Albertus University of Königsberg
|Albertus University of Königsberg|
|activity||July 20, 1544-1945|
|country||Duchy of Prussia , Kingdom of Prussia , Free State of Prussia|
The University of Königsberg was in 1544 by Duke Albrecht of Brandenburg-Ansbach in Koenigsberg founded. It was the third Protestant university after the University of Wittenberg and the Philipps University of Marburg and the second re-establishment of a Protestant university after Marburg. From 1701 to 1918 it was officially called the Royal Albertus University of Königsberg i. Pr. The name Albertina , which has been used since Simon Dach's rectorate (1656) , was deleted from the university's statutes in 1930 by the Prussian Ministry for Science, Art and Education .
From the foundation to the 18th century
Won by Osiander for the Reformation , the 37th and last Grand Master of the Teutonic Order , Margrave Albrecht von Brandenburg-Ansbach , followed in 1525 Luther's advice to convert the Prussian part of the Teutonic Order into a secular duchy under Polish suzerainty. He was the first German prince to introduce the Reformation.
In the wake of the Reformation and the late Renaissance, high schools were founded in many places in North and East-Central Europe. B. the Lubrańskische Akademie in Poznan in 1519, the Johanneum in Hamburg in 1529, the Katharineum in Lübeck in 1531 and the grammar school in Elbing in 1535. Duke Albrecht also had the idea of building a higher school and had various well-known scholars provide expert opinions about the type of school to be built. The report was drawn up by Johann Briesmann , Johann Gramann and Joachim Camerarius the Elder and recommended the establishment of a particular , i.e. H. a higher school preparing for university studies e.g. B. should serve at the Leucorea .
In autumn 1540 the Prussian estates approved the establishment of such a particular in Königsberg. Many teachers were appointed on the recommendation of Philipp Melanchthon , who took a lively part in the development of the school. There were also some Protestant scholars from Poland and Lithuania among the professors. The humanist and son-in-law of Philipp Melanchthon, Georg Sabinus , was appointed head of the particulars . Sabinus had previously been a professor of poetry at the Brandenburg University of Frankfurt and was a well-traveled and well-educated man. He won Duke Albrecht to convert the particular into a comprehensive university.
For this purpose, Duke Albrecht issued a foundation diploma Scimus primam omnium in gubernatione curam Principum esse debere, ut vera Dei notitia late propagetur for one on July 20, 1544 (according to the Julian calendar then in effect , July 30, 1544 in the Gregorian calendar ) “Real Lutheran” University in Königsberg, which was inaugurated on August 17, 1544. After the Brandenburg University of Frankfurt, it was the second oldest university in what would later become Brandenburg-Prussia and for three centuries it was the spiritual center of Protestant Prussia . Located outside the Holy Roman Empire , the new college was the first without an imperial or papal privilege because both Emperor Charles V and Pope Paul III. refused to give their consent. For this she received a privilege on March 28, 1560 from the Polish King Sigismund II August . The professors had to take the oath on the Confessio Augustana .
The reigning Hohenzollern held the dignity of Rector magnificentissimus , the first Duke Albrecht from 1544 to 1568, the last from 1908 to 1918 Crown Prince Wilhelm . The official business was carried out by the Vice Rector , who was elected Rector Magnificus for one semester and later for one year.
Georg Sabinus became the founding rector with an annual salary of 350 guilders, which was high for the time. Ten other professors worked with him, one for theology, one for medicine and eight for ancient languages, rhetoric, mathematics and philosophy. Shortly after the foundation, disputes over privileges and the prerogatives of the rector eased, so that Sabinus retired from the rector's office after three years. In particular, the appointment of the theologian Andreas Osiander heated the minds, on the one hand because Osiander received the post at Duke Albrecht's instigation despite a lack of academic achievements, and on the other hand because he represented theological views that met with violent opposition from Lutheran orthodoxy.
At first the university was called Kollegium Albertinum , but with the four faculties of theology , law , medicine and philosophy, it was a full university . One of the first law professors was Hermann von Vechtelde (1523–1572). Later, the lawyer Levin Buchius , who was professor in Königsberg from 1593 to 1613, worked out the Prussian land law, which was then published under Elector Georg Wilhelm in 1620. For a long time, the philosophical and medical faculties were completely under the influence of the overwhelming authority of Aristotle, whose writings were accepted as “printed truth” according to the Bible. The personality of Simon Dach , from Memel, who received the chair of poetry at the university in 1639, was also outstanding .
