Organ landscape Hessen
The organ landscape of Hesse has a collection of organs from four centuries with several important works. The term organ landscape alone refers to the historically determined regional characteristics of the organs. The origins of the Hesse organ landscape go back to the 13th century. Organ building in Hesse experienced its heyday in the 18th century. In the 20th century it became part of the general development of German organ building. It was exposed to a variety of influences and, seen as a whole, is not very uniform. This is mainly due to the different Hessian rulers and the changing borders in the history of Hesse . The cultural competition between the Landgraviates opened up to influences from the neighboring organ regions in Thuringia , Franconia , the Rhineland , the Palatinate and Westphalia . On the other hand, numerous local workshops have sprung up, some with a long family tradition.
History of organ building
Until the late Gothic
The first documented organ in the West was a Hydraulis , which the Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine V bequeathed to Pippin on the Middle Rhine in 757 as a diplomatic gift. From the 9th century church organs can be found in a few monasteries, from the 13th century mainly in cathedrals and domes, from the 14th / 15th century. In the 19th century they were spread all over Germany. For centuries, however, the center of European organ building was on the Middle Rhine. Thanks to the favorable traffic situation, there was lively organ building activity in the Taunus and Westerwald . From there, the inland regions were supplied with instruments and technical innovations were introduced. The first organ in Wetzlar is documented in 1279, in the Arnstein monastery and in Dietkirchen at the end of the 13th century, in Limburg in 1331. For the Frankfurt Cathedral (Bartholomäusstift) an organ is documented for the first time in 1313, the exact time of which is unknown. A new organ was built there in 1340. Daniel von Hünhoff from Hadamar was the first regional organ builder to be tangible in 1471. In the second half of the 15th century, Leonhard Mertz worked from Frankfurt am Main far beyond Germany to Barcelona. He partly created large organs with three parts and a 32-foot in the prospectus . The activities of other Frankfurt organ builders such as Diedrich Krafft (1414–1436), Levinus Sweys (1440) and Günter Golt (1446–1475) testify that Frankfurt had been a European center of organ building since the late Gothic period. The priest and organist Laurentius Daum (around 1495–1543) had his workshop in Fulda and also worked in Saxony, Thuringia and Nassau. Around 1540 Daum turned to the Protestant faith and started a family. For the Fulda collegiate church (cathedral) he created new organs from 1535 to 1537 and for the Schlüchtern abbey church from 1535 to 1543, all of which were lost by the baroque period at the latest.
The Kiedricher organ is the oldest organ in Hesse that is still playable. In its oldest parts it goes back to the late Gothic period. An unknown master built an instrument around 1500 that has been rebuilt several times over the centuries. Behind the organ front with double doors are the remains of a work by Johannes Wendel Kirchner from 1653, which was further redesigned in the 18th century. A lack of money was the reason that the instrument was subsequently spared modernization and replacement for a long time. A first restoration was carried out from 1858 to 1860 at the instigation and funding of the English baronet John Sutton . In the course of this, the prospectus was de-Baroque and designed in the Gothic-Neo-Gothic style. Orgelbau Kuhn brought the work back 1985–1987 to the state of 1860.
Renaissance and early baroque
The leading Hessian organ builder of the 17th century was Georg Wagner from Lich . Wagner founded a family of organ builders who, until the death of Georg Henrich Wagner in 1688, had a wealth of new building and repair activities in Hesse. Georg Wagner is also credited with building the famous Marburg castle organ ("Althefer-Positiv"), which was probably made at the highest level of craftsmanship between 1590 and 1600 for the bailiffs Rudolph Wilhelm Rau von Holzhausen and his son-in-law Johann von Bodenhausen from Amönau. After the owner's death, the small organ came to the Wetter collegiate church in 1620 and was sold to Friedlos in 1776 . After an improper extension in the 18th century, the condition of the instrument deteriorated increasingly. When the organ finally became unplayable, it was donated to the Hessian History Association in 1882. This initiated the transfer to Marburg Castle , where it found its current location. The instrument originally had six registers , some of which are still original. The ownership structure is currently unclear, so a reconstruction of this Renaissance organ has been suspended (as of May 2011). The Wagner brochures in the Butzbacher Markuskirche (1614) and in the Marienstiftskirche Lich (1624) are among the oldest in Hesse. Both organs have a Rückpositiv , are richly decorated with carved veils and have a mirror principal in the two-story flat fields between the pipe towers of the main plant (in Butzbach with original pipes). The work in Rodenbach , which dates from 1621, probably also goes back to Wagner; four more registers date from the 17th century.
Organ builders who were passing through shaped Hesse in the 17th century and organ building in Brabant largely dominated Germany during the Renaissance. The Graurock (Grorockh) family from Emmerich settled in Frankfurt and introduced Dutch-Brabant organ building to Hesse with works in the Barfüßerkirche , in Darmstadt (1599) and Schotten (1614). The Hamburg master Hans Scherer the Younger , like the Graurocks, continued the tradition of Hendrik Niehoff from 's-Hertogenbosch and shaped Kassel with three new organs, which gained national fame but were all lost.
Only a few organs were built during the Thirty Years War . One of the few instruments from this period is the Worfelder organ , which has been set up in various locations throughout its history. In 1623/1624 Adam Knauth from Bamberg created a small instrument without a pedal with six registers for the Darmstadt Castle Church , which came to Zwingenberg in 1709 and has been in Worfelden since 1831 . The important work from the transition from the late Renaissance to the early Baroque has remained without structural changes and is therefore one of the oldest organs in Germany. The organ is characterized by the short octave , the mid-tone tuning and the angel box, cleverly added in 1681, with a small additional windchest for the added bass notes F sharp and G sharp. In 1648 Jakob Knauff from Rieneck settled in Hanau and built instruments in Weilburg (1653) and Wetzlar (1654). Adam Öhninger from Lohr am Main created the organ in the Limburg town church in 1686 . The organ in St. Dionys in Eschwege (1677–1679) was made by Jost Friedrich Schäffer from Langensalza , who imported organ building from Thuringia to Hesse . Only the case of both movements is original.
