There are various legends about the figure of Orpheus. According to unanimous ancient tradition, it came from Thrace , even if the so-called landscape was generously extended and included Macedonia . Pierien in the northeast of Mount Olympus in particular is mentioned by the majority and in the oldest traditions as his home, specifically Dion in particular claimed to be Orpheus' birthplace. He was born the son of the muse Calliope . His father was the Thracian king and river god Oiagros (or, according to other traditions, Apollo ). Apollon, the god of music, gave him a lyre that Apollon had received from his half-brother Hermes . Orpheus was considered the best among the singers; he bewitched gods, humans and even animals, plants and stones. The trees bowed towards him when he played, and the wild animals crowded peacefully around him, and even the rocks wept at his beautiful song.
The Argonauts took him on their way to obtain the Golden Fleece . Orpheus sang so beautifully that he even conquered the angry sea and enemies with the magic of his lyre. While driving, he is said to have drowned out the sirens with his singing .
Orpheus' wife was the nymph Eurydice . When Aristaios tried to rape her, according to Virgil's story in the Georgica , she died while fleeing from a snakebite, which Aristaios was charged with. Orpheus went into the underworld to move the god Hades through his song and the play of his lyre to give him back his wife. His art was so great that even the hellhound Kerberos stopped barking. So his request was granted - but on the condition set by Hades and Persephone that he should go ahead on the ascent into the upper world and not look around for Eurydice. However, since he did not hear the steps of his wife behind him, he looked around and she disappeared again into the underworld.
The singer was close to the muses and thus to the god Apollo, but not to Dionysus , the god of intoxication and extravagant, wild parades and chants. Orpheus, as Ovid reports , was torn apart in his homeland by " maenads ", intoxicated followers of Dionysus. According to ancient beliefs, it was no consolation that he could now join the shadow of Eurydice as a shadow. In later adaptations of the myth, the motive for the murder is cited as being that Orpheus renounced his love for women and developed into a misogynist or even turned to the love of boys, which, as Ovid claims, he was the first to have taught the Thracians. However, his head and lyre were thrown into the Hebros River , they swam down into the Aegean Sea and were washed ashore on the island of Lesbos . The head kept singing until Apollo told him to be silent. His grave is said to have been in the city of Leibethra - other sources also name this city as the birthplace of Orpheus and the river in which his head was found, Meletos . His lyre was moved to the sky as a constellation .
Orpheus may have had historical models and was possibly a reformer of the Dionysus cult . His myth embodied the immortality of the soul and combined strong oriental influences with the Thracian roots. The Greeks ascribed the invention of music and dance to him.
Interpretation of Orpheus in early Christian apologetics and art
Since Clement of Alexandria , Orpheus has been interpreted as a prefiguration of Christ and corresponding interpretations can also be found in Eusebius of Caesarea , Cyril of Alexandria and Augustine , who called him a "poeta theologus". His descent into the underworld has been compared to Christ's descent into the dead ; while Orpheus finally had to leave his beloved behind, Christ broke the gates of hell and led the prisoners of the deep into heaven. Orpheus bewitched the wild animals - Christ the sinners. In the 5th century Orpheus was described as the prophet of Christ.
Classic Orpheus motifs also appear in early Christian art, which can be seen as depictions of Christ. Often these are connected with the motif of the Good Shepherd and show a lyre player with sheep at his side.
The Christian Orpheus motif persists into the late Middle Ages. With the renaissance and the renewed engagement with ancient motifs, the Orpheus representations were largely no longer intended to be Christian from around the 16th century.
The work of a poet also called " Orpheus " is received in the old church.
The myth in art
In the opera in particular , the story of the singer who tries in vain to win back his lover from Hades has always remained alive, although in Christoph Willibald Gluck's opera Eurydice does not have to return to the underworld, but is allowed to stay with Orpheus. There are numerous Orpheus operas .