After initial quarrels that led to the execution of professors, Königsberg remained a refuge for Protestant Orthodoxy and a preferred educational establishment for the Baltic Germans . Due to its remote location largely spared from the chaos of war, Königsberg flourished during the Thirty Years War and in 1644 had more than a thousand students. The Great Elector generously endowed doctorates with victuals . As at other universities, students had to pay listening fees and tuition fees, but were supported by numerous private foundations and grants from wealthy citizens in the 16th to 18th centuries.
The university building, the Collegium Albertinum , stood in Kneiphof behind the cathedral, the university church, for four centuries . Because of the lack of space on the cathedral island, even Kant had to give his lectures in his old town house. A north wing was added to the Albertinum, which later housed the Königsberg City Library and the Königsberg City Archives .
Development in the 19th century
With the steadily growing number of students, the prorector Eduard Simson operated a new building, for which Friedrich Wilhelm IV. Laid the foundation stone for the 300th anniversary of the Albertina on August 31, 1844. Otto Nicolai composed a festival overture for the anniversary . The building on Paradeplatz was realized thirteen years later (like the Neue Börse ) in the style of the Northern Italian Renaissance. At the inauguration ceremony on July 20, 1862 in the presence of Crown Prince Friedrich , the architect, Schinkel's pupil Friedrich August Stüler , presented the keys to the prorector Karl Rosenkranz .
The building showed rich sculptural decorations, all modeled by Berlin sculptors. At the top of the central building, between four figures representing the faculties, was the equestrian statue of Duke Albrecht in high relief, all by Albert Wolff , from whom the allegories of legislation , state administration , archeology and history were derived. Further down, the statues of Luther and Melanchthon ( Hermann Schievelbein ) were emblazoned in niches . On the roof parapet were allegories of astronomy ( August Wittig ), geography ( Bernhard Afinger ), natural history and mathematics (both by Karl Heinrich Möller ). A stately staircase supported by marble columns led to the Senate meeting room, in which there was a bust of Kant of the Schadow pupil Carl Friedrich Hagemann . Next door was the auditorium , a hall covered by a star vault with frescoes by Ludwig Rosenfelder , Gustav Graef , Maksymilian Antoni Piotrowski , Johannes Heydeck (1835–1910), Emil Neide and others.
In the 19th century, Königsberg University was one of the smaller German universities. In 1832 the university's staff consisted of 106 people, including 25 full and 13 associate professors , as well as 15 private lecturers. After the wars of liberation the number of students was always around 400. After the German war it increased slightly, after the founding of the Reich it increased significantly; but only after the turn of the century did it exceed 1,000. Of the 4,223 students enrolled at the six Prussian universities in the winter semester of 1836/37, 379 studied in Königsberg, the others in Berlin (1,585), Breslau (721), Halle (663), Bonn (657), and Greifswald (218). Of the 379 students at the Albertina that semester, 140 studied theology, 64 law, 65 medical and 110 the philosophy faculty. The 16 students from the Russian Empire formed the largest group of the 22 Königsberg students who did not come from Prussia. The average number of Königsberg students remained below 500 between 1844 and 1871, peaked at 883 between 1881 and 1886 and then decreased again slightly. Of the 20 universities in the German Empire , only four were smaller than the Albertina: the Christian Albrechts University in Kiel , the University of Rostock , the Hessian Ludwig University of Gießen and the University of Jena .
In 1866 the Albertina had a total of 60 and by 1894 around 98 professors and lecturers. In 1869, Theodor von der Goltz was appointed full professor of agricultural science. The Agricultural Institute was set up for agricultural East Prussia surprisingly late, not until 1876. The Palaestra Albertina (1894) was owed to the surgeon Friedrich Lange . The new Royal University Library was built in 1901 on the Mitteltragheim.
- See also
- Königsberg learned society
- Physico-economic society
- Cholera uprising in Koenigsberg
- Königsberg Senior Citizens' Convention # University anniversary
Between the wars and the downfall
After the First World War , East Prussia and the Albertus University had to adjust to the new territorial conditions. East Prussian students had to temporarily enroll for compulsory semesters at their home university. In the corporation associations and in the German student body , Reich German students were successfully called upon to spend at least one “solidarity semester” in Königsberg. The number of students, which had been 1,650 on the eve of the First World War , doubled between 1925 and 1930 from 2,000 to 4,113, including 761 female students.
