Model (form)

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Springerle -Model from Swabia, above: wedding carriage (Rococo)

A model [ˈmoːdəl] is a hollow shape with which malleable substances are brought into a certain shape. Mostly it is viscous or doughy substances such as liquid metal , clay , wax , dough or butter . A relief can be reproduced in series with the model .

The term model is used in archeology and handicrafts (models are used, for example, in stucco work ), but also in modern molding and casting technology (in the case of casts , however, the hollow form is called a matrix ). Furthermore, certain foods such as springerle are shaped with models.

Grammar and word origins

In today's linguistic usage and especially in the field of technology, the masculine gender predominates : the model (plural: the model ). In addition, the model occurs as a minor variant (plural: the models ). In the field of traditional food production - as a third variant - the model has also been retained (plural: the model ).

The word model ( Middle High German model , Old High German modul ) goes back to the Latin modulus "Maß", a diminutive of modus "Maß". The Italian word modello (“pattern”, “draft”) and from it the German word model also originated from the Latin modulus .

Two models, each to the right of a figure made with them ( Attalos Museum , Athens)

Archeology and handicrafts

Terracotta models are already in use towards the end of the 3rd millennium BC. Chr. In Mesopotamien by finds detected. They were used to mass- produce relief works mainly made of ceramic materials for decorative purposes . The model corresponds to a negative form of the relief. Wooden models were also used.

A special case of the model is the cylinder seal . Even in antiquity, models were used in the manufacture of stucco elements for wall and ceiling decoration.

Casting and molding technology

The model or the die are negative molds in casting and molding technology for cast and kneaded products, which are used in commercial and industrial production in order to quickly bring the material to be processed into a shape - the one defined by the model (so-called primary molding ).

The objects that are molded with the model can be made of metal , clay , ceramic or plaster of paris or plastics , but also wax or other malleable substances. The model itself can also be made of metal, clay, ceramic or plaster; Wood is unsuitable for industrial production, but has so far been indispensable in manual production, for example in glassblowing , but is also being replaced by highly heat-resistant ceramics. Model and shaped workpiece should not be made of the same material, as the positive and negative may combine during solidification or hardening. If the same material cannot be avoided, a separating intermediate layer must be applied before the casting process, which allows the molded object to be easily detached.

Models are also used in the production of stucco elements for wall and ceiling decoration. In the metal and plastics sector, there is the specialty of mold maker for the production of models .

Use in food

Wooden butter model

In its common meaning, the model is a figuratively carved wooden form, especially in the household and upscale confectionery sector , which is used for smaller baked goods such as springerle , cast chocolate pieces such as pralines (see chocolatier ), confectionery , cold dishes or for butter ( butter model ) . Especially in the alpine area, handcrafted, often richly decorated, traditional models with different patterns typical for the region are known, which are still used in regional cuisine, but can usually only be admired in local museums .

A model is mostly made of wood, which must be as hard and delicate as possible. In addition to alder , poplar , plum and willow , pear and linden trees were mainly used, as motifs can be finely reproduced in them and no fibers stand up after cleaning the model with water. Sometimes the models are also made of earthenware ; a signature on the inside can indicate the manufacturer, particularly in the case of particularly magnificent pieces. Today's baking models are pressed and are rarely hand-carved. The machine production can be recognized by the uniform width of the motifs carved out with a spherical cutter .

See also

Individual evidence

  1. See Duden online: (the) model . The secondary variant, the model , is only mentioned for meaning 1, not for meaning 2, which belongs to the area of ​​casting technology. (Meaning 3 and 4 are not hollow forms and therefore not the subject of this article.)
  2. The text History of the Änismodel on is an example of the common usage of the model in the field of food models . At the same time it proves the fluctuation of the sex. In the sentence "Too much tact is necessary to push the model correctly into the Änisteig" suddenly the model appears, also on the information page : "A new model [...] the model in question [...]"
  3. Duden online: (the) model and model
  4. Andrea Gorys : Dictionary Archeology , dtv, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-423-32504-6 , p. 290
  5. ^ Ernstgeorg Hanssen, Fritz Hahn: About model . In: Deutsche Lebensmittel-Rundschau . No. December 12 , 1963, p. 343-350, here p. 346 .

Web links

Commons : Model and similar hollow forms  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Commons : Model for pastries  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Model  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations