|type of school||high school|
|place||Hamburg - Othmarschen|
|Coordinates||53 ° 33 '28 " N , 9 ° 52' 24" E|
The Christianeum , founded in Altona in 1738 , is a state high school in Hamburg-Othmarschen . It is named after the Danish King Christian VI since 1744 . Named (1699-1746), who in personal union also Duke of Holstein was and ruler of the city Altona.
The grammar school has retained its old-language profile, which has been supplemented by the equivalent natural sciences since the beginning of the 20th century . In addition, the school today is characterized by artistic focus, especially in choir work. Since 1971 the Christianeum has been located in a building specially designed for the school by the Danish architect Arne Jacobsen .
The Christianeum has a high school library with around 27,000 items, including valuable historical holdings.
In 1683 a first school was founded by the city authorities in the sovereign Danish Holstein city of Altona, today a district of Hamburg , "too much of the city in such a remote and remote place" , as its rector, Daniel Hartnac (or: Harnack) , according to tradition; it was closed again in 1689. Ideas for a new school in 1708 were initially not pursued any further. After Altona was cremated by the Swedes (1713) and a plague epidemic, the city had other concerns than education. Donations - mainly from Denmark - began in 1721 under Christian Detlev von Reventlow , the city's mayor, with the construction of a school building on Schulstrasse (today: no longer existent extension of Hoheschulstrasse to the north) above the Altona fish market ; Responsible was the Altona town builder Claus Stallknecht . The Friedrichschule, named after King Frederik IV , started operations in 1725.
Gymnasium Academicum in the 18th century
The expansion of the school into a higher education institution was decisively promoted by the successor of Reventlows, the Oberpräsident Bernhard Leopold Volkmar von Schomburg . 1738 was by rescript of King Christian VI. the Friedrichschule upgraded to a Gymnasium Academicum , which was named Christianeum in a letter of foundation of May 11, 1744 and was officially inaugurated on May 26, 1744. The king gave the school its own seal , which showed little plants on a hill under a bright sun, framed by the motto SUPERNIS ALIMUR VIRIBUS ( From above comes the strength that sustains us ) and the legend SIGILLUM GYMNASII ACADEMICI ALTONENSIS .
According to the plan published in 1740, the structure of the school provided for a combination of three institutions: a preparatory school for boys willing to study under the supervision of the director, in which Latin was taught in addition to writing, arithmetic and the catechism , a pedagogy from the age of 12 with course instruction, etc. a. also in history, geography, mathematics and Greek rhetoric, and a Gymnasium Academicum with lectures on theology and philosophy as well as law and medicine. After the death of Christian VI. in 1746 the academic high school received a reorganization in its separation from the pedagogy; he was assigned five professors who took turns in the directorate every year.
Supervisor supervisors were the gymnasiarch , an ancient school inspectors reinvented body composed of the Provincial President to Altona and the provost as the real gymnasiarch and the Mayor and the General Counsel consisted of the city as assessors, which were the first two decisive people. The first Collegium Gymnasiarchale consisted of President Bernhard Leopold Volkmar von Schomburg , Provost and Chief Pastor Johann Bolten , Mayor Jochim Hinrich Joensen and Syndic Johann Joachim Behn. This high school college supervised not only the administration but also the teaching of the school. It existed until the transition to the Prussian administration in 1867.
The foundation letter of 1744 had granted the jurisdictio civilis et ecclesiastica to be exercised by the college of professors and grammar school students, teachers, staff and their families. The criminal jurisdiction over school members remained with the city magistrate, which however required the approval of the college of professors. The college also had the right to censor books and writings published in Altona. In the course of the reforms introduced in Denmark by Johann Friedrich Struensee from 1770, the censorship authority and certain privileges of professors, such as the exemption from taxes, fell away.