As Friedrich Hoffmann , curator of the Albertina from 1922 to 1945, later explained in a report, since 1933 there was only a small, radical “Nazi clique” facing the overwhelming majority of science-oriented academics; but in the opinion of medievalist Friedrich Baethgen (professor from 1929 to 1939) the Königsberg University opened up to National Socialist influences to such an extent that it degenerated into a “provincial university with a party official color”, which marked the 400th anniversary on July 10, 1944 "In a shocking way" came to light. The guests of the celebration included the Reich Minister of Economics Walther Funk (an East Prussian), and the speakers included Professors Theodor Schieder and Eduard Baumgarten .
On two nights between August 26 and 30, 1944, incendiary bombs by the Royal Air Force destroyed the entire city center, including the Albertus University and the Königsberg Cathedral . The bitter battle for Königsberg brought further destruction. General Otto Lasch signed the surrender on April 9, 1945, when Soviet soldiers were already standing on the parade ground. With this, 400 years of German intellectual life came to an end in Königsberg, which had broadcast mainly to the east and gave important impulses for the democratization of Germany.
The Albertus University only had the classic four faculties until its end. Incorrect assignments and overlaps are possible:
Faculty of Theology
Well-known theologians of the Königsberg faculty were Daniel Heinrich Arnoldt , Günther Bornkamm , August Hahn , Friedrich Kurschat , Conrad Mel , Cölestin Myslenta , Stanislaus Rapagelanus , Ludwig Rhesa , Georg Friedrich Rogall , Carl Schneider , David Voit , and Leopold Zscharnack .
Levin Buchius drafted the land law of the Duchy of Prussia . Abraham Culvensis was the reformer of Lithuania . The constitutional lawyer Wilhelm Eduard Albrecht began his career at the Albertina, then went to Göttingen, where he became known as one of the " Göttingen Seven ". The lawyer, historian and writer Felix Dahn taught in Königsberg from 1872 to 1888. Eduard von Simson was the first president of the Reichsgericht and is considered one of the most important German parliamentarians.
Ernst Forsthoff wrote The Total State in 1933 and later became President of Cyprus' Constitutional Court. Albert Hensel was a leading tax lawyer. The international law expert Herbert Kraus founded the Göttingen working group . The private lawyer Fritz Litten escaped to Northern Ireland in 1933. Alfred Manigk's career as a civil lawyer began in Königsberg.
Princely personal physicians , professorships , deans and rectors were the physicians (and natural scientists ) Andreas Aurifaber , Daniel Beckher the Elder (the “Prussian Hippocrates”), Daniel Beckher the Younger , Johann Christoph Bohl , Christoph Gottlieb Büttner , Christian Ludwig Charisius , Friedrich Reinhold Dietz , Georg Emmerich (medic) , Heinrich Friese , Severin Göbel the Elder , Severin Göbel the Younger , Daniel Halbach von der Phorten , Melchior Philipp Hartmann , Friedrich Lepner , Georg Loth the Elder , Georg Loth the Younger , Abraham Memmius , Valentin Preuss vom Springenberg , Johann Papius , Johann Placotomus , Johann Pontanus , Georg Rast , Gottfried Sand , Johann Heinrich Starcke , Paul vom Stein , Matthias Stoius , Johann Georg Strasburg , Christoph Tinctorius , Simon Titius and Georg Wosegin .
With specialization in the 19th and 20th centuries, the following became known in their subjects:
- Anatomy: Friedrich Burdach , Karl Wilhelm von Kupffer , Friedrich Merkel , Martin Rathke
- Surgery: Heinrich Braun , Paul Leopold Friedrich , Martin Kirschner , Arthur Läwen , Erich Lexer , Johann von Mikulicz , Erwin Payr , Karl Schönborn , Karl Unger , Albrecht Wagner
- Gynecology: Albert Hayn , Hugo Hildebrandt , Felix von Mikulicz-Radecki , Georg Winter
- Ear, nose and throat medicine: Wilhelm Berger , Adolf Greifenstein , Paul Stenger
- Hygiene: Eugen Czaplewski , Erwin von Esmarch
- Internal medicine: Herbert Assmann , Ernst von Leyden , Max Matthes , Julius Schreiber
- Neurology: Ludwig Lichtheim
- Ophthalmology: Arthur Birch-Hirschfeld , Julius Jacobson , Hermann Kuhnt , Wilhelm Rohrschneider
- Pediatrics: Hugo Falkenheim
- Pathology: Ernst Neumann , Friedrich Daniel von Recklinghausen
- Pharmacology: Oskar Liebreich , Bernhard Naunyn
- Pharmacy: Karl Gottfried Hagen
- Physiology: Wilhelm von Wittich , Ernst Wilhelm von Brücke
- Psychiatry: Ernst Meyer
- Forensic medicine: Karl Seydel
- Dentistry: Paul Adloff
Nine clinics , important collections and the library with 220,000 volumes brought medicine at Königsberg University to a nationwide reputation.