Baroque to classicism
In the 18th century, the Hessian organ culture experienced a heyday, in which otherwise simple Reformed churches received organs with representative prospectuses and generous arrangements . However, in the poorer regions, small organs with a manual and a small inventory of registers on a four-foot principal basis remained the rule. In contrast to organ building in northern Germany, a Rückpositiv was only used in exceptional cases. The most recent example can be found in the St. Marien Church in Bad Sooden-Allendorf (1756). From the middle of the 18th century, lower or echo works became the rule in the Middle Rhine tradition, which resulted in side play. The pedal was mostly independent and not just attached. As in north German organ building, it was housed in its own symmetrical pedal towers and, from the middle of the 18th century, increasingly in flat and sometimes quite wide pedal wings, which can be attributed to southern influence. The pedal wings in the Liebfrauenkirche Witzenhausen are peculiarly wide , their long sloping cornices protrude far into the barrel vault. The pedal towers in northern Hesse generally have curved cornices (with "harp fields"), which are the rule for all pipe towers further south. Due to the different cultural characteristics of the organ landscape, the design of the prospectus is not very uniform. In the case of small instruments, the five-part prospectus of the “Central German normal type” with a high round tower in the middle, two pointed towers on the side and lower, single-storey flat panels in between, found its classic form in the Baroque era.
Through Johann Jakob Dahm , who received citizenship in Mainz in 1698, Franconian influences came into the Hessian organ landscape. The prospectus of him in the Weilburg Castle Church (1710) can still be seen. His work in Flörsheim (1709), originally built for the Carmelite Monastery in Frankfurt , has been reworked several times over the years, but still has some original registers. In Dietkirchen / St. Lubentius (1711) has a new work behind the Dahm Prospect, while his famous organ in Eberbach Monastery was completely lost. The court organ builder from the Electoral Palatinate, Johann Friedrich Ernst Müller, built an organ with nine registers in Güttersbach in 1740 , which has not undergone any major modernization.
Johann Christian Rindt came from Hatzfeld and worked in Schönstadt as an organist, schoolmaster and organ builder. He made some one-manual works without an independent pedal. In the Emmaus Chapel in Hatzfeld there is a small work from 1706 , which Rindt originally built for the town church of his native town. The prospectuses that have been preserved are richly carved, in particular the side veils (the so-called "organ ears") and the case beautifully painted with motifs. In Caldern and Hatzfeld the central pipes of the pipe fields are chiselled , which is atypical for Hesse and can be traced back to Brabant influence, and in Caldern they are provided with gold masks.
Johann Adam Gundermann (* 1678 in Wommen ; † 1711) was a master student of Arp Schnitger and died at the age of 33, shortly after completing his two-manual organ in Sontra / St. Marien. The registers behind the Hamburg prospectus were later replaced and the disposition expanded. The influence from Thuringia was particularly strong in the Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel . Johann Eberhard Dauphin moved to Iba in East Hesse in 1715 , where he created a small organ based on an eight-foot principal, some of which has been preserved. A total of around ten village organs in Hesse can be traced back to him. He died in Hoheneiche in 1731 after completing the organ there. His sons Johann Christian and Johann Georg Dauphin continued their father's business. From 1758 to 1760 Johann Christian made the organ in Spachbrücken . The brothers created the largely preserved work in the Evangelical Church of Sandbach (1787).
Johann Nikolaus Schäfer from Babenhausen settled in Hanau in 1705 and was one of the most respected Hessian organ builders in the 18th century. His organs are characterized by broad brochures and idiosyncratic arrangements. His work in Marburg's Marienkirche (28 voices on two manuals and pedal) had four eight-foot labial registers; in the pedal four of seven registers were 16-footed; Oberwerk and Brustwerk had a six-fold mixture . Apart from the splendid prospectuses, only individual registers are still original today. The brochure design in the Regency style in the Homberg town church St. Marien is unusual for the Hessen-Kassel area and points to Johann Friedrich Schäffer from Witzenhausen as the builder instead of Johann Nikolaus Schäfer. The organ in the Martinskirche in Oberweimar dates from 1747 and goes back to Johann Christian Köhler , who came from Groß Rosenburg in Saxony-Anhalt. In 1753 he took the Frankfurt citizen oath and from then on ran a workshop there. Half a dozen organs and a number of brochures are still preserved from Koehler.
In four generations, the Grieb and Dreuth families built around 30 single-manual organs based on Griedel, which, with their trapezoidal central towers and the regularly used super octave 1 ′, created characteristic works in the area of the counties of Solms and Riedesel . Further south, the Zinck family of organ builders shaped the Wetterau and the Hanau area with around two dozen new organs . Johann Friedrich Syer married into the family and left organs with a uniform style.
Johann Conrad Wegmann came from Switzerland and was a court organ builder in Darmstadt from 1732. In 1736 the City Council of Frankfurt commissioned him to build an organ with 41 stops for the Barefoot Church. His son Philipp Ernst and his grandson Johann Benedikt Ernst Wegmann worked as organ builders in Frankfurt. Philipp Ernst Wegmann became the stepson and workshop successor of Köhler, whose own son, who was intended to be his successor, died early. Most of the registers of the Rococo organ by Wegmann (1776–1780) have been preserved in Bobenhausen . The Gedackt 4 ′ (Duiflauthe) with its double labiation is a specialty . After various modifications, the historical prospectus and some Wegmann registers from 1781 in Nieder-Erlenbach have been preserved.
Johann Wilhelm Schöler from Bad Ems also delivered some works to the area of today's Hesse and in this way conveyed the Middle Rhine construction method. The original Schöler organ in the former Altenberg monastery near Wetzlar from 1757/58 has been preserved. The side-playing monument organ is characterized by gentle and chamber music registers, as it did not have to accompany a large congregation in the nunnery. In the same year Schöler's factory in Egenroth was established . It is characteristic of its Rhineland design that the main and substations of larger organs stand on top of each other in the gallery balustrade and small fields of pipes nestle against the main towers (as in Gladenbach , 1789–1795). Schöler's factory in Büttelborn (1788) was expanded in 1967 by Gebr. Oberlinger Orgelbau , until 1975 the original disposition was restored. Various Westphalian organ builders such as Johann Jacob John (Einbeck), Andreas Schneider (Höxter) and Peter Henrich Varenholt (Bielefeld) worked in North Hesse, as well as organ builders from North Hesse with Westphalian influence such as Daniel Mütze and the brothers Andreas and Bernhard Reinecke . Typical of the Westphalian style are the numerous small pipe fields, which, starting from the large pipe tower in the middle, are gradually stepping outwards. The well-known organ builder dynasty Stumm from the Hunsrück also delivered to the right bank of the Rhine and created organ works in Bad Camberg (1779–1784) and Hasselbach (1788), some of which show the old register inventory, in Bärstadt (1769–1771) even all of them.
