Knitted fabrics or knitted fabrics , also known as knitted fabrics , are textile fabrics produced industrially from thread systems by stitch formation on a knitting machine . They belong to the knitwear category . A distinction is made between weft knitted fabrics and warp knitted fabrics . Knitted textiles are used to produce, for example, underwear , curtain fabrics , laces , nets, but also velvet and plush .
Differentiation of knitted fabrics from knitted fabrics, woven fabrics and picture knitting
With knitted fabrics, one thread loop is looped into another to form the connecting loop . When knitting or crocheting , one stitch after the other is made, the stitches are next to each other and the thread runs horizontally along a row of stitches; a knitted fabric produced in this way is called a knitted fabric , regardless of whether it is produced manually or by machine. In knitwear , a large number of stitches are formed in one step by numerous needles simultaneously grabbing the thread and looping it through loops. Such a method is only carried out by machine, with the needles and sinkers being moved as a whole and guided in specific movement patterns. With the so-called weft knitted fabric, a row of stitches is formed over the previous one with just one cross-running thread and the result is similar to a knitted fabric. In a warp knitted fabric, on the other hand, numerous vertically running threads are used, and stitches standing one on top of the other are then knitted between adjacent threads, that is, wales not standing next to one another in a row.
In contrast to knitted fabrics, woven fabrics , in which two cross thread systems ( warp and weft ) are interwoven. Not to be confused with the production of knitted goods is the artisanal picture knitting , in which colored weft threads are only guided back and forth manually within the corresponding colored sections.
Weft knitted goods are manufactured as flat or round knitted goods (tubes). It is knitted with just one thread. This runs diagonally, is seized by many needles at the same time and pulled through the previous row of stitches; this creates a new series of meshes. The manufacturing process is similar to that of machine knitting , but with weft knitting all “knitting needles ” are moved at the same time. Elaborate patterns are not possible in this way.
Otherwise we can hardly distinguish between knitted fabrics in terms of appearance and wearing properties.
Warp knitted fabric
Warp knitted fabrics are made with many threads and at least as many needles . In warp knitting, the threads run vertically, similar to the warp threads in weaving, are gripped by the needles and pulled through the previously formed stitches of adjacent threads. So that there is a surface and not individual mesh bands (chain stitches, also called fringes), the needles do not all grip the same thread, but alternately also adjacent ones. Various weaves are possible here, whereby one or more threads can be skipped.
Warp knitwear differs optically from knitwear and weft knitwear in that the stitches are not straight, but rather slightly diagonally. In addition, the fabric is less elastic. One advantage of warp knitted fabrics over weft knitted fabrics is their greater durability, as the multiple threads mean that stitches can hardly "run".
The advantage of knitted fabrics over woven fabrics is their higher elasticity (which is less than that of knitted fabrics). However, this is associated with poor dimensional stability and the strength of a knitted fabric is also lower than that of a woven fabric. Knitted fabrics are basically suitable for other applications than woven fabrics. Knitted fabrics are ideal for clothing because of their elasticity and crease resistance . One advantage of the knitted fabric is that it is more likely to be ladder-proof. Wool and coarse yarns are just as suitable for knitting as very fine yarns. High-quality clothing textiles can be produced with the finest yarn and high mesh density. It is also possible to work patterns. The use of elastic fibers in the knitted fabric results in stretch textiles.
Examples of knitted fabrics
- Knitting together (= Warp) (a knitted fabric with short loops) - for home textiles
- Plush (a knitted fabric with long loops) - for home textiles, toys, imitation fur
- Nicki (a plush in which the loops are cut open) - for toys, sweaters
- Jersey - for sweaters, t-shirts
- Leotard - for underwear
- Knitted terry - for towels
- Nylon knitted fabric - for stockings and tights
- Piqué - for polo shirts
- Fleece - for sweatshirts, sweat jackets
- Pannes velvet - a shiny, velvety fabric with a flattened ("pannied") pile
- Competence atlas of the Upper Franconian textile industry
- Substance lexicon
- Textile Dictionary. German English
- Video for the production of a knitted fabric
- Knitting - Encyclopedia - Brockhaus.de. Retrieved January 13, 2018 .