Historians - Friedrich Baethgen • Erich Caspar • Felix Dahn • Wilhelm Drumann • Christoph Hartknoch • Alfred Heuss • Karl Dietrich Hüllmann • Hans Rothfels • Theodor Schieder • Friedrich Wilhelm Schubert • Johannes Voigt .
Philologists - Adalbert Bezzenberger • Peter van Bohlen • Rudolf Otto Franke • Georg Gerullis • Helmuth von Glasenapp • Georg David Kypke • Georg Sabinus • Karl Lachmann • Karl Lehrs • Christian August Lobeck • Karl Heinrich Meyer • Ferdinand Nesselmann • Johann Severin father • Walther Ziesemer .
Folklorist - Walter Anderson .
Mathematics and natural sciences
Traditionally, mathematics and the natural sciences were part of the philosophy faculty. Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel , Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi and Franz Ernst Neumann established a tradition of exact natural sciences that brought the Albertina to a leading position in Germany in the 19th and 20th centuries.
The beginnings of mathematical research in Königsberg go back to the 18th century.
In the 19th century, the Königsberg School of Mathematics , which was founded by Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi , became widely known. Jacobi's students included Karl Wilhelm Borchardt , Eduard Heine , Otto Hesse , Friedrich Julius Richelot , Johann Georg Rosenhain , and Ludwig Seidel . The two mathematicians Alfred Clebsch and Carl Gottfried Neumann from Königsberg , who were also Otto Hesse's students, founded the journal Mathematische Annalen in 1868 , which was a respected mathematical specialist journal for many decades. In the German-speaking countries, the Albertina was, alongside the University of Göttingen, an important educational institution for mathematics. This tradition was later continued by Ferdinand von Lindemann , Adolf Hurwitz , David Hilbert and Hermann Minkowski . In the 19th century so many important mathematicians came from East Prussia that the mathematician Felix Klein , who came from the Rhineland , was prompted to comment in his book on mathematics of the 19th century: “… I don't want to fail to pay attention to a strange fact to do, that is the extraordinarily large number of famous mathematicians who come from Konigsberg, just as the East Prussian race seems to have been particularly gifted in the direction of our science. ... "
David Hilbert was a private lecturer here from 1886 to 1895, later a full professor, accepted an offer in Göttingen in 1895, but remained lifelong connected to his East Prussian homeland. He was one of the leading international mathematicians of his time and made significant contributions in the areas of axiomatization of geometry, number theory, mathematical physics and others. He formulated the 23 Hilbert problems that formed a guideline for mathematical research in the 20th century.
Kant had already dealt extensively with astronomical and cosmological problems and, together with Pierre Simon de Laplace, formulated a theory on the origin of the solar system . Astronomy gained particular importance through the observatory built from 1811 to 1813 under the direction of Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (1784–1846) . Bessel was considered one of the most productive astronomers of his time. Under his aegis, the Königsberg University Observatory became a model for other observatories that were founded in the 19th century. It was mainly thanks to Bessel that Königsberg developed into a leading center of astronomy in Europe. One of his successors was the German-Baltic astronomer and mathematician Hermann von Struve .
Franz Ernst Neumann (1798–1895) was a pioneer of theoretical physics in Germany. But he also promoted practical physical education, for which he set up the mathematical-physical seminar together with Jacobi in 1834 . This type of teaching was new at German universities and spread from Königsberg. Heinrich Wilhelm Dove , Theodor Kaluza , Walter Kaufmann , Woldemar Voigt and Max Wien also worked at Königsberg University . Finally, Hermann von Helmholtz became world famous .
During a visit to the Curonian Spit in 1896, the ornithologist Johannes Thienemann witnessed a "bird migration, so powerful as it had never been seen in Germany before" . On his initiative, the Rossitten ornithological station was founded in 1901 as an "ornithological-biological observation station". The ornithological station was in close contact with the Albertina and was the first such ornithological research station in the world. She achieved world fame through her pioneering work.
Other important biologists were the behavioral scientist Konrad Lorenz (Nobel Prize 1973), Robert Caspary , Otto Koehler and, from 1934 to 1945, Kurt Mothes , who later became president of the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina .
