Route (mining)

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A route is a pit that runs almost at the bottom or with a slight incline and has a regular, fairly constant cross-section. In contrast to the tunnels , routes do not have their own daytime opening , but rather open into a shaft or start from another mine. Routes are created either in the deposit itself or in the adjacent rock. The totality of all on a base or platform oriented routes is the main route network called.


Routes can be differentiated according to their course in relation to the deposit . Basically, a distinction is made between stroking, floating, diagonal and cross-cutting routes. Stroking stretches follow sweeping and floating stretches follow falling up. The continuation of a traversing distance is referred to as deflection or extension. Stretches driven between falling and brushing are known as diagonal stretches or diagonals. Crosscuts, also known as crosscuts , run at an angle (usually 90 °) to the strike of the deposit. The straightening sections run approximately at right angles to the main crosscut and parallel to the strike of the deposit; they serve to align the deposit. A section that runs in the surface of the deposit is called a surface section, a section that runs in the hanging wall is called a hanging section.


Conveyor line ( Kilianstollen ) of the Oskar copper ore mine in Marsberg

Routes are used for weather management , driving , extraction and transport. After use to transport lines, different basic routes , mining routes , Airways , water or swamp routes and first routes. Conveyor lines are mainly used for conveying, in the case of rope conveyance they are called rope conveyor lines. The deepest trending stretch is called the base stretch. This stretch is excavated with artificial dewatering for the purpose of opening up a field. Mining routes are routes that are excavated and used for the purpose of mining the deposit. Weather routes are used for evacuating the moving weather. Swamp sections are used as a collection section for the mine water . Ridge stretches are stretches that are driven as a second stretch over the basic stretch when building the ridge . Routes of particular importance are marked with the addition "main", so there are main conveyor routes and main weather routes. In the case of some storage facilities, especially when stored flat , it is necessary to align partial levels between the main levels ; the stretches on these partial levels are referred to as partial level routes. They serve to divide the deposit into suitable construction sections and thereby enable a larger number of points of attack for the mining. In order to examine a part of the field, individual stretches are first driven into the field part, these stretches are called investigation stretches.


Sloping routes

Stretches that are driven when the deposit is collapsing in order to connect two levels with each other are called, depending on the direction of the drive, knocking over or hitting (in the case of flat storage) or cutting off. Chopping are floating - from bottom to top - opened, cutting off falling . More steeply sloping stretches (more than 17%) are called mountains . Exceeds the incidence 50 Gon , one speaks of over sculpting or dies . Routes by which the deposit is divided into vertical sections are referred to as bottom line or gezeugsilege.

Name and intended use

In mining, inclined stretches are named according to their intended use.

  • Sloping stretches that are only used to guide the weather are called weather mountains.
  • Sloping stretches with a gradient of 50 gon to 84 gon are called inclined shafts or tonnage shafts.
  • Sloping stretches that can be traveled by trackless vehicles (e.g. trucks) are called ramps.
  • Inclined routes that are spiral ascended and furnished for trackless promotion, are spiral path called.
  • Inclined stretches that are only used for product conveyance and are equipped with a conveyor system are called conveyor mountains.
  • Inclined stretches in which the transport is carried out with the help of a so-called brake reel are called Bremsberg .

Daily routes

Daily routes, also called daily routes, are routes that are driven from above ground into the mine building. These routes were often set in the transverse valleys of a mountain range. The difference to the tunnel is only slight and is mainly in the direction of the approach. In contrast to the tunnel, a day's route with an incline towards the surface can be driven so that the water drains into the mine building . Daily routes are used for conveyance and driving.

Historical and regional names

Stretches that were driven out of a tunnel were called tunnel routes. Basic routes, d. H. In ore mining, routes that run at the level of the bottom were also referred to as field or gezeug routes or runs. Depending on the mining area, these names are still common today.

A route in the mining that serves to extract the mineral is called a location.


  • Heise-Herbst / Fritzsche: Mining Studies, Vol . 1 . 1st edition, Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1942
  • Horst Roschlau, Wolfram Heinze: Knowledge storage mining technology. Leipzig 1974

Individual evidence

  1. ^ A b c d Walter Bischoff , Heinz Bramann, Westfälische Berggewerkschaftskasse Bochum: The small mining encyclopedia. 7th edition, Verlag Glückauf GmbH, Essen 1988, ISBN 3-7739-0501-7 .
  2. Explanatory dictionary of the technical terms and foreign words that occur in mining in metallurgy and in salt works and technical articulations that occur in salt works. Falkenberg'schen Buchhandlung publishing house, Burgsteinfurt 1869.
  3. ^ Carl Hellmut Fritzsche: Textbook of mining science. Second volume, 10th edition, Springer Verlag, Berlin / Göttingen / Heidelberg 1962.
  4. ^ A b Gustav Köhler: Textbook of mining history. 2nd edition, published by Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig 1887.
  5. Carl von Scheuchenstuel : IDIOTICON the Austrian mining and metallurgy language. kk court bookseller Wilhelm Braumüller, Vienna 1856.
  6. a b c d e Heinrich Veith: German mountain dictionary with documents. Published by Wilhelm Gottlieb Korn, Breslau 1871.
  7. Fritz Heise, Fritz Herbst: Textbook of mining science with special consideration of hard coal mining. First volume, published by Julius Springer, Berlin 1908.
  8. ^ Emil Stöhr: Basics of mining science including processing . Ed .: E. Treptow. 2nd Edition. Spielhagen & Schurich, Vienna 1892, Chapter IV. The mine works., P. 100 .
  9. ^ Wilhelm Leo: Textbook of mining science. Printed and published by G Basse, Quedlinburg 1861.