Mountain area

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A mining district , also simply called Revier , or as Bergamtsrevier or Bergdistrict , mining district , or mining district, is a specific geographically delineated district that is under the control and administration of a single mining authority . The mines , salt works and smelters located in it belong to this district . In more recent publications the term mining district is also used for these districts .

Basics and history

Mining was only practiced to a limited extent until the Middle Ages . There were relatively few mines that were subordinate to the respective sovereigns. Their administration was carried out by an official appointed by the respective sovereign. The mining industry was regulated by corresponding mining ordinances valid in the respective countries. After the mining industry grew and more and more mines came into being, it was no longer possible for a single person to manage the mines. For this reason, in the countries where mines existed, these were divided into several smaller mountain districts. Each individual district was subordinate to its own mining office , which was only responsible for the mining area assigned and subordinate to it. The head of each mountain area was the mountain master responsible for that mountain area . The seat of the mining office was the capital city of the mining area. Several mountain districts combined formed a main mining district, also called Oberbergamtdistrikt, which was subordinate to an Oberbergamt. The chief miner there was the miner . In countries with a large number of mines, there were also several upper mining offices, each of which was subordinate to an upper mining district. The upper mining offices were in turn subordinate to the responsible ministry.


The size of a mountain area is regulated differently depending on the country. There are countries in which the geographic location of the country is decisive for the size of the individual mountain areas. In other countries, such as Austria, the size of the mining area was dependent on the number of mines and the size of their pit fields . Here the mining authority determines the number of mines per mining area in agreement with the mine operators involved. The size of a mountain area was not always a fixed size. Changes within the respective Oberbergamt districts could lead to changes in the boundaries of the associated mining districts. So it happened that two previously independent mountain areas were combined to form a new, larger, mountain area. In addition, it was also possible that parts of another mountain district from another country were added to a mountain district.


Each mountain area must be given a specific name. As a rule, the individual mountain areas were named after the main mountain location of the respective mountain area. For example the Wetzlar mountain area or the Freiberg mountain area . But there was also the possibility of naming the respective mountain area after a region such as B. the Ruhr area, which even retained its name, although the main mining activities were already predominantly north of the Emscher . It was also possible that mountain areas were renamed, e.g. B. The St. Goar mountain area was renamed the Coblenz II mountain area . If mountain areas were united, the newly formed mountain area was also given a new name. This name could consist of the names of the merged districts, such as when the mountain districts Brühl and Unkel were merged to form the mountain district Brühl-Unkel .

See also


  • Mining Lexicon . In: Hans Grothe, Hermann Franke (Ed.): Lueger Lexikon der Technik . 4th completely revised and expanded edition. tape 4 mining. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart 1962, p. 431 .
  • Günther Beck: The formation of mountain areas in the salt industry (illustrated using examples from Central Europe) . 8th International Montanhistorischer Kongress Schwaz / Sterzing 2009. In: Wolfgang Ingenhaeff, Johann Bair (Hrsg.): Bergbau und Berggeschrey. To the origins of European mines . Berenkamp, ​​Hall in Tirol / Vienna 2010, ISBN 978-3-85093-262-2 , p. 39–58 (conference proceedings).

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d Carl Hartmann: Concise dictionary of mineralogy, mining, metallurgy and salt works. First section A to K, printed and published by Bernhard Friedrich Voigt, Ilmenau 1825.
  2. ^ A b Heinrich Veith: German mountain dictionary with evidence. Published by Wilhelm Gottlieb Korn, Breslau 1871, pp. 78, 291–293.
  3. ^ A b c Carl von Scheuchenstuel: IDIOTICON of the Austrian mountain and hut language. kk court bookseller Wilhelm Braumüller, Vienna 1856.
  4. a b c Carl Hartmann (Hrsg.): Concise dictionary of the mountain, hut and Saltwork science of mineralogy and geognosy. First volume A to F, second completely revised edition, Bernhard Friedrich Voigt bookstore, Weimar 1859.
  5. Georg Schreiber: The mining in history, ethos and sacral culture. Springer Fachmedien GmbH, Wiesbaden 1962, ISBN 978-3-663-00242-0 , p. 397.
  6. ^ Adolf Arndt, Kuno Frankenstein (ed.): Handbook and textbook of political science in independent volumes. First Department of Economics XI. Volume, Mining and Mining Policy , Verlag von CL Hirschfeld, Leipzig 1894, pp. 32–37.
  7. Friedrich August Schmid (Ed.): German mine conditions, a characteristic of the mining constitution of Germany with reference to its deficiencies and their needs. In Commission der Kori'schen Buchhandlung, Dresden 1848, pp. 132–154.
  8. a b Swen Rinmann: General mining dictionary . First part, Fr. Chr. W. Vogel, Leipzig 1808.
  9. a b Christian Heinrich Gottlieb Hake: Commentary on mining law with constant consideration of the most noble mining regulations, combined with the technology necessary for the lawyer. Kommerzienrath JE von Seidel art and bookshop, Sulzbach im Regenkkreis Baierns 1823, pp. 74–80.
  10. a b Guide to miners and smelters through Upper Silesia. A manual for educated travelers of all kinds as well as for self-study, initially for miners and smelters, especially in the iron and steel trade, but then also for technologists, cameramen, state economists and friends of industry; First part, in the Hande and Spenerschen Buchhandlung GJ Joseephy, Berlin 1828, pp. 1-4.
  11. ^ Ministry for trade, industry and public works (ed.): Journal for the mountain, smelting and saltworks in the Prussian state. Publishing house of the royal and secret Ober-Hofdruckerei R. Decker, Berlin 1858, pp. 1–8.
  12. a b Rudolph Manger (ed.): The Austrian mining law according to the general mining law for the Austrian Empire of May 23, 1854. Verlag der kk Hof-Buch- und Kunsthandlung FA Credner, Prague 1857, pp. 20-23.
  13. Legislation and administration. In: Glückauf, Berg- und Hüttenmännische magazine. Association for Mining Interests in the Upper Mining District Dortmund (ed.), No. 17, 49th year, April 26, 1913, p. 674.
  14. a b C. Heusler: Description of the Brühl-Unkel mining area and the lignite basin on the Lower Rhine. In Adolph Marcus, Bonn 1897, p. 1.
  15. ^ A b Wilhelm Dunker: Description of the Coblenz II mountain area. With Adolph Marcus, Bonn 1884, p. 1.
  16. ^ Wilhelm Riemann: Description of the Wetzlar mountain district. In Adolph Marcus, Bonn 1878, pp. 86-88.
  17. ^ Otfried Wagenbreth, Eberhard Wächtler (ed.): The Freiberg mining industry. VEB Deutscher Verlag für Grundstofftindustrie Leipzig 1986, p. 363.
  18. ^ Ernst Jüngst: The mine production of the Lower Rhine-Westphalian mining district in 1912. In: Glückauf, Berg- und Hüttenmännische Zeitschrift. Association for Mining Interests in the Oberbergamtsiertel Dortmund (Ed.), No. 17, 49th year, April 26, 1913, pp. 660–668.