Outstanding Königsberg personalities were honored by putting their medallion portraits on the facade of the university building: Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel , Karl Friedrich Burdach , Karl Gottfried Hagen , Johann Friedrich Herbart , Carl Gustav Jacobi , Christian Jakob Kraus , Karl Lachmann , Simon Dach , Johann Georg Hamann , Theodor Gottlieb von Hippel , Immanuel Kant , Johann Gottfried Herder .
On Kant's birthday on April 22, 2012, a large plaque with the names of 32 famous scholars from the Albertina was unveiled in Königsberg Cathedral , together with the friends of Kant and Königsberg and the Russian cathedral builder Igor Alexandrowitsch Odintsov .
For the first decades after the Wars of Liberation , the number of students at the Albertina is given as around 400. By 1856 it went back to 346.
- Germania fraternity
- Fraternity Gothia
- Corps Baltia
- Corps Hansea
- Corps Littuania
- Corps Masovia
- High hemia
- Cardboard hemia
- Paul Adloff , dentist and anthropologist
- Ludwig von Baczko , historian
- Carl Böttcher , educator
- Heinrich Gustav Brzoska , pedagogue and university professor
- Eugen Drewello , District Administrator
- Johann Wilhelm Ebel (1784–1861), theologian
- Ernst Ehlert , horse breeder
- Friedrich von Gentz , philosopher, statesman, diplomat
- Christian Goldbach , mathematician
- Johann Christoph Gottsched , writer, dramaturge, literary theorist
- Johann Georg Hamann , philosopher and writer
- Johannes Harder , writer and sociologist
- Felix Holldack , lawyer and university lecturer
- Johann Gottfried Herder , poet
- David Hilbert , mathematician
- Gottlieb von Hippel the Elder A. , statesman
- Gottlieb von Hippel the Elder J. , statesman
- ETA Hoffmann , writer, lawyer, composer, conductor, music critic, draftsman, caricaturist
- Rudolf Kaufmann , geologist
- Gustav Robert Kirchhoff , physicist
- Adolph Friedrich Kleinert , Protestant theologian and university professor
- Hans-Wolfram Knaak , officer
- Ernst Krawehl , publisher
- Theophil Ernst Kriese , lawyer and educator
- Friedrich Lange , surgeon
- Fritz Albert Lipmann , physician
- Hermann Minkowski , mathematician
- Oskar Minkowski , physician
- Johann David Naumann , lawyer
- Theodor Oberländer , German politician (NSDAP, FDP, BHE, CDU)
- Bruno von Oppenkowski , lawyer
- Clemens von Pirquet , medic
- Josef Felix Pompeckj , paleontologist and geologist
- Paul Preuss , botanist and explorer
- Hermann Priebe , agricultural scientist
- Conrad Schmidt , economist, philosopher and journalist
- Heinrich Theodor von Schön , statesman
- Johannes Schwalke , Apostolic Protonotary
- Arnold Sommerfeld , physicist
- Hermann Sudermann , writer
- Curt Teichert , geologist
- Ernst Thesing , physician
- Matthäus Waissel , theologian, lutenist, editor of music collections and writer
- George Wichert , classical philologist, modern Latinist and high school director
As a “light of enlightenment” ( Jürgen Manthey ), the Albertus University shone above all in Tsarist Russia . In 1697 Peter the Great came to Königsberg. His visit marked the beginning of the development of cultural relations between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Russian Empire . Russians came to study at the Albertina and Königsberg professors took part in the establishment of the St. Petersburg Academy . The future President of the Academy of Sciences and co-founder of the Moscow University Kirill Rasumowski , the future General-Field Marshal Andrei Ivanovich Gudowitsch (1781-1869), General Count Mikhail Andreevich Miloradowitsch and other well-known Russian personalities studied at the Albertina . In total, over 100 Russians studied in Königsberg in the course of the Königsberg century .
Königsberg was of great importance for the development of the Lithuanian written language . The first books in Lithuanian were printed here. They were religious in nature and were used in the Lithuanian-speaking areas of Prussia. The Lithuanian reformer Abraham Culvensis , who fled to Königsberg in 1542, was the first rector of the grammar school and first Graecist at the Albertina. Stanislaus Rapagelanus was their first theologian. The professors Ludwig Rhesa , Ferdinand Nesselmann , Friedrich Kurschat and Adalbert Bezzenberger , who worked in the 19th century , are still considered to be important Lituanists today. During the period of increased Russification under the tsarist rule between 1863 and 1904, when the printing of Lithuanian books in Latin script was forbidden, the Königsberg University was the closest higher education institution for Lithuanians. Numerous Lithuanian books, which were often printed in Königsberg, were smuggled across the East Prussian border to Lithuania by "book carriers" ( Knygnešys ) during this period .
