequence switch
With them it is possible to scroll through register combinations. As a rule there are two buttons, one “forward” and one “back”.
Composer combination
A registration selected using a manual register is stored in a memory by means of a set button and can easily be called up again.
Setter magnet
Electromechanical storage element for electrical setter combinations
Set button
Key that must be held down to save a registration in the typesetter.
Setting frame
Part of a mechanical setting system according to Aug. Laukhuff
Setting stars
Storage elements in the mechanical setting system according to Rieger-Heuss
Solo choir
All of the solo registers of an organ
Soprano belt
see melody coupler
Split sound
  1. A registration that is not designed for mixing, e.g. B. 16 '+ 1'
  2. Sound of an early baroque organ in which the distinction between the individual registers was more important than their inclusion in the overall sound
Split tone
weak sound that arises when the air passes through the core fissures
Span bellows
Bellows , the folds of which are precisely defined by means of thin boards (= chipboard) and glued leather strips
Spanish trumpet
see horizontal trumpet
Check valve
Valves to switch register groups or sub-units on and off
Game aid
Play closet
Organ console built into the case; often lockable
Gaming table
The playing system of an organ with all operating elements for the organist. In the narrower sense only the free-standing version, see play cabinet .
Game action
Connection between button and pipe valve
Play wind
Organ wind, which is intended for the sound production in the pipes; see. Working wind
Front part of the foot; see. paragraph
architectural element of an organ prospect. Several pipes are set up at an angle and together create the impression of a tower with an edge pointing forward; see. Round tower
Spring drawer
rare special form of a wind chest on old organs; see. Slider drawer
Jumping valves
small valves in the spring drawer , which sit directly under the pipes and are opened by the register bar.
Noise when a pipe settles; especially pronounced among dumb people
Closure of a closed wooden labial pipe, the pipe can be tuned by moving it; see. cover
Bar magnet
Electromagnet with a rod-shaped appearance
strong buck
a strong tremulant
stationary sound
Engraving mechanism
In small organs, the mechanical power transmission from the key to the valves often takes place via rod-shaped components, also known as engravers .
increasing scaling
In proportion, the pipes of a register get wider and higher; see. decreasing scale length
Whistle base of a lingual pipe (tongue pipe )
Voice iron
Utensil for tuning reed pipes; see. Voice horn
tuning fork
is a metal fork whose prongs produce a clear, overtone-poor tone when struck
Empty space in an organ case that serves as access to the pipe material
Voice horn
Tool for tuning metal pipes; see. Voice iron
Tuning crutch
Tuning device for lingual pipes
Tuning device for labial pipes made of wood in the form of a metal cover at the open end of the pipe
Tuning ring
Tuning device for open labial pipes made of metal; here a movable ring is moved as an attachment
Vocal role
Tuning device for open labial pipes made of metal; this will bend the rolled metal strip out of the tuning slot
Voting divorce
It is possible to switch individual rows of pipes on or off; Further development of the block plant
Tuning slide
Tuning device for open labial pipes made of wood; corresponds to the tuning role in corresponding metal pipes
Tuning slot
Recess at the upper end of a metal labial pipe. In him lies the vocal role
Absolute pitch of the vocal tone (e.g. a = 465 Hz); see. temperature
Describes the pitch and tuning system
Mood system
is the way in which the exact frequency relationships of the playable tones are to one another in an instrument; see. temperature
  1. "Register" (Pl. Stops )
  2. "Dumped"
Shock bellows
see balance bellows
Bumper bellows
see balance bellows
Stroking bellows
tightly bored organ stops (e.g. gamba)
Stub pedal
Pedal in the form of small stumps, often not in the usual range; see. Full pedal
subharmonic tone
the "harmonic undertones" of a "sound"
Sub-octave coupling
Coupling in which the coupled work sounds an octave lower
Super octave coupling
Coupling in which the coupled work sounds an octave higher.
High pressure register with two labia on opposite sides, d. H. on the front and back of the pipe