Musicians in particular took up the story of the singer, who soothed wild animals and even the gods of the underworld with his music:
- Jacopo Peri : Euridice (1600)
- Giulio Caccini : Euridice (1600, WP 1602)
- Claudio Monteverdi : L'Orfeo (first performance 1607)
- Domenico Belli : Orfeo Dolente (Florence 1616)
- Heinrich Schütz : Ballet Opera Orpheus and Eurydice (Dresden 1638, libretto August Buchner , music not preserved)
- Antonio Sartorio : L'Orfeo (1672)
- Marc-Antoine Charpentier : La descente d'Orphée aux enfers (1686/87)
- Reinhard Keizer : Orpheus (1709)
- Johann Joseph Fux : Orfeo ed Euridice (1715)
- Jean-Philippe Rameau : Cantata Orphée by (c.1721)
- Georg Philipp Telemann : Orpheus or The Wonderful Persistence of Love (1726)
- William Hayes : Ode When the fair Consor or Orpheus and Euridice (1735)
- Christoph Willibald Gluck's tragic opera Orfeo ed Euridice (1762)
- Joseph Haydn's opera L'anima del filosofo ossia Orfeo ed Euridice (1791, first performance only 1951)
- Franz Liszt : Orpheus , Symphonic Poem (1854)
- Jacques Offenbach's operetta Orpheus in the Underworld (1858)
- Carl Orff : Orpheus , new version of Monteverdi's L'Orfeo (1924/1940)
- Igor Stravinsky : Orpheus . Ballet (1948). WP: New York City Ballet
- Luiz Bonfá : Black Orpheus (actually Manhã de Carnaval , 1959), Bossa Nova and Jazz Standard
- The Herd : From the Underworld . Pop song, text by Alan Howard and Ken Blaikley, (1967)
- The Walker Brothers : Orpheus (1967). Song from the album Images
- Reinhard Mey : I wanted to sing like Orpheus (1967). Album and song.
- Michael Denhoff : O Orpheus sings five lyrical pieces for octet (1977).
- Hans Werner Henze : Orpheus (1978). A story in 6 scenes (2 acts). Libretto: Edward Bond , world premiere: Kölner Rundfunk-Sinfonie-Orchester / Orpheus behind the wire (1981–1983) for 4- to 12-part mixed choir. WP: BBC Singers, 1985.
- Gerd Domhardt : Orpheus fragments
- David Sylvian : Orpheus on the album Secrets Of The Beehive (1987)
- Klaus Miehling : Orphée ; Cantate Françoise for baritone, treble recorder and Bc op.25 (1988)
- Philip Glass : The Chamber Opera Orphée (1993) based on the film (1950) by Jean Cocteau
- Rolf Riehm : Restoring the Death of Orpheus (2000) for accordion and large orchestra.
- Carmen Consoli : Orfeo on the album Stato di Necessità (2000)
- Beat Furrer : Desire. for music theater (2001). WP: Vocal Ensemble Nova and ensemble recherche
- Nicolaus A. Huber : The Escaped Orpheus for guitar quartet (2001)
- Stormlord : A Sight Inwards on the album At the Gates of Utopia (2001)
- Ash : Orpheus (2004). (Single from the album Meltdown )
- Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds : The Lyre of Orpheus (2004)
- Amber : In the Depths of Hades (2005)
- Söhne Mannheims : I wanted to sing like Orpheus (Cover of Reinhard Meys Lied; album Wettsingen in Schwetzingen , 2008)
- Anaïs Mitchell : Hadestown (2010)
- Otto Dix : Orpheus on the album Zone of Shadows (2010)
- Saltatio Mortis : Orpheus on the album Storm on Paradise (2011)
- Arcade Fire : Awful Sound (Oh Eurydice) and It's Never Over (Hey Orpheus) on the album Reflektor (2013)
- Voyager : Orpheus on album V (2014)
- François Cotinaud : Transformation. Mirror painting. L'Orphée de Rilke . Ensemble luxury. After sonnets to Orpheus . With Pascale Labbé (voice), François Cotinaud (clarinet, saxophone), and Jérôme Lefebvre (guitar). Label Musivi (Musea), 2015.
- Timo Jouko Herrmann : La lira d'Orfeo for guitar (2015/16)
- Christina Pluhar & L'Arpeggiata : Orfeo Chamán (2016)
- Orphaned Land feat. Hansi Kürsch - Like Orpheus (2018)
- Hozier : Talk on the album Wasteland, Baby! (2019)
The story of the singer Orpheus as a participant in the Argonauts voyage is mentioned in particular at
The tragic love story is u. a. tells at
Some literary versions and arrangements:
- Unknown author: Sir Orfeo , Middle English poem from around 1300
- Angelo Poliziano : Fabula di Orfeo , 1470
- Calderón : El divino Orfeo , play, 166
- Johann Wolfgang von Goethe : Urworte. Orphic , cycle of poems, 1817
- Gustav Schwab : The most beautiful sagas of classical antiquity , 1838–40
- Georg Trakl : Passion , poem from 1914
- Oskar Kokoschka : Orpheus and Euridike , play from 1918
- Rainer Maria Rilke : The poem Orpheus. Eurydice. Hermes (in: Neue Gedichte , 1907) and the cycle of poems Sonette to Orpheus , 1923
- Jean Cocteau: Orpheus , play from 1926
- Gottfried Benn : Orpheus' Death , poem from Static Poems , 1948
- Ingeborg Bachmann : Dark things to say , poem from 1953
- Tennessee Williams : Orpheus Descending , play from 1957
- Arno Schmidt : Caliban about Setebos , story from 1963
- Józef Wittlin : Orfeusz w piekle XX wieku. Paris 1963 (Orpheus in Hell of the 20th Century, Polish; same title for a biographical film from 1994).