Latvians and Estonians
The original of the seal from 1544 has been lost, there is only one photograph of the same size . A clay model with a diameter of 35 cm was made from the photographic template . Advised by Fritz Gause and the art historian Wolfram Noeske , Joachim Gümbel, who lives in Bonn, made it in his workshop. A bronze casting of the seal was cast from the die . The association of former students and teachers of the Löbenichtschen Realgymnasium donated it in 1967 to their sponsor school, the Steinbart-Gymnasium in Duisburg .
Ideal continuation in Göttingen
The remnants of the administrative apparatus of the collapsed university moved in early 1945, initially via Greifswald to Flensburg. In the same year an official registration office for former Königsberg university members was set up in Göttingen . Certifications and replacement documents were also issued in Göttingen. Many Königsberg researchers originally studied at the Georg-August University in Göttingen and moved there from 1945. The Rector of the University of Kaliningrad Nikolai Andrejewitsch Medvedev and the President of the University of Göttingen Hans-Ludwig Schreiber signed the agreement on the scientific cooperation of the two universities on June 17, 1993. Above all, Friedrich Hoffmann and Götz von Selle promoted the establishment or re-establishment of institutions with reference to the University of Königsberg. The exhibition Albertina University in Königsberg 1544–1994 was opened by the Göttingen rector with the words "We are all heirs of the University of Königsberg!" In 1964 the Albertinum dormitory was inaugurated:
May this house be a permanent place of memory of the
Albertus University of Königsberg in Prussia
founded by the first Duke of the Duchy of Prussia
Albrecht von Brandenburg-Ansbach
in the land of the Teutonic Order on August 17, 1544
"ad veram Dei cognitionem et ad virtutis intellectum"
- as a university for the easternmost countries of the German tongue and at the same time for the other peoples in the countries around the Baltic Sea, living on and continuing to work in the state of Prussia and in the German Empire;
May the Albertus University at Königsberg in Prussia continue to live in its inner essence after its external downfall; May the reverence for the Eternal, the pursuit of truth, the will to fulfill the duty that made them great, always find a place here. May love for closer homeland, for the fatherland, always combine here with openness to the world and other nations, and may the land of Duke Albrecht, Johann Gottfried Herders, Immanuel Kant remain present as an inalienable possession for all who loved it.
The curator of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
Dr. Heinrich Dahnke
- The Lord Mayor of the City of Göttingen
For the non-profit society Albertinum e. V. in Göttingen
Chairman of the Board of Trustees
The Kaliningrad State University was founded by the Soviet Government in the 1960s and built on the old foundations. Since perestroika, it has increasingly seen itself as the successor to the Albertina, after any reference to traditions from the German era had been rejected in the previous decades. The previous high point of this focus was in 2005 when it was renamed the Russian Immanuel Kant University (Rossijskij Universitet im. Immanuila Kanta) in the presence of President Vladimir Putin and Federal Chancellor Gerhard Schröder . Since 2012, the university has been called the Baltic Federal University of Immanuel Kant ( Russian Балтийский федеральный университет имени Иммануила Канта ).
The university has twelve faculties: biology, geography and geoecology, history, economics, psychology and social work, physical culture and sport, mathematics, physics and technology, service, law, linguistics and intercultural communication, philology and journalism, and since 2009 medicine.
- Karl Erich Andrée : The Albertus University. Fate and achievement , in: Fritz Gause (Ed.): East Prussia. Achievement and destiny. Burkhard-Verlag, Essen 1958, pp. 239–257 (Deutsche Landschaft 4)
- Sabine Bamberger-Stemmann: Königsberg and its university. A place of East Central European intellectual life. Northeast Archives. Zeitschrift für Regionalgeschichte, NF 3, H. 2, 1994, , pp. 281-694.
- Ludwig Biewer : Student life at the University of Königsberg from the turn of the 19th century to National Socialism , in: Udo Arnold (Hrsg.): Prussia as a university landscape in the 19th and 20th centuries . Century . Nordostdeutsches Kulturwerk, Lüneburg 1992, pp. 45–86.
- Klaus Bürger : The students of the University of Königsberg 1817–1844 , in: Udo Arnold (Ed.): Prussia as a university landscape in the 19th and 20th centuries. Century . Nordostdeutsches Kulturwerk, Lüneburg 1992, pp. 13–44.