At the request of the king, the institution was to be expanded into a university in his Holstein territory. With the Gottorp inheritance contract in 1773 and the associated incorporation of the University of Kiel into Danish rulership, the grammar school lost its prominent position as the most important Danish educational institution on Holstein territory. From 1773 onwards the Paedagogium and Gymnasium Academicum were combined into a Gymnasium with the classes Tertia , Secunda , Prima and a university Selecta ; the preparatory school continued. The change of directorate was now irregular, from 1794 the management became permanent.
New orders in the 19th century
As early as 1778, in the tolerant Altona, which not only allowed freedom of trade and residence but also freedom of religion, more and more pupils from Jewish families, such as Salomon Maimon and Salomon Ludwig Steinheim , attended this educational establishment; by 1815 there were over 100. Since King Frederik VI. stood on Bonaparte's side, the Napoleonic Wars also reached the city of Altona. In 1814 the Christianeum became quarters for a company of Russian Cossacks summoned by Denmark to support . From 1817, Danish was a compulsory subject, which, however, aroused resistance from students who were inspired by national feelings that accompanied the Wars of Liberation . Ludolf Wienbarg , one of the great poets of Young Germany , was one of them, as was Matthäus Chemnitz , the author of the Schleswig-Holstein song . In the "Altona Scientific Priman Club Klio" founded in 1828, at least the discourse was revolutionary; from 1834 the students Theodor and Tycho Mommsen belonged to the association with their brother August .
The reorganization from 1844 onwards took the Christianeum from its special position among the higher schools in Schleswig-Holstein: it lost its university “Selecta”, and the task of the grammar school was now to prepare for university. From 1853 there was an Abitur examination . Until 1937 the school was considered the most important grammar school in Schleswig-Holstein.
In August 1866, two years after the German-Danish War and as a direct consequence of the Peace of Prague , which ended the Prussian-Austrian War , the Christianeum - like Altona and Holstein as a whole - became Prussian. As the number of pupils grew, parts of the old school complex were torn down and replaced by Wilhelmine brick buildings. In 1909 , Friedrich Paulsen took the slogan In Fine Laus (Latin: “at the end of the praise”) chiseled on the gate of the old Christianeum building from 1721 as an opportunity to summarize his rather mixed Christian days in his childhood memories .
Alignments in the 20th century
Since the end of the 19th century, the modern natural sciences, which were established in the first generation of researchers at universities, challenged classical philology at the Christianeum as well. With a new natural science "branch", the grammar school was expanded to include an officially recognized secondary school in 1909 , which existed until 1959.
After the First World War , the school recorded falling student numbers and, as a result, an increasingly smaller teaching staff. In addition to new forms of teaching, in addition to striving for a tolerant relationship between teachers and students, there was also the idea of class trips ; In 1925 a Prima traveled to Puan Klent on Sylt for the first time , since then, with only a few interruptions, a regular destination for annual class trips, today the lower school .
In October 1933, the National Socialist city administration replaced Robert Grosse, who had been director of the Christianeum for a year . Retirements after 1934 reduced the previous staff. The number of students at the grammar school increased and new teaching staff was added. In 1936 the school received a new building in the west of Altona. As a result of the Greater Hamburg Law , Altona became a city in the State of Hamburg from April 1937 and lost its communal independence twelve months later. The independent director, who has been in office since 1934, the theologian Dr. Lau, joined the NSDAP under pressure from party headquarters in 1937 ; In 1942 he was dismissed from his office as unreliable on the basis of statements by informers. On March 31, 1945 the institution was closed. A later balance recorded 192 war deaths in the Christianeum.
The post-war period was initially characterized by teaching in shifts with other schools whose buildings had been destroyed and which were gradually able to move into their own rooms again over the course of the 1950s. After the last trainee students left the building in 1960, the following years at the Christianeum were determined on the one hand by enjoying the fact of having the rooms to themselves again and on the other hand by dedicating themselves to the upcoming, due reorganization of the school system. In 1965, co-education gave the Christianeum its first female students and the first female teacher to supervise a mixed class. In 1969, the institute against resistance introduced two North German innovations: the student counseling of the 10th grade at certificate conferences and the optional subject Russian , which since then can be taken as a compulsory third foreign language as an alternative to Greek in addition to Latin and English .
