|Hattuša: Hittite capital|
|UNESCO world heritage|
|Yazılıkaya Chamber A
|Criteria :||(i) (ii) (iii) (iv)|
|Reference No .:||377|
|UNESCO region :||Europe and North America|
|History of enrollment|
|Enrollment:||1986 (session 10)|
Yazılıkaya ( Turkish for "inscribed rock") is a former Hittite sanctuary that was mainly built in the 13th century BC. BC originated. It is located two kilometers northeast of the then capital Hattuša in the Turkish province of Çorum near the present day Boğazkale . The natural rock chambers A and B, which are open at the top from the sanctuary, have a wall height of two to twelve meters. There are reliefs of two processions of male and female members of the Hittite pantheon and the alleged installer Great King Tudhalija IV. To see. In front of the two chambers were temple-like buildings, of which the foundation walls have been preserved. During the Hittite Empire, the site was the scene of ritual acts, the content of which is still unclear.;
Hattuša and Yazılıkaya lie in the Halysbogen , east of the river basin of the ancient Halys, today Kızılırmak , on the north side of Akçadağ Tepesi, which belongs to the Bozok plateau (Turkish: Bozok Platosu). The city lies on the side slopes of a valley that is now called Büyükkaya Deresi. In Hittite times, a processional path led from the Great Temple to the sanctuary, which no longer exists today, but can be reconstructed due to the landscape. He left the lower city at the northern end through an as yet undiscovered gate. There he crossed the stream, which was relatively shallow at this point, and continued to the north, later to the northeast, following a still recognizable channel along the city wall. Halfway through it, it passed the Osmankayası rock group, where there is a burial site from the Hittite period next to a spring. Then it continued over relatively flat, steadily rising terrain until it finally ends at the side in front of the rock massif. Here, like many others in the city area, this breaks through the edge mountains in the form of individual rock banks or cliffs made of limestone.
While the sanctuary is now more than a kilometer as the crow flies from the visible remains of the city, in Hittite times the development of settlements that were outside the city fortifications reached far up the eastern slope to close to the complex, such as surface and geophysical studies have revealed. A modern road leads from the entrance of Hattuša three kilometers first to the north and later to the east, whereby it rises by about 150 meters. It ends in a parking lot in front of the site. Another road from Boğazkale meets the former halfway.
In Yazılıkaya, objects from the early Bronze Age , the third millennium BC, were found. BC, found. There was no evidence of any use of the area as a cult site during this period. On the basis of numerous finds of Hittite ceramics as well as a wall in front of the chambers, which forms a closure to the outside, it is assumed that here from around the 15th century BC. Chr. Meetings of a cult community took place. In the 13th century BC Tudhalija IV probably had reliefs and porches created. According to the opinion of the archaeologist Jürgen Seeher from the DAI , who led the excavations in Hattuša until 2006, Yazılıkaya is a "New Year Festival House, the house of the weather god, in which all the gods unite every year for the New Year and Spring Festival". At this New Year festival, at which the Great King was confirmed in his office at the same time, a procession to Yazılıkaya probably took place from the great temple in Hattuša, which was used to worship the weather god . Despite the abundance of clay tablets found in the city, there was no direct reference to the sanctuary, so that the name of the site at the time is not known and only guesses can be made about the exact function of the site.
Volkert Haas sees a connection with the itkalzi ritual due to clear similarities in the description of the sequence of gods in this ceremony with that in chamber A of Yazılıkaya. This is a Hittite- Hurrian purification ceremony. Daniel Schwemer considers the interpretation of the place proposed by Hans Gustav Güterbock as a ḫuwaši sanctuary to be likely. Ḫuwaši sanctuaries were used to worship a god, in this case the weather god, represented by a rock stele or a boulder, which was also referred to as ḫuwaši. Schwemer also points out the similarities between the sequence of gods in the reliefs and the sequence of gods in the Hurray-Hittite kaluti sacrificial lists .