Pocket drawer
Special form of a wind chest with pneumatic action
Key chain
Device that holds all keys pressed until they are released
Key holder
A person or machine that presses (holds) the keys while tuning or intonation of an organ .
Key tail
the rear end has a two-armed button
Partial tone
Telescopic sleeve
Special design of the sealing of the loops of a wind chest # Slider chest
  1. in degrees Celsius, the specification of the pitch of an organ always includes a temperature specification , as the labial pipes change their pitch depending on the density of the vibrating air column
  2. old name for the tuning system used , e.g. B. Pythagorean, medium-tone, well-tempered or floating on the same level (the latter is common today with many organs)
"Terza mano (soprani)"
(Ital. "the third hand") a mechanical super-octave coupler for the treble range, common on Italian organs of the 19th century
Thirds constellation
Arrangement of the pipes on the wind chest in four blocks so that pipes stand next to each other with a major third apart; see. also Chromatic Constellation and Diatonic Constellation .
Theater organ
Organ in a theater or cinema, very often provided with special sound effects to support the plot; see. Cinema organ
(French for "pedal coupling")
Toe piston
(English toe = "toe", piston = "piston") see kick
Sound canister drawer
With the Tonkanzelle drawer, all pipes that can sound when a key is pressed share a chamber, the so-called Tonkanzelle and thus also a game valve; see. Register drawer
Tone holes
negative effect on multiplex organs. Since rows of pipes are used several times, when playing several voices, there are fluctuations in pitch and depth.
Tone loop
"Play valve" of antique organs, which is similar to the functional principle of the register loop.
Tone tract
see game action
Sound valve
Valve that is operated using the buttons. Opens the air supply to the pulpit on slider chest organs.
Throat of tears
Special optical design of a throat in reed pipes
Control of the whistle; a distinction is made between game and stop action
Action tensioner
Device of a mechanical action that keeps the abstract taut even when the weather changes
In this process, more than one playable register is obtained from an existing row of pipes
Device that causes the sound to vibrate by rapidly changing the air pressure and causing it to vibrate.
Chest organ
small, mostly transportable organ without a pedal
Registration in which all or almost all of the organ stops sound


overblowing whistle
Double-length pipe, which is usually made to overblow ("octave") through a hole in the middle of the pipe body
overblowing reed whistle
Reed whistle with double goblet length (partly recognizable by the addition of "harmonique", e.g. "Trompette harmonique")
Excess length
a whistle which, for optical reasons, was built much longer than it should be for sound generation. However, this is compensated for by an incision on the back of the pipe body.
inharmonic partial
Unit load
see box drawer
Unit system
see multiplex system
Universal organ
Attempt to build organs for organ music of all ages at the end of the 20th century
Unbalanced registers
These are special split registers that have a different footnote number in one half than in the other.
Lower labium
lower part of the labium , under the cut
Lower case
Housing part of the organ in which the bellows, actions etc. are housed


variable scale length
An organ register, the length of which does not remain constant over the range
Valve chamber
Valve box
or wind box. Inside are the valves.
Valve coupling
Concealment effect
Association of Organ Experts in Germany
Fading effect
History censorship
Organ pipe that does not sound due to an error (e.g. in the action), cf. Howler
merging register
Register whose sound mixes well with other registers and therefore does not stand out from the overall sound; see. drawing register
Fusion ability
Property of an organ pipe to mix with other pipes or registers in the sound; important criterion of romantic intonation
see Association of Organ Experts in Germany
VOD / BDO standard 2000
A standardization of gaming tables by the Association of Organ Experts in Germany (VOD) and the Association of German Organ Builders (BDO).
full work
playing with all registers of a work ( plenary (music) )
Advance deduction
Ability to play the pipe line of a mixed voice separately
a rough intonation in the organ workshop
Preliminary tone
Part of the pipe speech
Storage bellows
see magazine bellows
Attachment strip
Wooden bar under the manual, in which combination and setting buttons are often embedded
for wooden labial pipes (corresponds to the lower labial of a metal pipe)
Pilot valve
Valve on slider chest organs that sits on a large clay valve. This facility significantly reduces the strength of the pressure point.
vox principalis
deepest voice of a block