Today at the Christianeum you can do your Abitur in the foreign languages Latin , English, Greek or (since 1969) Russian; the language sequence begins with Latin and English in the fifth grade. The subject Chinese (possible from the 7th grade), which has been offered at the Christianeum since 1985, as well as Spanish and French can also be selected from the 10th grade. The natural sciences and mathematics, like the arts, have asserted their position alongside languages; German lessons promote literature lessons in the lower and middle grades , which determine the courses in the upper grades. A model was developed for the high-level sports courses to enable course participants to teach and train sports and, for example, to accompany the intermediate level ski trips as an assistant teacher. Learning and meeting places outside the institution are part of school life.
After the first building on Schulstrasse itself no longer met the requirements with the Wilhelmine expansion, the Christianeum got a large, Bauhaus-inspired new building in Othmarschen on Behringstrasse (at the time: Roonstrasse). This building was planned and started in 1930/31 as a college for teacher training , but its shell was initially closed due to the economic crisis ; 1934-1936 it was completed for the Christianeum. The new school building survived the bombardment of Hamburg in 1943 and subsequent attacks with only minor damage. From May to October 1945 it was the seat of the English military command.
In 1971, the building in Roonstrasse had to give way to the construction of the new Elbe tunnel on the A 7 (1968–1975). The first gate from 1721, after its old 18th century walls had been torn down after the school had moved in 1936, was attached to the side wall of the main wing on Behringstrasse and was now in its third location when the school moved again in 1971. The two side wings on Schulstrasse that had remained and had been expanded since the 1930s, along with their Wilhelmine extension, were destroyed in the bombing of Hamburg in 1943.
Since 1971, the institution on Otto-Ernst-Straße (Othmarschen) has been housed in a functionalist new building, which was built according to plans by Arne Jacobsen (1902–1971) and, due to the contracts with the heirs of the Danish architect, structurally not over the dated Author of the design intended building flexibility may be changed. The concept, however, envisaged the changeability of the interior spaces, since external beams support the building and therefore load-bearing walls are not necessary with a few exceptions. The dissolution of the outer walls in glazing also allows a view of the outside in almost all corridors. The girder construction gives the building a distinctive external aesthetic, which is still controversial today.
In 1977 Hark Bohm shot a few sequences of his film “ Moritz, dear Moritz ” in the interior of the Christianeum. Since 2004, the study of the writer Otto Ernst was housed in one room , which the school had inherited from his daughter Senta-Regina Möller-Ernst. In the same year, the large kneeling figure by the sculptor Barbara Haeger was placed in the courtyard . In 2018 the restored Otto Ernst Zimmer was removed from the school building and its components were outsourced; the further use of the room is so far unknown.
In 1972, the year the new Christianeum building was inaugurated, the statutory regulation for a reform of the upper school came into force. Since then, the Christianeum had increasingly the structure of a study stage developed and set up, the students not only each (the requirements of the KMK corresponding (KMK)) advanced course allowed -combination but to them through a rich and differentiated basic courses and the design of a personal learning - and work profile enabled. The focus on languages and the natural sciences was supplemented by the pronounced area of the arts subjects and, since the late 1990s, by profiling the history and social sciences, reinforced by the introduction of courses on business practice . The school has been the venue for the Hamburg State Round of the Mathematics Olympiad since 1992 and was the venue for the federal round of the nationwide Physics Secondary Level I competition in 2003 and 2004 .
The number of pupils has increased steadily since the mid-1990s. In 2006, the institution had the highest number of registrations of the Hamburg high schools; that year seven 5th grades were established. In the meantime, around 1,100 pupils visit the Christianeum, taught by a staff of around 90 teachers. In 2008, the reduction in school time to 12 years, the so-called G8 reform , introduced in various federal states, came into effect with the merging of two years to form a joint upper level. At the beginning of the school year in August 2009, the so-called upper level profile was introduced.