- Walter Daugsch (Red.): The Albertina. University of Königsberg, 1544–1994 , ed. from the Gerhart-Hauptmann-Haus Foundation in Düsseldorf. Westkreuz-Verlag, Bad Münstereifel 1994, ISBN 3-922131-98-0 (publications of the Gerhart-Hauptmann-Haus Foundation, German-Eastern European Forum Düsseldorf) , (exhibition catalog, Kaliningrad, Museum of History and Art of the Kaliningrad Region, August 17th until October 7, 1994, German / Russian)
- Georg Erler (Hrsg.): The matriculation (and the PhD directories) of the Albertus University in Königsberg in Prussia. 1544–1829 , 3 vols. Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1910–1917 ( publication by the Association for the History of East and West Prussia 16, ), (reprint: Kraus Reprint, Nendeln / Liechtenstein 1976)
- Walter Hubatsch : The Albertus University of Königsberg in Prussia in the German intellectual history 1544-1944. In: Walther Hubatsch: German universities and colleges in the east. Westdeutscher Verlag, Cologne a. a. 1964, pp. 9-39 ( Scientific papers of the Working Group for Research of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia 30, ).
- Bernhart Jähnig (Ed.): 450 years of the University of Königsberg. Contributions to the history of science in Prussia. With contributions by Hartmut Boockmann (among others). Marburg 2001, ISBN 3-7708-1207-7 (Conference reports of the Historical Commission for East and West Prussian State Research 14)
- Yearbook of the Albertus University in Königsberg / Prussia. Berlin / Freiburg im Breisgau / Frankfurt am Main: 1951 to 1994, .
- Manfred Komorowski : PhDs at the University of Königsberg, 1548-1799: Bibliography of the pro grad dissertations in the upper faculties and directory of the master’s doctorates in the philosophical faculty , Saur, Munich / New York, NY 1988, ISBN 3-598-10760- 9 . contents
- Kasimir Lawrynowicz : Albertina. On the history of the Albertus University in Königsberg in Prussia (= treatises of the Göttingen working group , volume 13: publication ). Edited by Dietrich Rauschning . Duncker & Humblot , Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-428-10016-6 Göttingen Working Group 495
- Hanspeter Marti, Manfred Komorowski (Ed.): The University of Königsberg in the early modern period . Böhlau, Vienna / Cologne / Weimar 2008, ISBN 978-3-412-20171-5
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- Dietrich Rauschning , Donata von Nerée (ed.): The Albertus University of Königsberg and its professors. On the occasion of the founding of the Albertus University 450 years ago (= yearbook of the Albertus University in Königsberg , Volume 29: Göttinger Arbeitskreis . Publication 451), Duncker and Humblot, Berlin 1995, ISBN 3-428-08546-9 .
- Rector's speeches in the 19th and 20th centuries / Albertus University of Königsberg. Online bibliography. Historical commission at the Bavarian Academy of Sciences
- Siegfried Schindelmeiser: The Albertina and its students 1544 to WS 1850/51 and the history of the Corps Baltia II zu Königsberg i. Pr. (1970-1985). For the first time complete, illustrated and annotated new edition in two volumes with an appendix, two registers and a foreword by Franz-Friedrich Prinz von Preussen, ed. by Rüdiger Döhler and Georg von Klitzing, Munich 2010. ISBN 978-3-00-028704-6
- Götz von Selle : History of the Albertus University in Königsberg in Prussia. Kanter-Verlag, Königsberg 1944 (2nd revised and enlarged edition). Holzner, Würzburg 1956 ( Göttingen working group. Publication 145, )
- Christian Tilitzki : Aspects of the Königsberg university history in the Third Reich . Yearbook for the History of Central and Eastern Germany 46 (2000), pp. 233–269
- Christian Tilitzki: Professors and Politics - The professors at the Albertus University in Königsberg / Pr. in the Weimar Republic (1918–1933) , in: Bernhart Jähnig (Ed.): 450 Years of the University of Königsberg . Contributions to the history of science in Prussia. Elwert, Marburg 2001, pp. 131-178
- Christian Tilitzki: The Königsberg Albertus University in the upheaval from 1932 to 1934 , in: Christian Pletzing (Ed.): Vorposten des Reichs? East Prussia 1933–1945 . Meidenbauer, Munich 2006
- Christian Tilitzki: The Albertus University of Königsberg. The story from the founding of the Empire to the fall of the Province of East Prussia , Volume 1, 1871–1918. Akademie Verlag, Munich 2012, ISBN 978-3-05-004312-8 .
