|Height :||212 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||10.55 km²|
|Residents :||1500 approx.|
|Population density :||142 inhabitants / km²|
|Incorporation :||December 31, 1971|
|Postal code :||35091|
|Area code :||06427|
Schönstadt is a district of Cölbe in the central Hessian district of Marburg-Biedenkopf . Schönstadt has around 1500 inhabitants and is the third largest district after the core community of Cölbe and Bürgeln.
Geologically and geographically, the district of Schönstadt is assigned to the Burgwald , which is delimited as a red sandstone plateau with differences in level of up to 200 m from the Eder , Wohra , Lahn , Ohm and Wetschaft . Schönstadt is one of the oldest villages in the castle forest. Archaeological finds confirm the assumption that as early as 500–300 BC Chr. Chatters and Celts were resident.
All Hessian "-stadt-places" fall into the founding epoch of the 5th - 8th Century; Send and baptismal churches with St. Martin's patronage date back to this time. The Schönstadt court grew out of a tithe in the 13th century . These Franconian-early medieval administrative units were based on the broadcast courts (original large parishes). The village was first mentioned in a document in 1225.
The lands belonging to Schönstadt Castle were bought by Conrad Milchling zu Michelbach in 1331. As early as 1350, however, jurisdiction was passed to the Lords of Fleckenbühl, and the Milchling later also received a share of it through ownership transfers. Philipp von Scholley the Elder , Head of the Aristocratic Foundations in Hesse, acquired a quarter of the Schönstadt court as a pledge through his marriage to Anna Hilga von Hatzfeld around 1612, with which his descendants, together with the Lords of Fleckenbühl, came into the contingent loan of Schönstadt. The Milchling mansions in the extensive valley basin were originally built as water castles . In 1749 the Schönstadt Palace was built on the foundation walls of an old moated castle.
The former clustered village grew considerably in the 17th century due to the connection to the Heer and Poststrasse Kassel-Frankfurt, but experienced an economic slump with the commissioning of the Main-Weser Railway . In 1897 the old Martinskirche was replaced by a new one.
The Milchling von Schönstadt family, named after the place, belonged to the Althessian knighthood that still exists today and only died out in the male line in 1937. The Milchling estate with its lands was inherited by Baroness von Bethmann in 1922 . In 1937 the last male offspring of the Milchling von Schönstadt family was buried on the Junkernwald family burial site.
As part of the regional reform in Hesse , the state government approved the merger of the municipalities of Cölbe and Schönstadt into one municipality with the name of Cölbe with effect from December 31, 1971 . On December 31, 1970, the communities of Schönstadt and Schwarzenborn had already merged.
Territorial history and administration
The following list gives an overview of the territories in which Schönstadt was located and the administrative units to which it was subordinate:
- before 1567: Holy Roman Empire , Landgraviate of Hesse , Schönstadt court (Schönstadt court consisted of the following locations: Kölbe, Bernsdorf, Bürgeln, Betziesdorf, Reddehausen, Schönstädt, Schwarzenborn and Bracht)
- from 1567: Holy Roman Empire, Landgraviate Hessen-Marburg , Schönstadt court
- 1604–1648: Holy Roman Empire, disputed between Landgraviate Hessen-Darmstadt and Landgraviate Hessen-Kassel ( Hessian War ), Schönstadt court
- from 1648: Holy Roman Empire, Landgraviate Hessen-Kassel, Marburg Office , Schönstadt Court
- from 1803: Holy Roman Empire, Electorate of Hesse , Marburg Office, Schönstadt Court
- from 1806: Electorate of Hesse, Marburg Office, Schönstadt Court
- 1807–1813: Kingdom of Westphalia , department of Werra , district of Marburg , canton of Rosenthal
- from 1815: German Confederation , Electorate of Hesse, Marburg Office, Schönstadt Court
- from 1821: German Confederation, Electorate of Hesse, Province of Upper Hesse , District of Marburg (separation of justice ( district court Marburg ) and administration)
- from 1848: German Confederation, Electorate of Hesse, Marburg district
- from 1851: German Confederation, Electorate of Hesse, Province of Upper Hesse, District of Marburg
- from 1866: North German Confederation , Kingdom of Prussia , Province of Hesse-Nassau , District of Kassel , District of Marburg
- from 1871: German Empire , Kingdom of Prussia, Province of Hessen-Nassau, District of Kassel, District of Marburg
- from 1918: German Empire, Free State of Prussia , Province of Hessen-Nassau, Administrative Region of Kassel, District of Marburg
- from 1944: German Empire, Free State of Prussia, Province of Kurhessen , District of Marburg
- from 1945: American zone of occupation , Greater Hesse , Kassel district, Marburg district
- from 1949: Federal Republic of Germany , State of Hesse , Kassel district, Marburg district
- on December 31, 1970, Schönstadt and Schwarzenborn were merged to form the newly formed community of Schönstadt.