- Günter Kunert : Orpheus I – VI , poem cycle from 1970
- Peter Maiwald : Orpheus , poem and chapter from Good Things , 1987
- Wolfgang Bauer : Oh, poor Orpheus! , Play from 1989
- Helmut Krausser : Melodien , Roman, Munich 1993
- Neil Gaiman : Sandman: Fables and Reflections , Graphic Novel, 1988-1996
- Patrick Roth : Orpheus to Hollywood , poetics lecture from Ins Tal der Schatten , 2002
- Elfriede Jelinek : Shadows (Eurydice says) , play from 2013
Orpheus in the circle of wild animals listening to his music is a popular theme in Roman mosaic art :
The scene in which Eurydice reaches out her hand to Orpheus on the rise from the underworld was a popular motif in sculpture even in antiquity.
Motifs from the Orpheus legend are also taken up in the Middle Ages and in modern art:
- Jean Miélot : miniature on fol. 73v of the Brussels manuscript of the little book of virtues Epitre d'Othéa à Hector by Christine de Pizan , mid-15th century. The author reprimands Orpheus for getting involved with hell; the illustrator depicts Orpheus and Eurydice escaping the throat of hell.
- Jacopo da Sellaio : Orpheus plays in the midst of the animals , around 1485 ( Wawel , Krakow)
- Nicolò dell'Abbate : Orpheus and Eurydice , around 1560 ( National Gallery , London)
- Nicolas Poussin : Paysage avec Orphée et Eurydice , around 1650 ( Louvre-Lens , Lens)
- Gerard de Lairesse : La Descente d'Orphée aux enfers , around 1662 ( La Boverie , Liège)
- Jan Brueghel the Elder : Orpheus in the Underworld
- Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot : Orpheus saves Eurydice from the underworld
- Henryk Siemiradzki : Orpheus in the underworld
- Gustave Moreau : Orphée ( Jeune fille thrace portant la tête d'Orphée ), 1866
- Michele Tripisciano : L'Orfeo , 1868
- Anita Rée : Orpheus with the animals , mural, around 1930
- Gerhard Marcks : Orpheus folder with ten woodcuts from 1948 and the Orpheus sculpture from 1959, of which there are several casts, placed in front of the Berlin Philharmonic and in the main building of the University of Gießen
- Martin Mayer : Orpheus , 1962
- Alfred Hrdlicka : Orpheus I and Orpheus II , 1963
Movie and TV
- Orphée , film by Jean Cocteau (France 1949)
- Orfeu Negro , directed by Marcel Camus (France 1959)
- Le Testament d'Orphée , film by Jean Cocteau (France 1960)
- Orpheus in the Underworld , film by Horst Bonnet (GDR 1974)
- The Fantastic Journey of Orpheus ( Le Voyage D'Orphée ), short animation film by Jean Manuel Costa (France 1983)
- Behind the Horizon ( What Dreams May Come ), directed by Vincent Ward (USA 1998)
- Orfeu , directed by Carlos Diegues (Brazil 1999)
- Angel , Season 4, Episode 15 Orpheus (USA 2003)
- Looking for and finding love , film adaptation of the topic by Helmut Dietl and Patrick Süskind (Germany 2005)
- All My Children , the storyline Project Orpheus the main character David Hayward (USA 2011)
- You will still be amazed , film by Alain Resnais (France / Germany 2012)
- Portrait of a young woman in flames , film by Celine Sciamma (France 2019)
- Orphea , film by Alexander Kluge and Khavn De La Cruz (Germany 2020)
- Project Rhodope - in the footsteps of Orpheus and Eyridike , development project
- Bernhard Huss : Orpheus. In: Maria Moog-Grünewald (Ed.): Mythenrezeption. The ancient mythology in literature, music and art from the beginnings to the present (= Der Neue Pauly . Supplements. Volume 5). Metzler, Stuttgart / Weimar 2008, ISBN 978-3-476-02032-1 , pp. 522-538 (overview of myth and history of reception).