In addition, use as a burial site has also been proven. In two crevices in the rock on the north outer side, columns 3 and 4, burials have been found, which could be dated to the Hittite period through ceramic finds . In the corridor leading to Chamber B three compressed skeletons came to light in a rock hollow. However, Hittite burials were also found in crevices on other boulders in the area, so that a connection with the special function of the place as a place of worship is not likely. In Chamber D, which branches off to the east of the main chamber, a pig embryo was found buried in a bowl and fixed with nails, which indicates that purification rites were performed here.
Determining the function of chamber B is equally problematic. Since Tudhalija is represented twice here, once in the depiction with Šarruma and once with his name cartouche, a connection with the great king is likely. The sword god Nergal next to the Tudhalija relief is considered an underworld god, and the row of twelve gods opposite is also generally interpreted as underworld gods. This suggests that the chamber is at least a memorial, if not Tudhalija's tomb. The storage place of the royal ashes could then have been Chamber C or the crevice between the cartridge and the Nergal relief. Due to the lack of comparison - no grave of a Hittite king has yet been found - such interpretations remain speculation.
In 2019, the archaeologist and astronomer Rita Gautschy and the geoarchaeologist Eberhard Zangger published a theory according to which the rock sanctuary had a calendar function. Accordingly, the twelve underworld gods in chamber A represent the twelve lunar months of the year. The following 30 male gods in the procession on the left represent the 30 days of the lunar month, while the 19 female goddesses on the right represent 19 years. This corresponds to the Meton cycle , a period of time in which the solar and lunar years align. The researchers also see an astronomical significance in some aspects of the architecture of the porches, in particular their alignment . In their opinion, the same applies to some of the buildings in the capital Ḫattuša.
The two chambers were originally closed off from the outside by a wall, which was replaced by a temple-like building that formed the entrance to the sanctuary in the course of the design in the 13th century. It was built in the typical mud brick construction method, which can also be found in various ways in Hattuša. Therefore, only the low stone wall foundations can be seen today.
One entered the temple from the narrow side via stairs through a single gate building. Behind it, further steps led into the inner courtyard of the actual temple building, which was surrounded by various rooms, probably utility rooms and depots. An altar in the courtyard allows Seeher to conclude that purifications and first ritual acts took place here. Stairs again led to the open area, which goes straight ahead into the larger chamber A, while a narrow passage on the right leads to chamber B.
The considerably larger of the two chambers is initially around 20 m wide and tapers until the walls meet after around 30 m. The floor was originally paved, interrupted by a step at the rear and then rose slightly to the rear wall. The rock walls are almost entirely provided with reliefs. Below the reliefs are pedestals, some of which are carved out of the rock and partly made of stone, which were presumably used to place sacrificial offerings. Due to the paving with stone slabs, which have all disappeared today, but whose height can be reconstructed through connection points in the rock, the floor of the chamber was 50–60 centimeters higher than today, so that the visitor at the time saw the reliefs at eye level.
On the left wall a procession of (with two exceptions) male gods can be seen, looking to the right, towards whom female deities meet on the right. The processions finally meet in a roughly rectangular room with the main scene on the left wall. The male gods include the water god, the sun god of the sky , war gods, mountain gods, underworld gods, two bull people, and some unidentifiable ones. In between the two female figures Ninatta and Kulitta, the servants of Šawuška , a Hittite, masculine form of the Akkadian - Assyrian Ištar . The female deities on the right are even more difficult to determine due to their state of preservation, including the goddesses of fate, the wives of the water god and the moon god and a few others, of which only the name is known. The name of the goddess Šawuška also appears in the series of goddesses, but assigning the name to a specific figure is problematic. The gods wear beaked shoes, short skirts and pointed caps and are partly armed, while the goddesses also wear beaked shoes, but long pleated skirts and high hats. In front of the heads above the outstretched arms of most of the figures are Luwian hieroglyphs , which indicate the name and which, due to their deteriorating state of preservation, could only be partially deciphered.