In Gottsbüren originated from the 17th to 19th century organ building center, which found its first detectable ancestor in Joachim coals (1598 to 1676). An important representative of the dynasty was Johann Stephan Heeren (1729–1804), who was appointed a privileged court organ builder by Landgrave Friedrich II . In 1774 he was commissioned to build the organ in the Hof- und Elisabethkirche in Kassel. It is characteristic of Heeren's construction that the smaller pointed towers directly flank the larger central tower. In the Zierenberg town church (1756/57) , for example, instead of the usual central flat fields, there are small lateral pipe fields that lead to the pedal towers. Heeren's son-in-law Johann Friedrich Euler (1759–1795) gave the company another name. After his death, Johann Dietrich Kuhlmann married the widow and took over the workshop in 1804. Euler's descendants continued the family business that existed in Hofgeismar until the 20th century and, with twelve generations, is the oldest organ building company in Germany.
Johann Andreas Heinemann is considered to be the most important organ builder in Upper Hesse in the second half of the 18th century. He came from Jena and learned organ building from the Thuringian master organ builders Johann Casper Beck and Johann Michael Wagner , who built the organ of the Laubach town church from 1747 to 1751 . After completion of the organ, Heinemann settled in Laubach and from 1765 in Gießen. On January 24th, 1766 he was privileged to be organ maker in Hessen-Darmstadt. In Hessen-Kassel, the master received only a few orders, as the local organ builders vigorously protested against the Hessen-Darmstadt population, which they called "foreigners". In the Rococo style, the organs in Nieder-Gemünden (1760) and Breidenbach (1769), largely preserved in their original form, come from him . His only surviving two-manual work is in the collegiate church in Wetter (1763–1766), while in Kirchberg (1777) only the prospectus can be seen. Next to him was Johannes Schlottmann (1726–1795) in East Hesse in the second half of the 18th century . After several complaints about his default, bankruptcy proceedings were opened against Schlottmann in 1775 and his Friedewald workshop was auctioned. In 1783 the family moved to Spangenberg. After further organ projects, accusations arose again, which in 1788 led to a five-week arrest and a further four weeks in prison. In 1789 the Marburg consistory issued a work ban and expelled him from the country. In the last few years Schlottmann has mainly been doing repair work in Hessen-Darmstadt. In addition to its richly decorated Rococo organ in Spieskappel Monastery (1769–1771), a number of brochures have been preserved, for example in Ottrau (1754–1757), Willingshausen (1764), Niederasphe (1775–1781) and Angersbach (1785–1788).
The two-manual organ of the Evangelical Church in Nieder-Moos , which Johann-Markus Oestreich built in 1791 with an unusually wide, 15-axis prospect, has been completely preserved from the time of classicism . The decorations range from the late Rococo to the plait style . Because of the great resemblance to the Wegmann organ in the Lauterbach town church (1767), which served as a model, Oestreich was also assumed to be the builder here. Oestreich worked in Oberbimbach and came from a family of organs that shaped the Hessian organ landscape for five generations. Many of his brochures are still preserved. From Homburg organ builder Johann Conrad Bürgy , who traveled from Schaffhausen , only three classical instruments have survived: The organ in Wehrheim was built in 1783, the one in Rohrbach in 1789. The representative work in the castle church of Bad Homburg (1782–1787) has one Echowerk. The case is original, while the pipework has been reconstructed.
The organ in Bleichenbach , which Bürgy's sons built in 1803, is also classical . Most of the registers are still there, while the action was renewed towards the end of the 19th century.
Various organ builders from the neighboring regions also shaped the Hessian organ landscape in the 19th century. This development was favored by the abolition of internal tariffs and the resulting expansion of sales areas. The union of small states in Hessen-Nassau in 1868 promoted the economic situation and led to organ builders and organ experts becoming non-denominationally active. In addition to conservative organ builders, who for a long time oriented themselves towards traditional construction, major technical innovations such as the introduction of the cone chest and, from 1890, pneumatics found their way into the second half of the century . What is also new is that in the course of industrialized production methods, the quantity of the works supplied by a company has increased significantly. Most of the old organ works fell victim to the associated new sound aesthetics of the Romantic era .
Bernhard Dreymann from Mainz is considered the most important organ builder of the 19th century in the Rhine-Main area , whose works were delivered to Belgium. His works in Schlierbach (1833), Ober-Erlenbach (1840) and Ober-Eschbach (1849) have largely been preserved. Its mechanical registration device with two foot levers and a step-by-step indexing device in Hainchen (1834) is peculiar . His instrument in Trebur (1844) was hardly changed. In Kirdorf there is the largest and at the same time only surviving Hessian organ of his son Hermann Dreymann from 1862.
In competition with Dreymann was Johann Georg Förster , who founded a workshop in Lich in 1842. The Upper Hessian family company Förster & Nicolaus Orgelbau has so far created over 725 new buildings (as of 2014) and has also made a name for itself beyond Upper Hesse through the restoration of historical instruments. Förster's organ in Steinbach (1849) behind a neo-Romanesque prospect has a rare physharmonica register, which can also be found in the neo-Gothic organ in Großen-Buseck (Förster & Nicolaus, 1870). In Homburg, Philipp Heinrich Bürgy and Johann Georg Bürgy continued the workshop under the name Gebrüder Bürgy after the death of their father and led to an early romantic sound concept.
The company of the Ratzmann ( Gelnhausen ) organ building family, founded in 1792, built around 170 organs in Hesse and Thuringia in 130 years, only a few of which have survived, such as the neo-Romanesque plant in Dorheim (1855) and others in Aufenau (1880), Neuhof (1885) ), Roßdorf (1895), Schönstadt (1898) and Altenmittlau (1904). Adjacent Palatinate organ building companies such as the Stumm and Oberlinger companies delivered to Kurhessen-Waldeck. The Stumm organ in the Rheingau Cathedral in Geisenheim (1839–1842) behind a neo-Gothic prospect is with 33 stops, two thirds of which are original, the largest two-manual work of this family of organ builders. Alois Späth founded an internationally active family company in Mengen , which mainly built organs in East Hesse.