- Robert Böhme: Orpheus. The singer and his time. Francke, Bern / Munich 1970.
- Elke Boehr , Heide Diederichs: Orpheus, the singer from Thrace. An archaeological children's book. As told by Elke Böhr. 2nd Edition. Zabern, Mainz am Rhein 2004, ISBN 3-8053-0450-1 .
- Marcel Detienne : The Writing of Orpheus. Greek Myth in Cultural Context. Translated by Janet Lloyd. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore 2003. (Formerly L'écriture d'Orphée. Gallimard, Paris 1989.) ISBN 0-8018-6954-4 .
- Rudolf Echt , Roxolana Bahrjanyj (Ed.): The Thracians. The golden kingdom of Orpheus. Exhibition July 23 to November 28, 2004. Art and Exhibition Hall of the Federal Republic of Germany. Zabern, Mainz 2004, ISBN 3-8053-3341-2 .
- Michael Grant , John Hazel: Lexicon of ancient myths and figures. dtv, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-423-32508-9 .
- Otto Group : Orpheus . In: Wilhelm Heinrich Roscher (Hrsg.): Detailed lexicon of Greek and Roman mythology . Volume 3.1, Leipzig 1902, Sp. 1058-1207 ( version ).
- Bernhard Hansel : Orpheus in the underworld. In: Elke Böhr, Wolfram Martini (Hrsg.): Studies on mythology and vase painting. Konrad Schauenburg on his 65th birthday on April 16, 1986. Zabern, Mainz 1986, ISBN 3-8053-0898-1 , pp. 7-12.
- Augusta Hönle: Orpheus. A Thracian singer in Greek garb. In: Ancient World . Volume 35, Issue 3, 2004, pp. 51-53.
- Hermann Jung : Orpheus and Music - Metamorphoses of an Ancient Myth in European Cultural History. Peter Lang, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-631-72824-6 .
- Karl Kerényi : The Mythology of the Greeks - The Gods and Human Stories. dtv, Munich 1994, ISBN 3-423-30030-2 .
- Claudia Maurer Zenck (Ed.): The Orpheus Myth from Antiquity to the Present. The lectures of the interdisciplinary lecture series at the University of Hamburg, summer semester 2003. Peter Lang, Frankfurt a. M. 2004, ISBN 3-631-53063-3 .
- Christoff Neumeister : Orpheus and Eurydike. A Virgil parody of Ovid. (Ov., Met. X 1-XI 66 and Verg., Georg. IV 457-527). In: Würzburg Yearbooks for Classical Studies. Volume 12, 1986, pp. 169-181.
- Publius Ovidius Naso : Orpheus and Eurydice. In: Metamorphoses. Ed. And transl. by Gerhard Fink (= Tusculum Collection. ) Artemis & Winkler, Zurich 2004, ISBN 3-7608-1736-X (online; Chapter 45 there).
- Robert von Ranke-Graves : Greek Mythology - Sources and Interpretation. rororo, Hamburg 2001, ISBN 3-499-55404-6 .
- Christoph Riedweg : Orfeo. In: Salvatore Settis (Ed.): I Greci: Storia Cultura Arte Società. Volume 2.1. Einaudi, Turin 1996, pp. 1251-1280.
- Christoph Riedweg : Orpheus or the magic of musiké. Ancient variations on an influential myth. In: Therese Fuhrer , Paul Michel , Peter Stotz (eds.): Stories and their history. Schwabe, Basel 2004, pp. 37–66.
- Volker Scherliess : Aspects of the Orpheus Myth. In: Wilfried Seipel (Ed.): Dipingere la musica. Exhibition catalog Vienna – Milan. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna 2001, ISBN 3-85497-021-8 , pp. 55–59.
- Gustav Schwab : Orpheus and Eurydice. In: The most beautiful sagas of classical antiquity. Liesching, Stuttgart 1836; Reprint Reclam, Stuttgart 2002 (online), ISBN 3-15-056386-0 .
- Konrat Ziegler : Orpheus 1. In: Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume XVIII, 1, Stuttgart 1939, Col. 1200-1316.