The two main gods meet on the main scene. On the left is Teššup , the weather god of the sky on two mountain gods, opposite him his wife Ḫepat on a leopard, who in turn stands on four mountains. To the left of Teššup, on two mountain cones, there is another weather god, perhaps from Hattuša , in another view Tašmišu , and another god whom Seeher and Güterbock believe to be Kumarbi , Teššup's father. To the right behind Hepat you can see Šarruma , son of the supreme pair of gods and personal patron god of Tudhalija IV , also standing on a leopard. Behind it are two identical-looking goddesses who stand over a double-headed eagle with outstretched wings. According to Hans Gustav Güterbock , it is Allanzu and Kunzišalli , daughter and granddaughter of the main god couple.
On a rock wall at the end of the female gods procession, which is opposite the main relief, the only person among the gods is depicted, Great King Tudhalija IV. He is shown larger than all other figures and, as the presumed builder of the site, looks directly at the main gods. His name cartouche is carved over his outstretched arm .
The largest of the figures is Tudhalija with over two meters, the two main gods Teššup and Hepat are almost life-size, after that the size of the gods decreases. The smaller figures on the long walls are about 75 to 85 cm tall.
Procession of the gods in chamber A
As is customary in Hittite representations, the figures are shown in a side view, with the legs with pointed shoes in a crotch position. While the upper bodies of the male gods are turned so that one looks at the chest, the left arm stretched forward, the right arm bent in front of the body, the upper body of the goddesses is shown sideways, with the right arm pointing forward with a clenched fist, the left with open hand to face.
On the left (northwest) side of Chamber A, the procession of the male gods with the numbers 1–39 can be seen, all of them striding to the right in the direction of the main scene. It begins with twelve identical underworld gods (1–12). They wear a short skirt and a pointed cap with a horn, in their right hand a sickle sword slung over their shoulder. The row of twelve is identical to that in chamber B, but in a poorer state of preservation. The reliefs 13-15 represent three mountain gods, male figures with beards and also the horned pointed cap. Scales and extensions on the long robes symbolically represent mountains and springs. 16 is an unidentified god with a short skirt and pointed cap, the name could not be read. At 16a – 17 there are again three mountain gods with beards, hats and scaled skirts. According to Klaus Koch , the numbers 13-17 are all mountain gods and number 17 bears the inscription Namni. The gods 18–22 have no attribution. They wear a short skirt and pointed cap, 20 and 22 a cloak, 18 and 21 hold a club in their right hand. Reliefs 23 and 24 show two gods with beards, short skirts, pointed hats and clubs, 24 additionally a long, open cloak. Their names are illegible. The gods 25–27 are clad in short skirts and pointed hats and wear a sickle sword on the right. Number 25 bears the inscription Isapa and probably represents the trading god Iršappa , 26 is according to the inscription Pišaišapḫi , 27 the underworld god Nergal , who can also be seen in chamber B. At 28 and 29 there are two hybrid creatures whose backs and heads come from Taurus, while the upper body and arms are human. They possibly represent the celestial bulls Šeri and Ḫurri . They carry the symbol for "heaven", a lying crescent moon, above their heads and stand on the "earth" symbol, a rectangle with lateral extensions. The figure 30 is a god with a short skirt, pointed cap and sword, probably Ḫešui, who is equated with the god of war Zababa . Figure 31 wears a short skirt and a round cap on his head, and wings can be seen on the shoulders. Possibly it represents the deity Pirinkir . The unknown protective deity 32 with skirt, cap and sword is possibly the deer god Karzi . Figure 33, dressed in the same way, represents the god Aštabi . Relief 34 depicts the sun god of the sky ( Šimige ). He is dressed in a cloak, cloak and cap, holds a crook in his right hand and carries a sword on his side, the handle of which can be seen under his left arm. A winged solar disk hovers over his head. He is followed as number 35 by the bearded moon god ( Kušuḫ ) dressed in a skirt and cloak with wings on his shoulders and a crescent moon on his pointed cap. This is followed by the only two female figures in the series of male gods, Ninatta and Kulitta , the servants of the deity Šawuška. They wear shirts, long pleated skirts and round caps, 36 perhaps holding a mirror, 37 an ointment jar in her right hand. Their upper bodies, like those of the male deities, face the viewer. The two reliefs lie considerably deeper in the rock than the neighboring ones, which is why it was assumed that they were created as a replacement for others that were destroyed by natural influences or deliberately. In front of the two of them, Šawuška (38) walks in front of them , here in male form, dressed in a skirt, overskirt and cape and with wings. Finally, relief 39, a male god with a beard, short skirt, pointed cap and cape, armed with a club, represents the god of wisdom (or god of water) Ea .