Johann Hartmann Bernhard from Romrod was mainly active in Hessen-Darmstadt and founded an organ building dynasty that built over 120 organs in the 19th century and has had a lasting impact on the organ region to this day. In view of the strong competitive pressure, Bernhard relied on solid and traditional handcrafted construction even in difficult times of war, which gave him a good reputation. He made around 40 village organs, which even with a modest disposition have an independent pedal. His early works are still committed to the braid style , the others have a classical appearance. A distinctive feature was the flat composite prospectus with its geometric, rectangular design without protruding pipe towers. In terms of sound, his organs still go back heavily to the 18th century. His son Friedrich Wilhelm Bernhard continued the Romroder workshop, which was relocated to Gambach in 1861 by his brother Adam Karl Bernhard and operated as the Bernhard brothers under Johann Hartmann's grandchildren .
In the Duchy of Nassau in the mid-19th century had a Christian Friedrich Voigt . He came from Saxony, founded a family business in Wiesbaden-Igstadt and built over 50 organs, usually small. Beside him Daniel Raßmann ran a workshop in Möttau . Raßmann's lateral work in Steinfischbach (1843) with substation in the gallery parapet has hardly been changed, even the mixture containing terz and the reeds are original; on the other hand , the wind system, keyboards and reeds of his largest organ, the equally sidelong parapet organ in Eschbach (1845), were changed in the course of time, but were largely reconstructed in 1995/96 based on the model of the sister instrument in Steinfischbach; the unusual register Spindelflöte 4 ′ is considered to be Raßmann's “key fossil”. His son Gustav Raßmann used the mechanical cone drawer in Burg Hohenstein (1885), Adolfseck (1897) and Steckenroth (1899). In East Hesse, August Röth (1812–1872) carried out numerous repairs and maintenance of the organs and also built a few new buildings. Because of his drunkenness, the company was under a trustee in 1865/66 and has been operating under the name Gebrüder Röth und Sohn since 1868 . In the second half of the 19th century, the organ building workshop of the brothers A. and M. Keller delivered numerous organs in the Limburg region (including those in Limburg Cathedral). After the death of the owner Michael Keller in 1894, the Bonn-based organ builder Johannes Klais took over the remainder of the inventory and completed some of the organ projects that Keller had started (cf. Wehrheim , Rauenthal, etc.). The successor to the Keller brothers was the organ builder Carl Horn (Karl Horn), who opened his workshop in Limburg in 1895/96. Up until around 1930 he built more than 60 instruments with a late romantic disposition and mostly pneumatic cone chests, of which only very few have survived in the original. He was succeeded by the Eduard Wagenbach organ building workshop.
From the beginning of the 20th century, some instruments from the renowned Ludwigsburg organ building company EF Walcker & Cie. great fame, such as the late romantic organ of the Luther Church in Wiesbaden (1911) with a free pipe prospect and an extensive swell of 17 voices, which implemented the ideas of the Alsatian-New German organ reform by Émile Rupp and Albert Schweitzer . An older Walcker organ from 1866 is in Fränkisch-Crumbach , which is just as completely original as the work in the Union Church in Idstein (1912).
20th and 21st centuries
From 1925 the so-called organ movement came into being , which reached its peak in the 1950s. She tried to preserve the old organs and brought about a radical change in aesthetics and a return to the classic construction of the baroque organ. As a result, however, many romantic works were renewed or re-arranged in a neo-baroque style, so that historical substance was often lost. The Second World War brought further irretrievable losses, which particularly affected cities such as Frankfurt, Kassel, Darmstadt, Gießen and Wetzlar. In the post-war years, organs that were destroyed or lost were not reconstructed, but replaced by new organs, preferably by organ builders outside of Hesse. The displacement of particular regional characteristics, which began as early as the 19th century, progressed in the 20th century to such an extent that Hessian organ building merged with the general development of German organ building. In 1957 , Klais from Bonn built the organ of the Frankfurt Imperial Cathedral in neo-baroque style. With 115 registers it is the largest organ in Hessen to this day. Klais created other new buildings with three or four manuals in Oberursel / Liebfrauenkirche (1970), in Limburg Cathedral (1978), in Frankfurt Paulskirche (1988), Fulda / St. Blasius (2005) and the Marburg Elisabeth Church (2006). It was only when a large part of the historic organs had been replaced that a rethink began to take place from the 1960s onwards and increasingly from the 1970s onwards. Church and independent organ experts , flanked by monument protection , began to campaign for the preservation of the remaining old instruments and for proper restorations. For example, a conference on March 31, 1973 in Altenberg demanded the preservation of the almost intact Schöler organ, which meant that the renovation contract that had already been awarded in 1972 could not be carried out.
Some contemporary companies fall back on long organ building traditions, such as Elmar Krawinkel, who continues the tradition of Johann Stephan Heeren, his son-in-law Johann Friedrich Euler (1759–1795) and his descendants, or Dieter Noeske (* 1936), Rotenburg an der Fulda , who took over the business from August Möller. The family company Raßmann has been run by the fourth generation of the Hardt organ building family since 1906. Ratzmann's business is continued today by Andreas Schmidt , a grandson of Richard Schmidt, who took over Ratzmann's workshop in 1921. Wilhelm Hey (1840–1921), of whom about a dozen organ works have been preserved, founded a family business in Ostheim vor der Rhön in 1874 , which is now in the sixth generation and is one of the oldest still existing organ workshops in Germany.
Foreign organ builders such as Rudolf von Beckerath Orgelbau in the Wetzlar Cathedral (1953) and Ahrend & Brunzema in the Cantate Domino Church in Frankfurt (1970) with model works that are in the tradition of the North German Baroque organ took completely different paths . Another new building by Jürgen Ahrend was built in 1975 in the Evangelical City Church in Höchst . In 1989 he built a work in the style of Bürgy for the Wetzlar Franciscan Church behind the old prospectus by Philipp Heinrich Bürgy (1803), without copying it. Otherwise, the consistently historically oriented organ building in Hesse remained the exception.
