As early Enlightenment refers to the early stages of enlightenment , in which the ideas of the Enlightenment was primarily spread through secret and anonymous texts and orally in exclusive cercles de pensées . In terms of intellectual history, it represents the transition from the age of the Baroque , absolutism and religious wars to the century of the Enlightenment. It can be dated to the period 1680-1730. Among the pioneers of the Enlightenment were u. a. René Descartes (1596–1650), Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) and Baruch Spinoza (1623–1677).
Early education in France
Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle (1657–1757), Abbé de Saint-Pierre (1658–1743), Pierre Bayle (1647–1706) and Montesquieu (1689–1755) are among the most important early enlightenment figures . Other early enlighteners include: Nicolas Fréret (1688–1749), Jean-Baptiste de Mirabaud (1675–1760) and André-François Boureau-Deslandes (1689–1757).
One of the most radical representatives of the Enlightenment philosophy in France at this time was the atheist pastor Jean Meslier (1664–1729).
Early education in Germany
Christian Thomasius (1655–1728) and Christian von Wolff (1679–1754) are among the best-known representatives of the Early Enlightenment in Germany, and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716) can also be assigned to this trend in the last years of his life. Johann Christian Edelmann (1698–1767) was the first German scholar to profess Spinozism . Siegfried Wollgast dated the Early Enlightenment for Germany from 1672 to 1718/1723 and had it begin with the appearance of Samuel von Pufendorf's De Jure Naturae et Gentium .
- Wilfried Barner: Tradition, Norm, Innovation. Social and literary tradition in the early days of the German Enlightenment (= writings of the historical college. Colloquia, vol. 15). Munich 1989. ISBN 3-486-54771-2 ( digitized version )
- Paul Hazard: The Crisis of the European Spirit 1680–1715 , Hamburg: Hoffmann & Campe, 1939 (and other editions)
- Jonathan Irvine Israel: Radical enlightenment: Philosophy and the making of modernity 1650–1750 , Oxford [u. a ..]: Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-19-820608-9
- John Marshall: Locke, Toleration and Early Enlightenment Culture , Cambridge University Press, 2006
- Jürgen Mittelstraß : Modern Times and Enlightenment. Studies on the emergence of modern science and philosophy , Berlin [u. a.]: de Gruyter, 1970
- Martin Mulsow : Modernism from the underground: radical early enlightenment in Germany, 1680-1720 , Hamburg: Meiner, 2002. ISBN 3-7873-1597-7
- La lettre clandestine (French)
References and comments
- Siegfried Wollgast: The Socinianism and the German Early Enlightenment. In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 21, 2002, pp. 397-445; here: p. 401.