The myth in the visual arts
- Felix M. Schoeller: Representations of Orpheus in antiquity. Diss. Phil, Freiburg 1968.
- Zoltán Kádár : About the animals around Orpheus on a mosaic of the villa near Casale (Piazza Armerina). In: Marcell Restle (Hrsg.): Festschrift for Klaus Wessel on the 70th birthday in memoriam (= Munich works on art history and archeology. Vol. 2). Editio Maris, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-925801-02-2 , pp. 139-145.
- Otto Schönberger : Orpheus in Florence. Contemporary images from Angelo Poliziano's 'Favola d'Orfeo'. In: Niklas Holzberg , Friedrich Maier (Eds.): Ut poesis pictura. Ancient texts in pictures. Volume 1: Essays, Interpretations, Projects. Buchners Verlag, Bamberg 1993, ISBN 3-7661-5433-8 , pp. 87-93.
- Catherine Camboulives, Michéle Lavallée (ed.): Les Métamorphoses d'Orphée. Exhibition catalog Tourcoing-Strasbourg-Brussels 1994/1995. Tourcoing 1995, ISBN 90-5349-167-8 .
- Ilona Julia Jesnick: The image of Orpheus in Roman mosaic, an exploration of the figure of Orpheus in Graeco-Roman art and culture with special reference to its expression in the medium of mosaic in late antiquity. Bar International Series. Vol. 671. Diss. 1992. Archaeopress, London 1997, ISBN 0-86054-862-7 .
- Karl Walter Littger (ed.): Orpheus in the arts. Exhibition of the Eichstätt-Ingolstadt University Library in the Eichstätt State and Seminar Library, with illustrations by Ernst Arnold Bauer (= publications of the Eichstätt University Library. Vol. 55). Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2002, ISBN 3-447-04610-4 .
- Guido Reuter: The singing head of Orpheus, reception of myths and myths in German painting in the post-war years. In: Myths in Art. Vol. 1: Myth. Königshausen and Neumann, Würzburg 2004, ISBN 3-8260-2576-8 , pp. 25-47.
- Lorenz Dittmann: Eurydike - Aristaeus - Orpheus, on a text by Christa Schwinn. In: Ingeborg Besch (Hrsg.): Pictures are not fictional but clear. Festschrift for Christa Schwinn. Staden, Saarbrücken 2005, ISBN 3-935348-17-7 , pp. 121–128.
- Götz J. Pfeiffer: Orpheus in the underworld with Karl Junker (1850-1912). The artist and his works between Fatum and Fama. In: Rosenland. Journal of Lippe History. No. 2, 2005, pp. 19–37 E-magazine (PDF; 1.9 MB).
The myth in literature
- Wolfgang Storch (Ed.): Myth Orpheus. Texts from Virgil to Ingeborg Bachmann. Reclam, Leipzig 1997, 3rd edition. 2001, ISBN 3-379-01590-3 .
- Christine Mundt-Espín (Ed.): View of Orpheus. 2500 years of European reception history of an ancient myth (= Mainz research on drama and theater. Vol. 29). Francke, Tübingen 2003, ISBN 3-7720-2797-0 .
- Helmut Gugel: Orpheus' walk into the underworld in Ovid's Metamorphoses (Met. X, 1–171). In: Živa antika. Volume 22, 1972, , pp. 39-59.
- Adolf Primmer : The song of Orpheus in Ovid's Metamorphoses. In: Sprachkunst. Volume 10, 1979, pp. 123-137.
- Christoff Neumeister: Aristaeus and Orpheus in the 4th book of Georgica. In: Würzburg Yearbooks for Classical Studies. New Series, Volume 8, 1982, pp. 47-56.
- Bardo Gauly : Ovid, Venus and Orpheus on Atalanta and Hippomenes. To Ov. met. 10, 560-707. In: Franz Bömer (Hrsg.): Gymnasium . Volume 99, 1992, , pp. 435-454.
- Stephan Busch : Orpheus with Apollonios Rhodios. In: Helmut Berve (ed.): Hermes . Volume 121, 1993, , pp. 301-324.
- Hans-Ludwig Oertel: A classical Orpheus. To Ovid, Met. X 40-52. In: Niklas Holzberg, Friedrich Maier (Eds.): Ut poesis pictura. Buchners Verlag, Bamberg 1993, ISBN 3-7661-5433-8 , pp. 79-86.