The Marburg organ builder Gerald Woehl is striving for a synthesis of the historical organ building with innovative new concepts, for example in his four-manual work in the Marburg Kugelkirche (1976) or in the Bad Homburg Erlöserkirche (1990), which for the first time implements a disposition proposal by Johann Sebastian Bach in modern organ building . The work was placed in the gallery parapet in front of the listed Sauer organ and visually forms an artistic unit with it. Modern organ building is represented by Werner Bosch Orgelbau (Kassel), whose Hessian location, like Woehl and others, is irrelevant to the character of the instruments supplied. The list of works includes over 900 new organs (as of 2011) that have been exported to Japan, Korea and the USA. The Hessian organ landscape is supplemented by new buildings from foreign companies, such as Rieger Orgelbau from Schwarzach (Vorarlberg) , which is strongly export-oriented. Rieger created a large work with 54 voices in the Katharinenkirche in Frankfurt , which combines baroque with French symphonic sounds. In 1996, Rieger set up a new work with 72 registers and four manuals behind the historic prospectus of the organ in Fulda Cathedral . In 1999 the Rieger organ in the St. Luke Church in Frankfurt was completed.
In contrast to Gottfried Silbermann in Saxony or Arp Schnitger in northern Germany, there was no single outstanding organ builder in Hesse who would have culturally defined the entire area for centuries. Leonhard Mertz in the 15th century, Georg Wagner in the 17th century and Johann Andreas Heinemann in the 18th century, however, are considered to be the leading organ builders of their time who were also active nationwide and whose organs are now among the most important works of the Hesse organ landscape. The typical Hessian organ doesn't exist. The regional characteristics and the different influences from the neighboring organ regions are too diverse. The Middle Rhine has always been a passage area for various organ builders due to its convenient location. The Hessian organ landscape combines numerous influences, the mixture of which is characteristic of this organ region.
In contrast to the north German organ building, a Rückpositiv or a breastwork is rarely found in Hessian organs. Under the influence of the Middle Rhine, lower or echo works were used instead from the 18th century (Stumm, Schöler). From the 18th century, the S-shaped curved harp fields (Köhler, Wegmann, Oestreich) are characteristic of the Frankfurt and Fulda area. In southern Hesse the number of harp fields is increasing, in the north they are limited to the pedal pianos. A characteristic of the southern coinage is the accommodation of the pedal mechanism in flat and wide pedal wings instead of in pedal towers, as is common in northern Germany. North Hessian organs occasionally have a Westphalian prospect design, which can be recognized by the large number of small pipe fields that are gradually stepped laterally around the large central tower. Chasings and labia painted with masks can be found on Georg Wagner and some organs in Northern Hesse, which points to Brabant influence. In the case of small instruments from the Renaissance to the 19th century, the Central German type predominates, with three round and angular pipe towers and two flat panels in between.
As most of the organs have been replaced or destroyed by disasters and wars over the centuries, little historical substance has survived. Among the historical organs there are some three-manual works with some old registers. The important historical organs are otherwise two- and mostly small one-manual works. Hardly any instrument has survived the centuries without major changes. In this respect, the almost completely preserved works in Worfelden (1623), Altenberg Monastery (1757) and Nieder-Moos (1791) are of particular importance. Nevertheless, the archives and the preserved organ remains from the last four centuries give an insight into the diverse organ culture of Hesse, which has maintained an intercultural exchange with the neighboring regions from the start. This is reflected in the external design of the brochures as well as in the structural and tonal conception of the instruments, which shows Rhineland, Palatinate, Thuringian or Westphalian influences.
As elsewhere, the opening up of the Hessian organ culture to the public takes place through concerts, festivals and organ tours and is flanked by publications and sound carriers. Organ restoration has been funded since 2001 through a joint program between the State Office for Monument Preservation Hessen and the Sparkassen-Kulturstiftung Hessen-Thüringen. Ludwig Bickell researched Hessen as one of the first organ landscapes . Today, the organ landscape in Central and South Hesse has been carefully developed organologically through the series of sources and research on the history of the organ in the Middle Rhine and through the monographs on the Starkenburg Province and the Ziegenhain County , in which the entire organ inventory is fully recorded.
- Gerhard Aumüller , Barbara Uppenkamp: Facts and questions about the origin of the Marburg castle organ . In: Journal of the Association for Hessian History and Regional Studies . tape 113 , 2008, pp. 152–164 ( online ; PDF file; 630 kB).
- Gerhard Aumüller: Organs and organ builders in Hesse at the time of Landgraves Wilhelm IV and Moritz the Scholar . In: Acta Organologica . tape 28 , 2004, pp. 37-64 .
- Gerhard Aumüller: Westphalian style elements of baroque organs in Waldeck and in the Marburger Land . In: Alma mater Philippina . tape 70 , 1997, pp. 17-21 .
- Hans Martin Balz : Divine Music. Organs in Germany (= 230th publication by the Society of Organ Friends ). Konrad Theiss, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 3-8062-2062-X .
- Hans Martin Balz: organs and organ builder in the area of the former Hessian province of Starkenburg. A contribution to the history of organ building (= studies on Hessian music history . Volume 3 ). Bärenreiter second-hand bookshop, Kassel 1969.
- Hans Martin Balz: Organ building and organ music in southern Hesse. At the 1979 GdO conference in Frankfurt . In: Ars Organi . tape 27 , no. 59 , 1979, pp. 511-524 .
- Hans Martin Balz, Reinhardt Menger: Old organs in Hessen and Nassau (= publication of the Society of Organ Friends . Volume 72 ). 2nd Edition. Merseburger, Kassel 1997, ISBN 3-87537-169-0 .
- Franz Bösken : Sources and research on the organ history of the Middle Rhine (= contributions to the Middle Rhine music history . Volume 6 ). tape 1 : Mainz and suburbs - Rheinhessen - Worms and suburbs. Schott, Mainz 1967, ISBN 978-3-7957-1306-5 .
- Franz Bösken: Sources and research on the organ history of the Middle Rhine (= contributions to the Middle Rhine music history . Volume 7.1 ). tape 2 : The area of the former administrative district of Wiesbaden. Part 1: A-K . Schott, Mainz 1975, ISBN 3-7957-1307-2 .