- Matthias Stickler : Königsberger Universitätsgeschichte 1805 to 1870. Notes on a little researched topic , in: Hans Peter Hümmer , Michaela Neubert : "Wilhelm Schmiedebergs Blätter der Memory (1835–1839)." A contribution to the student memorial culture at the Albertus University in Königsberg , ed. by the Association for Corporate Student History Research in cooperation with the Institute for Higher Education at the University of Würzburg and the German Society for Higher Education. Würzburg and Neustadt an der Aisch 2013 - 364 pages, approx. 200 mostly colored illustrations, graphics and tables ISBN 978-3-87707-872-3 .
- Peter Wörster : Universities in northern East Prussia after 1945 , in: Udo Arnold (Ed.): Prussia as a university landscape in the 19th and 20th centuries. Century . Nordostdeutsches Kulturwerk, Lüneburg 1992, pp. 105–122.
- Daniel Heinrich Arnoldt : Additions to my history of the Königsberg University, along with some improvements to it, and two hundred and fifty biographies of Prussian scholars . Koenigsberg i. Pr. 1756 ( full text )
- Website about the scholarly family Hagen – Bessel – Neumann – Koenig of the Albertina
- Database of the Königsberg university publications
- The University of Königsberg as a scientific satire
- "... as an ox, an Ome wine, two kegs of beer, half a shock karven, a half shock pike, a piece of wiltpret, three bushels of grain, three bushels of meel, and some money." For eight groschen a week there was Sundays at lunchtime (per man): “Meat soup, roast, cabbage, sowren comps or other vegetables, depending on the time. Then soup meat, everyone from the roast and soup meat together he should leave one and a half pounds hawn in. ”For this there was only“ meat soup, soup meat and then pelvis meat, each one again from both one and a half pounds ”. NN in Königsbergiensis III, newspaper of the Altmärker-Masuren 37/38, Kiel 1966, p. 665 f.
- Johann FW Koch (1839) lists 60 different foundations for Königsberg alone.
- which 761 women (maximum number, Eastern semester)
- Deutsche Corpszeitung, Volume 47, No. 9, December 1930.
- Thomas Ellwein: The German University - from the Middle Ages to the present. Chapter "The founding of the University of Königsberg". Fourier-Verlag Wiesbaden, 1997, ISBN 3-925037-90-X .
- Fritz Gause: The history of the city of Königsberg in Prussia . Vol. 1: From the founding of the city to the last elector . Böhlau, Cologne 1965, p. 292.
- Paul Stettiner: From the history of the Albertina (1544 1894) . Hartungsche Verlagsdruckerei, Königsberg 1894
- P. Stettiner, p. 14 f
- Koch, Johann Friedrich Wilhelm: A collection of the ordinances which concern the constitution and administration of these institutions: f: der Königl. University of Königsberg i. Pr. Band 1 . Verlag Ernst Siegfried Mittler, Berlin and Bromberg 1839, foundation, statutes and news about the funds and staff of the individual universities, p. 536 ff . ( online - digitized book (Google)).
- Paul Stettiner : From the history of the Albertina 1544-1894. Königsberg, 1894. Reprinted by Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 978-1-162-36804-7 .
- Archives of the Corps Masovia (1969)
- Christian Tilitzki: Like a sunken Vineta. The Königsberg University in the collapse of the empire. Ostpreußenblatt, volume 39, October 2, 1999 and October 16, 1999.
- Peter Roquette : Königsberg mathematician in the 19th century.
- Felix Klein: Lectures on the development of mathematics in the 19th century. In: Basic Teachings of the Mathematical Sciences. 24/25. P. 159, Berlin [u. a.], Springer-Verlag (Reprint 1979) digitized full text .
- Klaus Bürger: Comments on the student directories and the students of the University of Königsberg Pr. (1829–1921 / 22) . In: Udo Arnold, Mario Glauert, Jürgen Sarnowsky (Eds.): Prussian regional history. Festschrift for Bernhart Jähnig on his 60th birthday . Elwert, Marburg 2001, ISBN 3-7708-1177-1 , pp. 497-512.
- Alfred Rohde, Ulla Stöver: Goldsmithing in Königsberg . Kohlhammer 1959
- Ulrich Albinus: An Albertus seal for the sponsorship school. At the Steinbart grammar school in Duisburg it is reminiscent of the Königsberg University . The Ostpreußenblatt, vol. 18 / series 51, December 23, 1967, p. 11.
- Dietrich Rauschning : 25 years of association between the Kaliningrad Faculty of Law and German partner faculties
- Kai Arne Linnemann: The legacy of research on the East. On the role of Göttingen in the history of the post-war period. Marburg, Tectum Verlag 2002.
- Rector's speeches (BAW)