- On December 31, 1971, Schönstadt and Schwarzenborn were incorporated as parts of the newly formed municipality of Cölbe.
- 1974: Federal Republic of Germany, Land Hessen, Kassel , Marburg-Biedenkopf
- from 1981: Federal Republic of Germany, State of Hesse, Gießen district, Marburg-Biedenkopf district
Courts since 1821
With an edict of June 29, 1821, administration and justice were separated in Kurhessen. Now judicial offices were responsible for the first instance jurisdiction, the administration was taken over by the districts. In Marburg, the Marburg district was set up for the administration and the Marburg district court was the court of first instance responsible for Schönstadt. In 1850 the regional court was renamed the Marburg Justice Office. The Supreme Court was the Higher Appeal Court in Kassel . The higher court of Marburg was subordinate to the province of Upper Hesse. It was the second instance for the judicial offices.
After the annexation of Kurhessen by Prussia, the Marburg district court became the royal Prussian district court of Marburg in 1867 . In June 1867, a royal ordinance was issued that reorganized the court system in the areas that belonged to the former Electorate of Hesse. The previous judicial authorities were to be repealed and replaced by local courts in the first, district courts in the second and an appeal court in the third instance. In the course of this, on September 1, 1867, the previous judicial office was renamed the Marburg District Court. The courts of the higher authorities were the Marburg District Court and the Kassel Court of Appeal .
With the entry into force of the Courts Constitution Act of 1879, the district court continued to exist under his name. In the Federal Republic of Germany, the superordinate instances are the Marburg Regional Court , the Frankfurt am Main Higher Regional Court and the Federal Court of Justice as the last instance.
Source: Historical local dictionary
|• 1571:||53 house seats|
|• 1577:||73 (including 47 landgraves) house seats|
|• 1630:||50 (27 landgraves) house seats (13 farmers (4 landgraves), 32 (18 landgraves) single-runner )|
|• 1681:||28 home-seated teams (only landgrave portion)|
|• 1745:||288 (48 landgraves) inhabitants.|
|• 1838:||704 inhabitants (with Fleckenbühl farm and Neuer Mühle). 55 local residents authorized to use, 13 local residents not authorized to use, 41 residents .|
|Schönstadt: Population from 1745 to 1967|
|Data source: Historical municipality register for Hesse: The population of the municipalities from 1834 to 1967. Wiesbaden: Hessisches Statistisches Landesamt, 1968. |
Source: Historical local dictionary
|• 1861:||628 Evangelical Lutheran , 103 Evangelical Reformed , 13 Jewish residents|
|• 1885:||648 Protestant (= 97.15%), 2 Catholic (= 0.30%), 17 Jewish (= 2.55%) residents|
|• 1961:||866 Protestant (= 88.55%), 92 Roman Catholic (= 9.41%) residents|
Source: Historical local dictionary
|• 1745:||Labor force (only landgraves' share): 3 millers, 8 tailors, 2 landlords, 1 shoemaker, 4 linen weavers, 2 brick makers, 3 carpenters (including 1 organ maker), 1 stocking weaver, 4 day laborers, 1 baker, 2 wagons, 2 blacksmiths, 1 carpenter , 3 day laborers and spinners.|
|• 1838:||Families: 33 agriculture, 24 trades, 50 day laborers|
|• 1961:||Labor force: 176 agriculture and forestry, 192 manufacturing, 42 trade and transport, 71 services and other|
coat of arms
Description : A silver (white) slanting bar in red with three black hearts after the figure. The coat of arms of the former municipality is a modification of the shield of the Milchling family, which carried the black hearts in the silver shield.