International school institutions
The student exchange with the 506th school in Saint Petersburg was established in 1990 and replaced the project trips for advanced Russian courses to the Soviet Union that had long been undertaken every two years . With the cities of Chicago and Shanghai , mutual visits by students and teachers have also taken place regularly since 1998 and 2000. Every two years, the upper level of the Christianeum goes with their teachers in groups on one to two-week project trips to various locations in Europe; the programs of the trips are carried out and verified by the cooperation of the students.
Culture at the Christianeum
The Christianeum is known for its school choirs , of which the A-choir of the 8th to 12th grades, led by Timo Sauerwein (until 2008 by Dietmar Schünicke , from 2008 to 2010 by Michael Jan Haase, director of the lower school choirs ), the largest student choir Germany is. The brass band , which, like the choirs, performs internationally with jazz, latin, rock and pop in its repertoire, is Hamburg's largest youth wind orchestra; it emerged in 1975 from a wind orchestra founded in 1962, which had mainly played the works of old masters. The rehearsals for the concerts, which lasted several days, take place in a country school outside Hamburg and have become an integral part of school life as choir and orchestra tours that take place twice a year since the 1980s.
The literary café (abbreviated: LitCaf ) has developed since 1994 into a place for musical performances that is well known beyond the school community. In addition to a wide range of performances resulting from work in classes and courses, readings by well-known German and international authors such as David Chotjewitz , Ulla Hahn or Anita Lasker-Wallfisch take place here ; politicians such as Ole von Beust appear in the regular PoLitCaf .
The fine arts at the Christianeum regularly gathers the talents in advanced courses (since 2009: profile courses ) of the upper level and takes part in exhibitions of various Hamburg institutions beyond school life. Performances of the performing game have won awards; the actor Michael Maertens and Isabella Vértes-Schütter , director of the Hamburg Ernst Deutsch Theater , were, for example, students at the Christianeum.
Through the estate of the Altona theologian Johann Otto Glüsing , the Friedrichschule had already received an important book inventory in 1727, which in 1738 passed into the possession of the newly founded Gymnasium Academicum . The Christianeum's first librarian, Georg Matern de Cilano , served from 1743 until his death in 1773. The prospect of becoming a university brought the institute further book collections in the 18th century, the most important of which was the Donum Kohlianum in 1768 , the exquisite library of the Hamburg scholar Johann Peter Kohl , which contained not only important early prints but also medieval manuscripts, including two codices : the Codex Altonensis , an illuminated Italian manuscript by Dante's Commedia from the 14th century, and the Codex Christianei , Boccaccios Il Filostrato ; Both manuscripts are considered important evidence of the history of their texts in research. Through a donation initiated by Heinrich Christian Schumacher from the Danish King Friedrich VI. The library came into the possession of the rare Flora Danica . In 1808 the Christianeum acquired the incunabula collection of the Altona pastor Johann Adrian Bolten . In the 19th century, the library continued to be enriched by endowments and bequests, from the 1850s onwards in a systematic listing by director and librarian MJF Lucht . The library has had a complete collection of Prussian school programs since the 1820s, some of which have been cataloged.
Since the collection was also a public Altona city library in the 18th and early 19th centuries, it was enabled to make purchases through legacies from citizens and donations from the city, and in 1817 already had 10,000 volumes; By 1891 the inventory had grown to 29,000 volumes and in 1938 it was estimated at a good 30,000 volumes. In 1945/46 an estimated 10,000 volumes (sometimes 14,000 were also mentioned) were given to the bombed Hamburg State and University Library . A census carried out in the course of the modern title recording after 1972 indicated a good 20,000 volumes in the historical grammar school library in 1980 . Between 2005 and 2009, in cooperation with the State and University Library, the former Christianeum holdings , especially those of its incunabula and the Donum Kohlianum , were reconstructed.