The main scene of the chamber follows with the numbers 40-46. On the left is a bearded figure (40) with a skirt, cape, cap and a sword on the side, the handle of which can be seen behind a belt. It stands on two mountains and probably represents Kumarbi , the father of the gods . Next to it is the weather god of Hatti (41), in the other opinion Tašmišu , Teššup's brother , in the same clothes and armor . He is also holding a club in his left hand and a staff, perhaps a lance, on the right, and a sitting bull is depicted on the top of his cap. In the middle of the scene, the top pair of gods can be seen as the leaders of the respective male and female gods. The weather god Teššup (42) is dressed in a short skirt, cape and pointed cap with multiple horns, armed with a sword and club on the right. He stands on two mountain gods, presumably Namni and Ḫazzi , identified as such by a god's cap and scaled skirt. Behind Teššup's legs you can see a bull with a pointed cap, according to the inscription the bull calf of Teššup , a name given to Šarruma. With his wife Ḫepat (43), according to Gurney the sun goddess of Arinna , the row of female gods turned to the left begins. She wears a long pleated skirt, a pleated shirt, a hat with crenellated attachments and a pigtail that extends to her belt. She stands on a big cat, which itself stands on four mountains. As with Teššup, a bull can be seen behind her legs, whose inscription Haas also reads as ḫubiti (“bull calf”). The only male figure among the goddesses follows Šarruma (44), the son of the gods. His clothing consists of a skirt and a pointed cap with multiple horns, his armament consists of a sword in his belt on the right and a battle ax in his left hand. He is holding a big cat standing on two mountain cones on a leash, on whose back he stands. Behind him with the numbers 45 and 46 are Allanzu , the couple's daughter and a granddaughter, according to Güterbock and Haas Kunzišalli . They wear pleated skirts, pleated blouses, crenellated hats and long plaits. A double-headed eagle is depicted under her feet.
Female deities and Tudhalija
In contrast to the male deities, the female deities are all represented in the same clothing. In addition to pointed shoes, they wear a long pleated skirt, blouse with a belt, a cape and a polo-like hat with pinnacles. Her hair falls in a long braid on her back, her right hand is stretched forward as a fist, the left is open to the face. Only the hieroglyphic sign of Relief 46a, the first goddess, is preserved, it probably denotes Darru-Dakitu , the servant of Hepat. Seeher suspects that there were further representations of goddesses on individual boulders in front of the gap between relief 47 and the main scene. With the numbers 47 and 48 follow the goddesses Ḫudena and Ḫudellura , goddesses of writing and fate according to Gurney. The head of the goddess Allatu (49) is partially destroyed by a niche. The niche was probably created in the Hittite period to remove a damaged area in the rock and was filled with a stone block that contained the headgear of the goddess and the name hieroglyphs of the following figure. After the unknown goddesses 50 follow Nabarbi (51), Šaluš-Bitinhi (52), Tapkina (53), the wife of Eas and Nikkal (54), the wife of the moon god. The names of figures 55–63 cannot be read with certainty, Gurney suspects that 55 is Aya , the wife of the sun god. In the gap between 55 and 56, other relief blocks may have been inserted.