- Jörg Döring : Ovids Orpheus. Stroemfeld-Nexus, Basel-Frankfurt 1996, ISBN 3-86109-135-6 .
- W. Schubert: Orpheus in the Argonautica of Valerius Flaccus. In: Ulrich Eigler , Eckard Lefèvre (ed.): Ratis omnia vincet. New investigations into the Argonautica of Valerius Flaccus. In collaboration with Gesine Manuwald (= Zetemata. Vol. 98). Beck, Munich 1998, ISBN 3-406-44598-5 , pp. 269-284.
- John Block Friedman: Orpheus in the Middle Ages. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Massachusetts) 1970
- Konstantinos Tsangalas: The Orpheus and Arion motif in ancient myth and in a modern Greek fairy tale. In: Wolfdietrich Siegmund (Ed.): Ancient myth in our fairy tales. Röth, Kassel 1984, ISBN 3-87680-335-7 , pp. 72-79.
- Pierre Brunel (ed.): Le mythe d'Orphée au XIXe et au XXe siècle. Actes du colloque de la Sorbonne. In: Revue de littérature comparée. Volume 73, Issue 4, 1999, .
- Dieter Paul Fuhrmann: Orphic and hermetic tradition in Goethe's work “Urworte. Orphic ". In: Journal of Germanists in Romania. Volume 8, Issue 1–2 (15–16), 1999, pp. 150–154 ( online ).
- Olga Artsibacheva: The reception of the Orpheus myth in German musical dramas of the 17th century. Niemeyer, Tübingen 2008.
- Olga Artsibacheva and Christiane Hansen (eds.): German-language Orpheus libretti of the 17th century. 2 volumes. Hiersemann, Stuttgart 2015/16.
- Seong Joo Lee: Faust or Orpheus? The irony of the brotherhood of the two opposing artist types in Thomas Mann's “Doctor Faustus”. In: Germanic Notes And Reviews. Vol. 45/2, 2014, pp. 21-42.
The myth in the film
- Graeme Gilloch: Orpheus in Hollywood. Siegfried Kracauer's Offenbach film. In: Mari Hvattum (Ed.): Tracing modernity, manifestations of the modern in architecture and the city. Routledge, New York 2004, ISBN 0-415-30511-X , pp. 307-323.
The myth in class
- Roland Glaesser: Orpheus as a speaker. A proposal for the treatment of Ovid, Met. X 16–52 in grades 10 or 11. In: The ancient language teaching. Volume 38, Issue 3, 1995, , pp. 26-40.
- Ute Schmidt-Berger: Metamorphoses of Orpheus. In: The ancient language teaching. Volume 38, Issue 4-5, 1995, pp. 128-162.
- Udo Reinhardt: Orpheus and Eurydice. Images to the text. In: The ancient language teaching. Volume 40, Issue 3, 1997, , pp. 80-96.
- Jürgen Wöhrmann: Orpheus is once and for all when he sings. A mythical-mythological figure in text and image. In: The ancient language teaching. Volume 40, Issue 3, 1997, , pp. 21-35.
- Everything about Orpheus in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Orpheus in the German Digital Library
- Search for Orpheus in the SPK digital portal of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation
- Reinhard Kapp: Chronological index of the operas, cantatas, instrumental music, literary texts, plays, films and historiographical works related or to be related to Orpheus (and / or Eurydice) ( Memento of August 21, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) (in progress)
- Review of: The Orpheus Myth from Antiquity to the Present
- Ancient Scroll May Yield Religious Secrets ( Memento from September 29, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- about 400 photos of representations of Orpheus in art, in the Warburg Institute Iconographic Database .
- For the whole section cf. L. Pressouyre: Orpheus . In: Lexicon of Christian Iconography . Freiburg 1971, Volume 2, columns 356–358.
- Cf. Andreas Dorschel : The art of not becoming tragic. On the music history of Orpheus. In: Musikfreunde XXVI (2013/14), No. 6, pp. 14-17. ( Memento from June 7, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- portrait in Book I, 23-34.
- First brief mentions can be found in Plato , Das Gastmahl 179 d; Euripides , Alkestis 357-362; Isocrates 11.8
- 4: 281-566
- 10, 1-85
- Mosaic Room - 9 Orpheus Mosaic ( Memento from December 24, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- http://www.telesubjektiv.at/documentation/gallery/imagepages/gallery_012.html ( Memento from October 9, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- geb.uni-giessen.de .