Since the move to the current school building in 1971, the teachers' library (including the historical collection) has been a scientific reference library with a total of around 30,000 volumes, available to the teaching staff as well as to external users . In addition to the teachers' library , the Christianeum also had other book collections: an upper-level library, also a reference library with workstations, and a school library , which mainly held literature for young people, but also other literary works and non-fiction, which students could borrow free of charge . The natural sciences and the visual arts also had their own scientific specialist libraries for teachers. After the construction of new library rooms as part of a building renovation from 2014, these holdings were integrated with the teachers' library to create a new school library called Bibliotheca Christianei , which opened on January 16, 2017. The existing teaching material collection with its stock of textbooks for the hand of the students is administered separately.
Well-known students and teachers
Well-known students past and present
Pupils who have become known in the past (sorted by year of birth):
- Ernst Georg Sonnin (1713–1794), student at the Friedrichschule , architect and engineer
- Jacob Georg Christian Adler (1756–1834), pupil 1774–1775, orientalist and general superintendent
- Johann Carl Julius Herzbruch (1779–1866), student 1797–1800, orientalist and general superintendent, successor to Jacob Georg Christian Adler
- Heinrich Wilhelm von Gerstenberg (1737–1823), pupil 1754–1757, writer
- Johann Adrian Bolten (1742–1807), student 1759–1760, chronicler and theologian
- Salomon Maimon (1753–1800), pupil 1783–1785, philosopher and Jewish enlightenment
- Heinrich Christian Schumacher (1780–1850), pupil 1794–1799, astronomer
- Salomon Ludwig Steinheim (1789–1866), pupil 1804–1807, Jewish physician, religious philosopher and scholar
- Ludolf Wienbarg (1802–1872), pupil 1820–1822, writer from Vormärz
- Matthäus Chemnitz (1815–1870), pupil 1832–1835, song poet
- Ludwig Walesrode (1810–1889), pupil 1830–1832, writer
- Caspar Kirchhoffer (1812–1885), pupil 1831–1832, Altona doctor and author
- Theodor Mommsen (1817–1903), pupil 1835–1838, historian and ancient scholar
- Tycho Mommsen (1819–1900), pupil 1835–1838, classical philologist and high school director
- Johannes Versmann (1820–1899), pupil 1831–1839, Hamburg mayor
- August Mommsen (1821–1913), pupil 1837–1841, historian and teacher
- Heinrich Handelmann (1827–1891), pupil 1841–1847, historian
- Friedrich Paulsen (1846–1908), pupil 1863–1866, educator and philosopher
- Gustav Adolf Neuber (1850–1932), Abitur 1870, medical doctor
- Alfred Lichtwark (1852–1914), graduated from high school in 1873, art historian
- Friedrich von Willemoes-Suhm (1853–1920), portrait painter
- Robert Koldewey (1855–1925), graduated from high school in 1875, archaeologist
- Peter Behrens (1868–1940), student 1877–1882, architect
- Siegfried Heckscher (1870–1929), Abitur 1892, lawyer and member of the Reichstag
- Hans Ehrenberg (1883–1958), student 1898–1900, philosopher and theologian
- Hermann Weyl (1885–1955), Abitur 1904, mathematician
Famous in public life in the recent past and present (in alphabetical order):
- Jakob Augstein (* 1967), journalist and publisher
- Dietmar Bittrich (* 1958), writer
- Lars Clausen (1935–2010), Abitur 1955, sociologist
- Thomas Collien Abitur 1985, director of the St. Pauli Theater
- Ernst Dammann (1904–2003), Africanist and historian of religion
- Uwe Deeken (1941–2018), theater founder and theater director
- Alexander Deichsel (* 1935), Abitur 1955, sociologist
- Klara Deutschmann (* 1989), Abitur 2008, actress
- Marthe Lola Deutschmann (* 1991), Abitur 2010, actress
- Jörg Dräger (* 1968), Abitur 1987, politician and manager
- Alexander Fest (* 1960), publisher