In 1945 in the neighboring town of Yekbas (today Evren) a stone block was found in a cemetery on which a female goddess is depicted in the same shape and size. The name Šawuška can be read in hieroglyphs behind her head. The block could either have stood between the main scene and relief 46a or in the gap between 55 and 56; the writing would have designated the following figure. The relief is exhibited in the local museum in Boğazkale.
This concludes the series of goddesses. Great King Tudhalija IV follows with number 64. He is dressed in a long cloak, open cloak and pointed shoes. He wears a round cap on his head, and in his left hand he holds a kind of crook as a sign of rule, comparable to the Roman lituus , called kalmuš by the Hittites . He stands on two scaled hilltops and carries a sword on the right, which, however, is hidden by the robe so that only the handle is visible. The name cartouche above the right hand shows its full title. Due to its location, the relief is only illuminated by the sun on a few days at the time of the summer solstice in mid-June.
At some distance on a ledge in front of the entrance to chamber D, figures 65 and 66 are carved, on the left a male figure with a pointed cap and on the right a female figure with a rectangular hat, sitting opposite at a table or altar. Possibly the gods Tenu and Tipatu, viziers of Teššup and Hepat. One can only speculate about the importance of this relief in connection with the complex. It is proposed that a wall that can no longer be detected closed off chamber A; a connection with chamber D that opens here is also conceivable. The possibility that it is a relic of an older decor in the sanctuary cannot be ruled out. In front of Chamber D, traces of walls were found that closed the chamber to the west and south and ran to the entrance column of Chamber B. Their function is unclear.
The entrance to Chamber B is formed by a narrow crevice, which is flanked on the right and left by two demon reliefs. The figures are hybrid creatures with a human body, wings and a lion's head. They wear a short skirt with a wide belt. The bare feet are human, while the raised arms show a mixture of human hands and lion paws. The passage is about 80 cm wide and 10 m long and leads about 4 m upwards. It had to be artificially widened by the Hittite stonemasons, as can be seen from the marks left by stone hammers. Originally, access was only possible from the outside. The floor of the gap was paved and was 30–40 centimeters higher than it is today, underneath clay pipes for draining water from chamber C were laid.
The actual interior is 18 meters long and between two and four meters wide. There were probably two further entrances, one from the southern end, which was probably blocked by a fallen boulder in Hittite times, and a second through Chamber C, which adjoins to the east and is now walled up. Narrow steps lead in from there, nothing is known about the function of this chamber. Today you enter Chamber B at the wider end. Here you can see a limestone slab that matches a statue base now on display in the Boğazkale Museum, which was found in a neighboring village in 1981. Since there is another cartouche of Tudhalija on the wall, it is possible that there was a statue of the great king here. It is also believed that Great King Šuppiluliuma II commissioned the design of this chamber as a memorial for his father Tudhalija. This assumption is supported by a text in which Šuppiluliuma reports on the construction of an NA4 hekur (a rock sanctuary) and a statue for his father's dead spirit. Since the chamber was buried with earth and was only cleared in the 19th century, the reliefs are much better preserved than in chamber A.
On the left wall of the tapering chamber, one first discovers the image of the sword or underworld god Nergal . It shows the blade of a sword below, which merges into the upper body of a man. The shoulders are formed by two lions, the sword hilt or torso again by two lions lying vertically with their heads down. To the right of this, Tudhalija is shown again in clothing similar to that in Chamber A, but here he is being hugged by his personal patron god, Sarruma. Behind the pointed cap of the god is again the name cartouche of the great king, in addition the symbol for hero. Above the outstretched arm of the god his name hieroglyph - a male lower body with a short skirt and above the god symbol - is attached. The Tudhalija cartridge can thus be seen three times in the system, at relief 64, individually on the wall at the beginning of chamber A and here. In the middle it shows the name hieroglyph, consisting of the symbol for "tu", similar to a lying boot, and above a bearded mountain god. On both sides of it is the symbol for the title Labarna , a dagger over a lying flower, framed by the symbol for the great king on the right and left. The top of the cartridge is closed off by a winged (here double) sun disk. The three representations have the same content, only the mountain god is replaced in the individual version by an ideogram (signs with the same sound value).