- Franz Bösken: Sources and research on the organ history of the Middle Rhine (= contributions to the Middle Rhine music history . Volume 7.2 ). tape 2 : The area of the former administrative district of Wiesbaden. Part 2: L-Z . Schott, Mainz 1975, ISBN 3-7957-1370-6 .
- Franz Bösken, Hermann Fischer: Sources and research on the organ history of the Middle Rhine (= contributions to the Middle Rhine music history . Volume 29.1 ). tape 3 : Former province of Upper Hesse. Part 1: A-L . Schott, Mainz 1988, ISBN 3-7957-1330-7 .
- Franz Bösken, Hermann Fischer: Sources and research on the organ history of the Middle Rhine (= contributions to the Middle Rhine music history . Volume 29.2 ). tape 3 : Former province of Upper Hesse. Part 2: M-Z . Schott, Mainz 1988, ISBN 3-7957-1331-5 .
- Hermann Fischer : 100 years of the Association of German Organ Builders. 1891-1991 . Ed .: Association of German Organ Builders. Orgelbau-Fachverlag, Lauffen 1991, ISBN 3-921848-18-0 .
- Dieter Großmann: Kurhessen as an organ landscape . In: Acta Organologica . tape 1 , 1967, p. 69-112 .
- Dieter Großmann: Organs and Organ Builders in Hesse (= contributions to Hessian history . Volume 12 ). 2nd Edition. Trautvetter & Fischer, Marburg 1998, ISBN 3-87822-109-6 .
- Dieter Großmann: On a history of organ building in Hesse . In: Journal of the Association for Hessian History and Regional Studies . tape 68 , 1957, pp. 174-184 .
- Bernhard Hemmerle : Organ building in the Limburg - Weilburg district . In: Yearbook 2004 of the Limburg-Weilburg district (= contributions to Hessian history . Volume 12 ). Rekom, Limburg 2003, ISBN 3-87822-109-6 , pp. 251-260 .
- Siegfried Lotze: Renaissance organs in the Landgraviate of Hesse. 400 years of Schmalkalden Castle Church . In: District of Kassel, yearbook . 1991, p. 73 ff .
- Gottfried Rehm : Contributions to the history of the organ builder in Fulda and in the Rhön . In: Acta Organologica . tape 25 , 1997, pp. 29-60 .
- Gottfried Rehm: The organs of the former Schlüchtern district (= North German organs . Volume 10 ). Pape, Berlin 1975, ISBN 3-921140-14-5 .
- Gottfried Rehm: The organs of the Fulda district except for the core city of Fulda (= North German organs . Volume 5 ). Pape, Berlin 1978, ISBN 3-921140-18-8 .
- Achim Seip, Barbara Nichtweiss: Old and new organs in the Diocese of Mainz (= New Yearbook for the Diocese of Mainz. Contributions to the contemporary and cultural history of the Diocese ). Episcopal Ordinariate, Mainz 2003, ISBN 978-3-934450-14-1 .
- Eckhard Trinkaus, Gerhard Aumüller: Organ building in the Waldeck-Frankenberg district . In: Friedhelm Brusniak, Hartmut Wecker (ed.): Music in Waldeck-Frankenberg. Music history of the district . Bing, Korbach 1997, ISBN 3-87077-098-8 , pp. 144-202 .
- Eckhard Trinkaus: organs and organ builders in the former district of Ziegenhain (Hessen) (= publications of the historical commission for Hessen . Volume 43 ). Elwert, Marburg 1981, ISBN 3-7708-0713-8 .
- Franz Vogel: Organs in northwestern Hesse . In: Ars Organi . tape 34 , 1986, pp. 34-40 .
Recordings / sound carriers (selection)
- Martin Balz: Concert on Reformation Day on the former Darmstadt palace organ from 1624 in the Ev. Worfelden Church. 2010. Studio 12 GmbH (works by Anonymus, A. de Cabezon, HL Hassler, J. Cabanilles, M. Weckmann, J. Pachelbel, D. Buxtehude, JS Bach, GB Pergolesi, SS Wesley).
- JS Bach as the arranger of his own and other works. Motet CD 11741 (Hayko Siemens in Bad Homburg / Erlöserkirche)
- Roland Götz plays Samuel Scheidt. studio XVII augsburg 96503 (Rindt organ in Hatzfeld / Eder).
- Historic organs from four centuries. AV-studio Helmut Buchholz, AV 09-90-2200 (R. Bechtle, HM Hoffmann, W. Stockmeier M. Weyer on eight historical organs in the area of the Evangelical Church in Hesse and Nassau)
- Historic organs in Hessen: Ratzmann organs in Altenmittlau, Aufenau, Roßdorf, Schönstadt. Hessian radio. 2006 (Hans-Jürgen Kaiser plays works by F. Mendelssohn, J. Brahms, M. Karg-Elert, M. Reger)
- Historical organs in Hessen: organs from the 18th century in Büttelborn, Brand, Stammheim, Wehrheim. Hessian radio. 2009. (Hans-Jürgen Kaiser plays works by JS Bach, J. Haydn, C. Kittel, J. Pachelbel, Rinck and Schnitzer)
- Kiedrich - Ton Koopman. Capriccio 10228. 1988 (works by JC Kerll, C. Paumann, A. Schlick, H. Buchner, H. Kotter, HL Hassler, C. Erbach, P. Siefert, H, Scheidemann, JJ Froberger, D. Buxtehude)
- Sound experiences on the Limburg cathedral organ. AV-studio Helmut Buchholz, AV 09-5000-93 (HM Hoffmann and W. Stockmeier in Limburg Cathedral)
- Johann Pachelbel (1653-1706): The Complete Organ Works. Vol. V. Centaur Records Inc., CRC 2353. 1998 (Joseph Payne in Kiedrich)
- Organ music on the Heinemann organ in Wetter. AV Studio Helmut Buchholz, AV-9-00-1000 (Klaus-Jürgen Höfer and Christian Zierenberg with works by JS Bach, D. Buxtehude, JL Krebs, CH Rinck)
- Organs in Hessen from four centuries. Bauer Studios SACD 9088-3 (Reinhardt Menger in Worfelden, Hatzfeld, Nieder-Moos, Biebesheim and Frankfurt am Main / Cantate Domino)
- Organ landscape Bad Homburg vor der Höhe. Ars Musici 1132-2 (Hayko in the Erlöserkirche, Schlosskirche, St. Marien, St. Johannes and St. Martin Siemens with works by JS Bach, WA Mozart, R. Schumann, J. Brahms, M. Reger, F. Liszt)
- Martin Balz: Organ building in Hesse, North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland ( Memento from March 26, 2018 in the Internet Archive )
- Organ Festival Fugato: The Bad Homburg organ landscape
- State Office for the Preservation of Monuments Hesse : Organ Monument Preservation
- ↑ a b c Martin Balz: Organ building in Hesse, North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland ( memento from March 26, 2018 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on May 8, 2019.