- Carlheinz Hollmann (1930-2004), television presenter
- Christiane Iven (* 1965), Abitur 1984, singer
- Jens Johler (* 1944), writer
- Michaela Kaune (* 1968), soprano
- Klaus-Peter Kirchrath (* 1927), Abitur 1947, football coach
- Henriette Kuhrt (* 1977), Abitur 1998, author
- Daniel Lommatzsch (* 1977), Abitur 1996, actor
- Michael Maertens (* 1963), actor
- Wilhelm Melcher (1940–2005), Abitur 1959, violinist and first violinist of the Melos Quartet
- Karl-Ulrich Meyn (* 1939), Abitur 1959, university rector
- Dirk Mierau (* 1964), Abitur 1985, actor
- Otto Ohlsen (1916–2005), director of the DRK tracing service
- Sven Papcke (* 1939), sociologist
- Bettina Röhl (* 1962), Abitur 1982, journalist and author
- Christine Roll (* 1960), historian
- Martin Rothkegel (* 1969), theologian and historian
- Johann Scheerer (* 1982), musician and music producer
- Eberhard Schuett-Wetschky , (1937–2015), Abitur 1956, political scientist
- Armin Steinbach (* 1978), Abitur 1998, legal scholar and economist
- Luisa Taraz (* 1978), high school graduation 1998, actress
- Christian Thieme (* 1972), Abitur 1993, lawyer and politician, Lord Mayor of Zeitz
- Isabella Vértes-Schütter (* 1962), theater director
Known teachers (sorted by year of birth):
- Johann Adam Flessa (1694–1775), director 1741–1749, clergyman
- Georg Matern de Cilano (1696–1773), professor of physics, medicine and antiquity; librarian
- Johann Christoph Sticht (1705–1772), theologian and orientalist
- Georg August Detharding (1717–1786) as professor of law and history
- Elias Caspar Reichard (1714–1791) as professor of eloquence
- Johann Jakob Dusch (1725–1787) from 1757; Director from 1766
- Jacob Struve (1755–1841), (first student, then director of the institute), mathematician
- Johann Bernhard Basedow (1761–1771), theologian, educator and writer
- Martin Ehlers (1732–1800), 1771–1776 as teacher and rector
- Friedrich Konrad Lange (1738–1791), 1771–1776 as teacher and rector
- Ernst Christian Trapp (1745–1818), 1776–1777 for one year as sub-rector
- Marx Johannes Friedrich Lucht (1804–1891), director from 1853 to 1882
- Robert Grosse (1880–1968), ancient historian and high school teacher; Director 1932–1933
- Dietmar Schünicke (* 1944), choirmaster
- Reiner Schmitz (* 1947), Hamburg school authority
The history of the school is almost completely documented in the archives. Between 1738 and 1816 the school's printed matter, such as the curricula, events, reports and treatises, was collected as the Opuscula Professorum and periodically bound. Then annual reports, later known under the title School Programs, were written on teaching and school life. Since the setting of this mandatory in Prussia programs in the 1920s, the chronicle of the school since 1925 (under its biannual) in the publications of the school association, Christianeum (everyday Christianeumsheft called), held and is updated there. In addition to this printed matter, which has been completely preserved, the school has an archive whose holdings go back to its founding in 1738 and which is recorded in a find book up to the beginning of the 20th century ; a historically complete and updated list of teachers contains the school data as well as bibliographical references to these supplementary publications.
The sources in detail:
- Archive of the Christianeum
- Opuscula Nonnulla Professorum Christianei , 13 vols, 1738-1816. [The volumes contain all the printed publications relating to the school, its teaching and events;] Vol.1: 1738–1742; Vol.2: Decennii I 1742-1745; Vol.3: Dec. I 1746-1750; Vol.4: Dec. II 1751-1757; Vol.5: Dec. II 1758-1760; Vol. 6: Dec. III 1761-1765; Vol.7: Dec. III 1766-1771; Vol.8: Varia 1741-1758; Vol.9: Varia 1759-1766; Vol.10-12: Opuscula Collecta Professorum, 1761-1791, 1787-1801, 1767-1801; Vol.13: Indices lectorem 1774-1816.