On the opposite wall is the most famous relief by Yazılıkaya, the procession of the underworld gods. The twelve absolutely identical figures with a sickle sword in their right hand, clad in a short skirt, pointed shoes and the pointed hat that identifies them as gods, march in step to the right. The same twelve figures of gods also form the conclusion of the male gods' procession in chamber A, although they are much less preserved there. Tudhalija is also the only human being depicted in this chamber.
In contrast to the city of Hattuša, the reliefs of Yazılıkaya, at least those of the large chamber A, were always exposed. It was first documented by the French traveler Charles Texier in 1834, who falsely identified the place as Pteria . In the following years, too, many travelers visited and described the place, but could not assign it. In 1858 Heinrich Barth exposed the reliefs in Chamber B for the first time, but some of them were later buried again and were finally uncovered by Ernest Chantre in 1893 . In 1861 an expedition under the archaeologist Georges Perrot was on site on behalf of the French Ministry of Education, the architect Edmond Guillaume made very detailed drawings of the reliefs, the doctor Jules Delbet made the first photographs of Yazılıkaya. In 1882, Carl Humann made casts of the most important reliefs that are exhibited today in the Vorderasiatisches Museum in Berlin . Only after the German archaeologist Hugo Winckler recognized Hattuša as the capital of the Hittite Empire in 1906, the sanctuary could be attributed to the hitherto almost unknown people. Systematic exploration of the site was carried out by Kurt Bittel in 1935 , which was discontinued in 1939 due to the war and continued from 1966 to 1972.
Together with Hattuša, Yazılıkaya was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1986 .
- Kurt Bittel u. a .: Yazilikaya. Architecture, rock art, inscriptions and small finds . ( Scientific publications of the German Orient Society . Vol. 61). Otto Zeiler, Osnabrück 1967. (Reprint of the 1941 edition)
- Kurt Bittel u. a .: The Hittite rock sanctuary Yazilikaya . ( Bogazköy-Hattusa . Vol. 9). Gebr. Mann, Berlin 1975, ISBN 3-7861-2212-1 .
- Birgit Brandau, Hartmut Schickert: Hittites, the unknown world power . Piper, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-492-04338-0 .
- Hans Gustav Güterbock : Les Hiéroglyphes de Yazilikaya. A propos d'un travail récent . ( Editions Recherche sur les civilizations. Synthèse . Vol. 11). Institut Francais d'etudes anatoniennes, Paris 1982, ISBN 2-86538-039-4 .
- Kay Kohlmeyer : Rock paintings from the Hittite Empire. In: Acta Praehistorica et Archaeologica 15-83 . Verlag Volker Spiess Berlin, ISBN 3-88435-080-3 , pp. 48-67.
- Emilia Masson: Le panthéon de Yazilikaya. Nouvelles lectures . ( Recherche sur les grandes civilizations, Synthèse . No. 3). Editions ADPF, Paris 1981, ISBN 2-86538-012-2 .
- Peter Neve : Ḫattuša: city of gods and temples. New excavations in the capital of the Hittites . Philipp von Zabern, Mainz 1993, ISBN 3-8053-1478-7 .
- Eberhard Rossner: The Hittite rock reliefs in Turkey: An archaeological travel guide. 2nd Edition. Self-published, Regensburg 1988, ISBN 3-924390-02-9 , pp. 145–150.
- Jürgen Seeher : Hattuscha leader. A day in the Hittite capital . 2. revised Edition. Ege Yayınları Publishing House, Istanbul 2002, ISBN 975-8070-48-7 .
- Jürgen Seeher: Gods carved in stone. The Hittite rock sanctuary of Yazılıkaya. Ege Yayınları Publishing House, Istanbul 2011, ISBN 978-605-5607-53-1 .