see sill
Water column
The wind pressure of an organ is given in " millimeters of water column ".
Water organ
Alternating loop
Design of the register loop in a twin drawer, which enables a row of pipes to be registered on two manuals
Wide choir
Totality of all registers with wide scale (flutes)
Width measurement
Description of the relationship between pipe length and diameter
consists of the wave board or a wave frame , the waves with Wellenärmchen and shaft holders holds, see tracker action
rotatably mounted, horizontally aligned bars on the wave board , which fan out the pulling movement of the abstract of a mechanical action sideways. This fanning out is necessary because the valves of a wind chest are more distant than the keys of a manual. Part of the corrugation , see action
Wave board
Part of the corrugation , see action
Work principle
A special arrangement of the individual parts, for example in the case of north German baroque organs
Works separator
If several works are played from one keyboard , one of them can be separated.
Aries paddocks
Design of the sliding coupling; The mechanical coupling of the keys of the other manual is made by means of a specially shaped wooden part.
describes the compressed air with which the pipes are made to ring.
Wind reduction
this allows you to make the lower registers even quieter
Wind indicator
Shows the fill level of the magazine bellows.
Wind throttle
Infinitely variable throttle device for the representation of avant-garde organ works
Wind throttle
Blocks the supply of wind, e.g. from the fan, when the magazine bellows is full.
Wind pressure
Pressure of the organ wind, measured in mm of water column
Wind speed
depends on wind consumption
Wind chamber bung
closes the wind chamber with the play valves located in it, can be opened for maintenance purposes. See wind chest .
Wind paddock
Execution of a coupling not within the action, but through separate valves in the wind chest.
Wind chest
Centerpiece of the organ; Connection between console and organ pipe
Wind gauge
Dimensioning of the holes in the drawer
gusty wind
Name for an unstable wind pressure; this effect occurs especially with undersized bellows in the tutt game
Wind balance
Device for measuring wind pressure
In modern organs, simply called “blower”, it is responsible for the even generation of compressed air, which in organ building is called wind
Seesaw beam
On the component, the coupling rockers of the rocker coupling rest
Rocker coupling
now common design of mechanical manual and pedal couplings
Seesaw spring tremulant
Tremulant, which consists of a small bellows and a valve on top. There is also a weight on the valve that is attached to a metal spring so that it can swing.
well tempered
all tuning systems that make it possible to play in all 12 keys without a wolf fifth , but where each key retains its own character.
Wolf fifth
Also Organ Wolf refers to a very strong "detuned" fifth, as occurs in various historical tunings.


Zacharias tongue whistle
by Dipl.-Ing. Ernst Zacharias (* 1924) in Trossingen invented the type of pipe in the 1980s, see turned tongue
drawing register
a register whose sound stands out clearly from other registers and which can therefore be used as a characteristic voice or even as a solo part; see. merging register
Central gaming table
Game table from which all organs in a concert hall or church can be played. Mostly with an electric action.
switch on a register , cf. repel
(also Cymbelstern ): a mechanical mechanism consisting of one or more stars with (not visible) small bells in the prospectus . These are posted when the star rotates. There are tonal differences in the metal used, with cast bells being preferable to those made of sheet metal.
Replacement for expensive organ metal .
Part of the organ metal for the construction of organ pipes, pipes are also made of pure tin for the sake of appearance.
Tin plague
(also Gusspest ) an allotropic transformation of tin that destroys tin pipes
Tongue holder
Switches off all reed registers temporarily, so that they can be switched on again quickly.
Tongue graduation
Measures the length, width and thickness of the tongue
Whistle of tongue
see lingual pipe
Tongue voice
a register of lingual pipes
Supply pneumatics
In contrast to the outflow pneumatics, there is no working pressure in the ducts . This is only generated when the button is pressed so that the sound valve can open.
two-armed button
In contrast to the one-armed key , this is not at the end, but in the middle on a balance beam and therefore has a so-called key tail
Twin drawer
A wind chest for two manuals, the chambers are always placed alternately so that a stop can be played either on the first or second manual. See alternating loop

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