- To the public examination of the students of the Royal Christianeum on ... as well as to the farewell speeches of the primary school students who are going to the university, an Altona, 1840–1868 ( digital copy )
- Report on the Royal Christianeum: in the school year from Easter ... to Easter ... Altona, 1870–1882 ( digitized version )
- Program of the Royal Christianeums to Altona: by which layoff graduates invites respectfully to the celebration of the birthday of His Majesty the Emperor and King and the related ... . Altona, 1883–1887 ( digitized version )
- Overview of the history of the Royal Christianeum in Altona: Festschrift to celebrate the 150th anniversary of the institution . Meyer, Altona 1888 ( digitized version )
- Annual report of the Royal Christianeum in Altona: at Easter… Altona, 1888–1905 ( digitized version )
- Christianeumshefte (since 1925)
- The register of the Christianeum in Altona 1738–1850 . Edited by Bernd Elsner. Contributions to the history of Hamburg . Published by the Association for Hamburg History Volume 54, Hamburg 1998
- Klaus Grundt: Sources on the buildings of the Christianeum. I, II. Hamburg 2006 (source collection, review )
Summaries of the documents on school history have appeared irregularly since the end of the 18th century, in detail, especially on the occasion of school anniversaries. The last more extensive account to date was published in the commemorative publication for the 250th school anniversary in 1988, including the only preparation of the sources from the time of National Socialism and the Second World War . The following four decades recorded there in outline were partially edited in the same publication in a 90-page lexicon relating to the present in individual key words; an overall presentation of the Federal Republican history of the institution summarizing the available sources does not yet exist.
in chronological order:
- History of the Altona High School and the associated education . First and second division from JHC Eggers . Altona 1834.
- Overview of the history of the Royal Christianeum in Altona . Festschrift to celebrate the 150th anniversary of the institution, by Director Georg Heß. Altona 1888.
- Paul Th. Hoffmann: Neues Altona 1919–1929. Ten years of building a major German city. 2 vol., Jena 1929 (E.Diederichs) In particular the chapter Das Christianeum (Gymnasium) , Volume 2, pp. 119-134 (The Altona city archivist still had access to files in the Altona town hall that were later destroyed.)
- Hermann Lau: 200 years of the Christianeum . In: 200 years of the Christianeum in Altona. 1738-1938 . Edited by Heinz Schröder. Hamburg 1938; Pp. 13-66.
- 225 years of the Christianeum . Bulletin of the Association of Friends of the Christianeum in connection with the Association of Former Christianeers. Volume 19, Issue 2, Sept. 1963. Hamburg, 1963. (In addition to a chronicle by Hans Haupt and an article on the foundation of the Christianeum by Hermann Lau, it also contains the two only official memories of a teacher about the Christianeum during the war in 1939 45 by Walther Gabe and of the post-war period: memories of the first years after the last war by the same)
- Ulf Andersen: 250 years of the Christianeum . In: 250 Years of the Christianeum 1738–1988 . Festschrift. Edited by Ulf Andersen on behalf of the Association of Friends of the Christianeum. Hamburg 1988; Pp. 13-25. (In it also by the same author and editor the description about The Christianeum during the Third Reich , pp. 126–159)
- Bernd Elsner: The history of the Christianeum in Altona . In: Gudrun Wolfschmidt (Ed.): Hamburg's history with a difference. Development of the natural sciences, medicine and technology, part 2 . ( Nuncius Hamburgensis. Contributions to the History of Natural Sciences ) Universität Hamburg 2009; Pp. 29–52 ( books.google )
- Britta Scholz: The Christianeum in Altona 1730–1773. University concept of King Christian VI . Norderstedt 2008. ( online at Google books )
- Literature on the keyword Christianeum in the catalog of the German National Library
- Homepage of the Christianeum , with teachers' library and archive
- Teachers' library of the Christianeum high school . In: Bernhard Fabian (Hrsg.): Handbook of the historical book collections in Germany, Austria and Europe (accessed on August 28, 2012)
- Ulf Andersen (headmaster 1978-2005) on “Walter and Ludwig Lichtheim. The fate of two Jewish students at the Christianeum during the Nazi era "
- ↑ school management. In: www.christianeum.org. Retrieved April 5, 2020 .