- Eberhard Zangger , Rita Gautschy: Celestial Aspects of Hittite Religion: An Investigation of the Rock Sanctuary Yazılıkaya. In: Journal of Skyscape Archeology. Vol. 5, No. 1, 2019, , pp. 5-38, doi : 10.1558 / jsa.37641 .
- Peter Neve: Hattuscha Information . Archeology and Art Publications, Istanbul 1987.
- Jürgen Seeher: Gods carved in stone. The Hittite rock sanctuary of Yazılıkaya. Ege Yayınları Publishing House, Istanbul 2011, ISBN 978-605-5607-53-1 , p. 19.
- Jürgen Seeher: Hattuscha-Führer, A day in the Hittite capital. P. 125.
- Birgit Brandau, Hartmut Schickert: Hittiter, the unknown world power. P. 73.
- Kurt Bittel: Hattuscha - capital of the Hittites . DuMont, Cologne 1983, ISBN 3-7701-1456-6 , p. 135.
- Volkert Haas: History of the Hittite religion . Brill, Leiden 1994, ISBN 90-04-09799-6 , p. 638 at GoogleBooks .
- Rita Strauss: Purification rituals from Kizzuwatna: a contribution to the research of Hittite ritual tradition and cultural history . Walter de Gruyter 2006, ISBN 3-11-017975-X , p. 160 at GoogleBooks
- Daniel Schwemer: The Hittite Imperial Pantheon . In: RG Kratz et al. (Ed.): Images of Gods, Images of God, Images of the World: Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine . Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2006, ISBN 3-16-148673-0 , p. 263 at GoogleBooks .
- See for further literature Daniel Schwemer: Das Hittitische Reichspantheon . In: RG Kratz et al. (Ed.): Images of Gods, Images of God, Images of the World: Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine . Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2006, ISBN 3-16-148673-0 , p. 260 with note 64.
- Kurt Bittel: Hattuscha - capital of the Hittites . DuMont, Cologne 1983, ISBN 3-7701-1456-6 , p. 158.
- Volkert Haas: History of the Hittite religion . Brill, Leiden 1994, ISBN 90-04-09799-6 , p. 636 at GoogleBooks .
- Jürgen Seeher: Gods carved in stone. The Hittite rock sanctuary of Yazılıkaya. Ege Yayınları Publishing House, Istanbul 2011, ISBN 978-605-56-0753-1 , p. 144.
- Rita Strauss: Purification rituals from Kizzuwatna: a contribution to the research of Hittite ritual tradition and cultural history . Walter de Gruyter, 2006, ISBN 3-11-017975-X , p. 163 at GoogleBooks
- Volkert Haas: Materia Magica et Medica Hethitica: a contribution to medicine in the ancient Orient. Volume 2, Walter de Gruyter 2003, ISBN 3-11-017749-8 , p. 422.
- Jürgen Seeher: Gods carved in stone. The Hittite rock sanctuary of Yazılıkaya. Ege Yayınları Publishing House, Istanbul 2011, ISBN 978-605-56-0753-1 , pp. 159–164.
- Eberhard Zangger, Rita Gautschy: Celestial Aspects of Hittite Religion: An Investigation of the Rock Sanctuary Yazılıkaya
- Jürgen Seeher: Gods carved in stone. The Hittite rock sanctuary of Yazılıkaya. Ege Yayınları Publishing House, Istanbul 2011, ISBN 978-605-56-0753-1 , p. 33.
- Birgit Brandau, Hartmut Schickert: Hittiter, die unbekannte Weltmacht , p. 72.
- It is either the inscription to the lost stone 55b or the inscription of figure 56, cf. on this HG Güterbock: Les Hiéroglyphes de Yazilikaya. A propos d'un travail récent , p. 45.
- Jürgen Seeher: Hattuscha-Führer, One day in the Hittite capital , p. 142.