- ↑ a b Balz: Organs and organ builders in the area of the former Hessian province of Starkenburg. 1969, p. 62.
- ↑ a b Bösken: Sources and research on the organ history of the Middle Rhine. Vol. 1. 1967, p. 39, compares the area of the Middle Rhine with a turntable, which has a mediating function.
- ^ A b Siegfried Neuber: Organ builder in Kurhessen-Waldeck. In: Quintet. No. 16, 2009, pp. 26-28.
- ↑ Balz: Divine Music. Organs in Germany. 2008, p. 12.
- ↑ Balz: Divine Music. Organs in Germany. 2008, p. 15.
- ↑ a b c d e f g h i Hemmerle: Organ building in the Limburg - Weilburg district. 2003, pp. 251-260.
- ^ Bösken: Sources and research on the organ history of the Middle Rhine. Vol. 2, Part 1 (A-K). 1975, p. 12f.
- ^ Bösken: Sources and research on the organ history of the Middle Rhine. Vol. 2, Part 1 (A-K). 1975, p. 14f.
- ↑ Gottfried Rehm: The organs of the collegiate church and the cathedral in Fulda , p. 2, accessed on May 8, 2019 (PDF).
- ^ Bösken: Sources and research on the organ history of the Middle Rhine. Vol. 2, Part 1 (A-K). 1975, pp. 492-508.
- ↑ Homepage Orgelbau Kuhn: Organ portrait , accessed on May 8, 2019.
- ↑ Aumüller, Uppenkamp: Facts and questions about the origin of the Marburg castle organ. 2008, p. 138 ( online , accessed May 8, 2019, PDF file; 630 kB).
- ↑ Aumüller, Uppenkamp: Facts and questions about the origin of the Marburg castle organ. 2008, pp. 152–164 ( online , accessed May 8, 2019, PDF file; 630 kB).
- ↑ Katharina Schaal: Much Ado About Nothing !? The ownership structure of the Marburg “Castle Organ” . In: Journal of the Association for Hessian History and Regional Studies . tape 115 , 2010, p. 331-344 . Esaias Compenius the Elder was also suggested as builder (p. 332).
- ^ Bösken, Fischer: Sources and research on the organ history of the Middle Rhine. Vol. 3, Part 2 (M-Z). 1988, pp. 804-806.
- ↑ Maarten A. Vente: The Brabant Organ. On the history of organ art in Belgium and Holland in the Gothic and Renaissance ages . HJ Paris, Amsterdam 1963, p. 146-150 .
- ^ Bösken: Sources and research on the organ history of the Middle Rhine. Vol. 1. 1967, p. 27.
- ^ Eckhard Trinkaus: On the activity of the organ builder Scherer in Hessen . In: Ars Organi . tape 47 , 1999, p. 215-217 .
- ↑ a b Worfelder Church with historical organ (with sound samples), accessed on May 8, 2019.
- ↑ a b Aumüller: Westphalian style elements of baroque organs in Waldeck and in the Marburger Land. 1997, p. 17.
- ↑ a b Großmann: Organs and Organ Builders in Hessen. 1998, p. 48.
- ↑ a b c d e courtship: Divine music. Organs in Germany. 2008, p. 20.
- ^ Großmann: Organs and Organ Builders in Hesse. 1998, p. 54f.
- ↑ a b Großmann: Organs and Organ Builders in Hessen. 1998, pp. 75-77, 103.
- ↑ a b 300 years of the Dahm organ in the St. Gallus Church in Flörsheim , accessed on May 8, 2019.
- ↑ For the history of the organ, see Bösken: Sources and research on the history of the organ in the Middle Rhine. Vol. 2, Part 1 (A-K). 1975, pp. 272-282, 188-196.
- ^ For the catalog raisonné by Rindt and Irle see Axel Marburg, Dieter Schneider: Die Orgelbauer Rindt und Irle. In: Hinterländer Geschichtsblätter- vol. 86, No. 1, March 2007, p. 7 (history supplements to the Hinterländer Anzeiger , Biedenkopf).
- ↑ Ev. Stadtkirche Sontra , accessed on May 8, 2019.
- ^ Balz, Menger: Old organs in Hesse and Nassau. 1997, p. 144.
- ^ Bösken, Fischer: Sources and research on the organ history of the Middle Rhine. Vol. 3, Part 1 (A-L). 1988, p. 16.
- ↑ See the complete disposition at Großmann: Orgeln und Organbauer in Hessen. 1998, p. 54.
- ^ Trinkaus: organs and organ builders in the former district of Ziegenhain (Hesse). 1981, p. 280f.
- ↑ Franz Körndle: works Johann Christian Köhler , accessed on May 8 of 2019.
- ↑ Krystian Skoczowski : The organ builder family Zinck. A contribution to the research of organ building in the Wetterau and the Kinzig valley in the 18th century. Haag + Herchen, Hanau 2018, ISBN 978-3-89846-824-4 .
- ^ Balz, Menger: Old organs in Hesse and Nassau. 1997, p. 32.
- ↑ Balz: Divine Music. Organs in Germany. 2008, p. 138.
- ↑ For the history of the organ, see Bösken: Sources and research on the history of the organ in the Middle Rhine. Vol. 2, Part 1 (A-K). 1975, pp. 372-374.
- ↑ a b Aumüller: Westphalian style elements of baroque organs in Waldeck and in the Marburger Land. 1997, pp. 17-21.
- ^ Balz, Menger: Old organs in Hesse and Nassau. 1997, p. 24.
- ^ Großmann: Organs and Organ Builders in Hesse. 1998, pp. 73f.