- ↑ Quoted from: Andersen, 250 Jahre Christianeum , p. 13; WC Praetorius reports on Hartnac's bad performances , which apparently also included cheating , in his Oddities of the City of Altona according to chronological order (Altona 1780, p. 182) with reference to Molleri Cimbr. Litterat. Tom. 2 p. 298.seqq.
- ↑ Andersen (1988) p. 13 f.
- ↑ See z. B. the draft of the ordinary spring visitation in the Königl. academischen Christianeo […] , in Opuscula , Vol. 3, Altona 1746; Library of the Christianeum.
- ↑ See Eggers (1834) p. 19 ff.
- ↑ The Directors of the Christianeum (Archive of the Christianeum)
- ^ Karl Wendling: The Gymnasiarchen . In: 200 years of the Christianeum in Altona 1738–1938 . Hamburg, 1938; P. 279.
- ^ Niels Hansen: 100 years of Altona scientific primacy club clio. 1828-1928 , Hammerich% Lesser; on this, a review by Alex Heskel in the journal of the Association for Hamburg History XXI (1930) 275, pdf
- ↑ Among other things, the teaching staff in the 19th century and (can be seen from surviving personnel sheets) until the first third of the 20th century were only provided by the employer with teachers and professors who had earned their merit in teaching and science; see also z. B. Andersen (1988), p. 23.
- ↑ Friedrich Paulsen: From my life. Childhood memories . Jena: Diederichs 1909; Pp. 114-138.
- ↑ Andersen (1988) p. 23.
- ^ Uwe Schmidt: National Socialist School Administration in Hamburg . Hamburg Historical Research Volume 2. Hamburg 2008 ( PDF p. 79f. )
- ↑ See Ulf Andersen: The Christianeum during the Third Reich . In: 250 Years of the Christianeum 1738–1988 . Hamburg, 1988, pp. 126-159; the history of the institution during the National Socialist rule is described here for the first time and so far also once based on the files from the archive of the Christianeum and the Hamburg State Archive.
- ↑ Andersen (1988) p. 159.
- ^ History of the Christianeum, July 1, 1960
- ↑ Andersen (1988) p. 24.
- ↑ For copyright reasons, this building cannot be shown here. Ill. In: Gudrun Wolfschmidt (Ed.): Hamburgs Geschichte once different (2009), p. 50.
- ↑ Planning at any cost. A school and a park should give way to traffic . In: DIE ZEIT, October 2, 1964 (accessed November 15, 2011)
- ↑ See Grundt (2006)
- ↑ Conservation and restoration of Otto Ernst's study
- ↑ Matthias Schmoock: The farce about the poet's legacy in the Christianeum , abendblatt.de, February 27, 2018, accessed on June 15, 2018
- ↑ Finished earlier . In: DER SPIEGEL , 8/2008, pp. 130-137 ( online , accessed on December 4, 2010)
- ↑ Scrinia selecta - Dante: Comedia (accessed on August 10, 2012)
- ↑ Scrinia selecta - Boccaccio: Il Filostrato (accessed on August 10, 2012)
- ↑ Zentralblatt für Bibliothekswesen 14 (1897), p. 518.
- ↑ Hans Rothkegel: On the history of the library . In: Ulf Andersen (ed.): Treasures of the library . Hamburg 1988, pp. 7-13; ders .: On the inventory history of the teacher's library (accessed on November 2, 2011)
- ↑ Felicitas Noeske: 60 years disappeared (accessed on September 9, 2013)
- ↑ Examples from the Christianeum library see also: Calendar 2013 ( Memento from May 3, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ Felicitas Noeske: Suchkinder . In: Christianeum 2/2005; online: search children. For the reconstruction of the Donum Kohlianum
- ^ Homepage of the Christianeum: Bibliotheca Christianei
- ↑ Focus online (dpa): Newly opened historical library of the Hamburg Christianeum . (Accessed January 16, 2017)