- HG Güterbock: The inscriptions . In: Kurt Bittel u. a .: The Hittite rock sanctuary Yazilikaya . Gebr. Mann, Berlin 1975, ISBN 3-7861-2212-1 , p. 172.
- Jürgen Seeher: Gods carved in stone. The Hittite rock sanctuary of Yazılıkaya. Ege Yayınları Publishing House, Istanbul 2011, ISBN 978-605-56-0753-1 , p. 23.
- If not mentioned otherwise, the descriptions of the individual reliefs follow Jürgen Seeher: Hattuscha-Führer, Ein Tag in der Hittitischen capital , p. 140.
- Klaus Koch: Ḫazzi-Ṣafôn-Kasion, The story of a mountain and its deities in Bernd Janowski, Klaus Koch, Gernot Wilhelm: Religious historical relationships between Asia Minor, Northern Syria and the Old Testament: International Symposium Hamburg, 17. – 21. March 1990 . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1993, ISBN 3-525-53764-6 , p. 204f at GoogleBooks
- Robert L. Alexander: The sculpture and sculptors of Yazılıkaya . University of Delaware Press, 1986, ISBN 0-87413-279-7 , p. 19 at GoogleBooks
- Jürgen Seeher: Gods carved in stone. The Hittite rock sanctuary of Yazılıkaya. Ege Yayınları Publishing House, Istanbul 2011, ISBN 978-605-56-0753-1 , p. 60.
- Volkert Haas: History of the Hittite religion . Brill, Leiden 1994, ISBN 90-04-09799-6 , p. 634 at GoogleBooks .
- Jürgen Seeher: Gods carved in stone. The Hittite rock sanctuary of Yazılıkaya. Ege Yayınları Publishing House, Istanbul 2011, ISBN 978-605-56-0753-1 , p. 75.
- Jürgen Seeher: Gods carved in stone. The Hittite rock sanctuary of Yazılıkaya. Ege Yayınları Publishing House, Istanbul 2011, ISBN 978-605-56-0753-1 , p. 73.
- The sign nu is broken off, the reading seems to be possible according to HG Güterbock: 1982, p. 47.
- Possibly to be placed at Tiyabendi / Tiyabanti, but this is a male deity (vizier of the Hepat), see: Emmanuel Laroche: Les dieux de Yazilikaya. In: Revue Hittite et Asianique . Vol. 27, 1969, pp. 101-105. The reading of the signs is also questionable, Laroche and HG Güterbock: 1982, p. 47 read Ti-pa-tu , E. Masson: 1981, p. 45 on the other hand Ti-pa-ti-na .
- Jürgen Seeher: Gods carved in stone. The Hittite rock sanctuary of Yazılıkaya. Ege Yayınları Publishing House, Istanbul 2011, ISBN 978-605-56-0753-1 , pp. 85, 159.
- Jürgen Seeher: Gods carved in stone. The Hittite rock sanctuary of Yazılıkaya. Ege Yayınları Publishing House, Istanbul 2011, ISBN 978-605-56-0753-1 , p. 97.
- Jürgen Seeher: Hattuscha-Führer, A day in the Hittite capital , p. 148.
- KBo 12 No. 38, translated by Volkert Haas: History of the Hittite Religion . Brill, Leiden 1994, ISBN 90-04-09799-6 , p. 639.
- as in relief 44
- Jürgen Seeher: Gods carved in stone. The Hittite rock sanctuary of Yazılıkaya. Ege Yayınları Publishing House, Istanbul 2011, ISBN 978-605-56-0753-1 , p. 83.
- Jürgen Seeher: Hattuscha-Führer, A day in the Hittite capital , p. 140.
- Jürgen Seeher: Gods carved in stone. The Hittite rock sanctuary of Yazılıkaya. Ege Yayınları Publishing House, Istanbul 2011, ISBN 978-605-56-0753-1 , pp. 175ff.
- Entry in the list of UNESCO.