- ↑ Diocese of Fulda: Euler family of organs , accessed on May 8, 2019 (PDF file; 13 kB).
- ↑ For details on the Gottsbürer organ building tradition, see Rehm: Contributions to the history of organ builders in Fulda and in the Rhön. 1997, pp. 29-60.
- ^ Hans Römhild: Germany's oldest organ building company . In: Hessian homeland . tape 17 , no. 4 , 1967, p. 110-116 .
- ^ Großmann: Organs and Organ Builders in Hesse. 1998, p. 146.
- ^ Bösken, Fischer: Sources and research on the organ history of the Middle Rhine. Vol. 3, Part 1 (A-L). 1988, pp. 15, 520.
- ^ Trinkaus: organs and organ builders in the former district of Ziegenhain (Hesse). 1981, p. 253.
- ^ Klaus-Jürgen Höfer: Experiences with the restored Heinemann organ in the collegiate church in Wetter. In: Quintet. No. 10, 2006, pp. 3-5.
- ↑ See in detail on Schlottmann: Trinkaus: Orgeln and Organ Builders in the former Ziegenhain district (Hesse). 1981, pp. 283-298.
- ↑ An overview of works can be found in Gabriele Nina Bode, Michael Losse: Die "Wehrkirche" in Niederasphe. Historical-art-historical analysis of a central Hessian "village church" . In: Journal of the Association for Hessian History and Regional Studies . tape 104 , 1999, pp. 74 .
- ^ Großmann: Organs and Organ Builders in Hesse. 1998, pp. 79-84.
- ↑ Gottfried Rehm: The Oestreich family of organ builders , accessed on May 8, 2019 (PDF).
- ^ Organ in Büdingen-Rohrbach , accessed on May 8, 2019.
- ↑ Fugato Organ Festival , accessed on May 8, 2019.
- ^ Bösken, Fischer: Sources and research on the organ history of the Middle Rhine. Vol. 3, Part 1 (A-L). 1988, p. 19.
- ^ Balz, Menger: Old organs in Hesse and Nassau. 1997, p. 78.
- ↑ Fugato Organ Festival: Dreymann Organ (1861) , accessed on May 8, 2019.
- ^ Fischer: 100 years of the Association of German Organ Builders. 1991, pp. 185f.
- ↑ Homepage Förster & Nicolaus: list of works , accessed on May 8, 2019.
- ↑ Martin Balz: Bürgy, family . In: Music in the past and present 2 . Person part vol. 3. Bärenreiter, Metzler, Kassel, Stuttgart 2000, p. Sp. 1296-1298 .
- ^ Orgelbau Schmidt: Catalog raisonné Ratzmann , accessed on May 8, 2019.
- ↑ Stumm organ in Geisenheim , accessed on May 8, 2019.
- ^ Trinkaus: organs and organ builders in the former district of Ziegenhain (Hesse). 1981, p. 243f.
- ^ Bösken, Fischer: Sources and research on the organ history of the Middle Rhine. Vol. 3, Part 2 (M-Z). 1988, p. 734.
- ↑ Bösken: Sources and research on the organ history of the Middle Rhine , Volume 2, Part 2 (L – Z), pp. 179f .; see. also board of the Ev. Eschbach parish (ed.): 150 years of Ev. Eschbach Church. Festschrift for the anniversary. Eschbach 1996, pp. 51-68.
- ^ Trinkaus: organs and organ builders in the former district of Ziegenhain (Hesse). 1981, p. 274.
- ^ Bösken: Sources and research on the organ history of the Middle Rhine. Vol. 2, Part 2 (L-Z). 1975, pp. 601, 719, 794f., 919f .; Communication from the Limburg City Archives (January 2007).
- ↑ Balz: Divine Music. Organs in Germany. 2008, p. 154f.
- ↑ See: Martin Balz: The Altenberger Organ - an Original Instrument and its History. In: Verein Kloster Altenberg (ed.): The Schöler organ in the former Altenberg monastery. Solms-Oberbiel 2007, pp. 5-9.
- ↑ www.Orgelbau Schmidt: Andreas Schmidt , accessed on May 8, 2019.
- ^ Fischer: 100 years of the Association of German Organ Builders. 1991, p. 206.
- ↑ Balz: Divine Music. Organs in Germany. 2008, pp. 162f.
- ↑ Günter Lade (Ed.): 40 years of organ building Jürgen Ahrend 1954–1994 . Self-published, Leer-Loga 1994, p. 66 .
- ↑ It is Bach disposition design for Bad Berka to 1742, which was extended by three registers (viol 8 'in the main work, Vox humana 8' and Quinta 1 1 / 2 'in the positive); In addition, the main work is based on a principal 16 ′ instead of principal 8 ′, see Werner Neumann, Hans-Joachim Schulze (Hrsg.): Foreign-written and printed documents on the life story of Johann Sebastian Bach 1685–1750 . Bärenreiter, VEB Deutscher Verlag für Musik, Kassel [et al.], Leipzig 1969, p. 406 (Bach documents 2).
- ↑ Homepage of the parish: The church and its organs , accessed on May 8, 2019.
- ^ Fischer: 100 years of the Association of German Organ Builders. 1991, pp. 155f.
- ^ Fischer: 100 years of the Association of German Organ Builders. 1991, pp. 279f.
- ↑ Martin Balz: Divine Music. Organs in Germany. Konrad Theiss Verlag, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 3-8062-2062-X (publication by the Society of Organ Friends 230), p. 166f.
- ↑ Disposition of the large Rieger organ (1997) in the high cathedral in Fulda , accessed on May 8, 2019 (PDF file; 31 kB).
- ^ Organ of the Lukaskirche in Frankfurt-Sachsenhausen , accessed on May 8, 2019.
- ^ Großmann: Organs and Organ Builders in Hesse. 1998, p. 77.
- ^ Siegfried Neuber: Organ Monument Maintenance in Hesse. In: Quintet. No. 16, 2009, pp. 23-25.
- ^ Großmann: Organs and Organ Builders in Hesse. 1998, p. 7.
- ^ Balz: organs and organ builders in the area of the former Hessian province of Starkenburg. 1969.
- ^ Trinkaus: organs and organ builders in the former district of Ziegenhain (Hesse). 1981.