Economy and Infrastructure
In 1972 the motor and glider airfield was relocated from Marburg to Schönstadt. Today Schönstadt is characterized by the proximity of the district town of Marburg and the settlement of several small industrial companies. The village character is only noticeable in a few places in the old town center. Even the tasteful traditional costume from Schönstadt is only worn by a few women on special occasions. Since 1985, the former is farm Fleckenbühl according to biodynamic principles of addiction care Fleckenbühl operated.
Since autumn 2008 there has been a marked circular route around the Junkernwald near Schönstadt. The start is the old water tank on the outskirts. The hiking trail is 9.5 km long and has some information boards.
In July 2009 Schönstadt achieved 1st place at state level in the competition “ Our village has a future ”.
- H. Huber, 750th anniversary of Schönstadt (1975).
- Rudolf Knappe: Medieval castles in Hessen. 800 castles, castle ruins and fortifications. 3. Edition. Wartberg-Verlag, Gudensberg-Gleichen 2000, ISBN 3-86134-228-6 , pp. 264-268.
- Reuling, Historisches Ortslexikon Marburg , ISBN 3-7708-0678-6 , pp. 271-274.
- Literature about Schönstadt in the Hessian Bibliography
- Search for Schönstadt in the archive portal-D of the German Digital Library
- District of Schönstadt. In: Internet presence. Cölbe municipality
- Schönstadt. Local history, information. In: www.schoenstadt.net. "Our village has a future" initiative
- Schönstadt, Marburg-Biedenkopf district. Historical local dictionary for Hessen. In: Landesgeschichtliches Informationssystem Hessen (LAGIS).
- Schönstadt, Marburg-Biedenkopf district. Historical local dictionary for Hessen. (As of May 2, 2018). In: Landesgeschichtliches Informationssystem Hessen (LAGIS).
- The location on the website of the municipality of Cölbe , accessed in July 2017.
- municipal area reform in Hesse; Mergers and integrations of municipalities of December 22, 1971 . In: The Hessian Minister of the Interior (ed.): State Gazette for the State of Hesse. 1972 No. 2 , p. 47 , point 50 para. 5 ( online at the information system of the Hessian state parliament [PDF; 4.8 MB ]).
- the communities of Schönstadt and Schwarzenborn in the Marburg district to form the community of Schönstadt on December 10, 1970 . In: The Hessian Minister of the Interior (Ed.): State Gazette for the State of Hesse. 1970 No. 52 , p. 2446 , point 2462 ( online at the information system of the Hessian state parliament [PDF; 4.8 MB ]).
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 402 .
- Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. State of Hesse. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
- Georg Landau: Description of the Electorate of Hesse . T. Fischer, Kassel 1842, p. 370 ( online at HathiTrust's digital library ).
- The affiliation of the Marburg office based on maps from the Historical Atlas of Hessen : Hessen-Marburg 1567–1604 . , Hessen-Kassel and Hessen-Darmstadt 1604–1638 . and Hessen-Darmstadt 1567–1866 .
- Kur-Hessischer Staats- und Adress-Kalender: 1818 . Publishing house d. Orphanage, Kassel 1818, p. 100 ( online at Google Books ).
- Ordinance of August 30th, 1821, concerning the new division of the area , Annex: Overview of the new division of the Electorate of Hesse according to provinces, districts and judicial districts. Collection of laws etc. for the Electoral Hesse states. Year 1821 - No. XV. - August., ( Kurhess GS 1821) pp. 223-224
- Latest news from Meklenburg / Kur-Hessen, Hessen-Darmstadt and the free cities, edited from the best sources. in the publishing house of the GHG privil. Landes-Industrie-Comptouts., Weimar 1823, p. 158 ff . ( online at HathiTrust's digital library ).
- Ordinance on the constitution of the courts in the former Electorate of Hesse and the formerly Royal Bavarian territories with the exclusion of the enclave Kaulsdorf from June 19, 1867. ( PrGS 1867, pp. 1085-1094 )
- Order of August 7, 1867, regarding the establishment of the according to the Most High Ordinance of June 19 of this year. J. in the former Electorate of Hesse and the formerly Royal Bavarian territorial parts with the exclusion of the enclave Kaulsdorf, courts to be formed ( Pr. JMBl. Pp. 221–224 )