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ancient name: Halys
Course of the Kızılırmak

Course of the Kızılırmak

location Turkey
River system Kızılırmak
Headwaters west of the Kızıl Dağ Pass
39 ° 51 ′ 14 ″  N , 38 ° 24 ′ 24 ″  E
Source height 2250  m
muzzle north of Bafra / Samsun in the Black Sea Coordinates: 41 ° 44 '3 "  N , 35 ° 57' 23"  E 41 ° 44 '3 "  N , 35 ° 57' 23"  E
Mouth height m
Height difference 2250 m
Bottom slope 1.7 ‰
length 1355 km
Catchment area 78,180 km²
Drain NNQ
18.4 m³ / s
184 m³ / s
1673 m³ / s
Left tributaries Damsa Çayı , Devrez Çayı , Gökırmak
Right tributaries Delice Çayı
Reservoirs flowed through İmranlı Reservoir ,
Yamula Reservoir ,
Bayramhacı Reservoir ,
Hirfanlı Reservoir ,
Kesikköprü Reservoir ,
Kapulukaya Reservoir ,
Obruk Reservoir ,
Boyabat Reservoir ,
Altınkaya Reservoir ,
Derbent Reservoir
Big cities Sivas , Kırıkkale , Bafra
Small towns Gülşehir
Taybi Ovasi Kızılırmak.jpg
İskilip, Dedesli

İskilip , Dedesli

Mouth delta of the Kızılırmak

Mouth delta of the Kızılırmak

The 1355 km long Kızılırmak ( kɯˈzɯlɯɾmak , ancient Greek Ἅλυς Halys ) is the longest river flowing exclusively through Turkey . The current name Kızılırmak means “Red River”; the color is caused by the iron-containing clay that it carries with it.

River course

The river has its source in the Eastern Anatolian highlands about 150 km west of the origin of the Euphrates . Its source is located about 120 km east of Sivas on Kızıl and Kumanlı Dağ . First flowing in west and south-west direction, it turns in central Anatolia after flowing through the Hirfanlı reservoir to the north or northeast, breaking through the Pontic Mountains , in which it flows through the Altınkaya reservoir . Then the Kızılırmak flows into the Black Sea in a wide delta a little northwest of Samsun or a little north of Bafra .

According to the Ramsar Convention, the river delta is considered to be a particularly protected wetland area.

The Kızılırmak is not navigable due to its seasonally very different water flow and its rapids .


The Hittites called the Kızılırmak Marassanta . In Greco-Roman antiquity , the river was called Halys . It formed an important and often contested border between different empires. The Halys formed the western border of the realm of the Medes at the time of its greatest expansion in the 6th century BC. Chr. The ambiguous, says the Oracle of Delphi against the Lydian king Croesus , he would when crossing the Halys "destroy a great kingdom" refers to the function of the river as the border between the Lydians and the Persians , who followed the Medes: Croesus destroyed finally his own empire when he went to the field against Cyrus II .

Web links

Commons : Kızılırmak  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Article Kızılırmak in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (BSE) , 3rd edition 1969–1978 (Russian)http: //vorlage_gse.test/1%3D067986~2a%3D~2b%3DK%C4%B1z%C4%B1l%C4%B1rmak