A strait , even Strait (short street ) or channel , regional and Sund or Belt called, is a place of sea , two land masses come to the close and thus form a bottleneck of the sea. Straits are (and were especially in the past) of great strategic importance for shipping . The counterpart is the isthmus (Isthmus).
Straits were coveted areas in ancient times due to their strategic importance. Their control could confer considerable power, so they were often the object of political interference.
The Convention on the Law of the Sea ensures that ships and aircraft have the right of unhindered transit through straits. However, in a strait that is formed by an island of a strait bordering state and its mainland, this right does not apply if there is a seaway through the high seas that is equally suitable from a navigational and hydrographic point of view or an exclusive economic zone is available seaward of the island.
Examples of straits
The Bosphorus and the Dardanelles have been particularly hotly contested throughout history. It is believed that the Trojan War was not ultimately waged to end Troy's control of the Dardanelles. During the Candia War (around Crete) in the 17th century , the Venetians purposefully blocked the Dardanelles in order to worsen the supply situation in the Ottoman Empire , especially in Istanbul . The question of control over the Bosporus and Dardanelles contributed to the binding of the Ottoman Empire to the Central Powers in 1914 , with the help of which the Turks were able to successfully defend the Straits against the Entente in the Battle of Gallipoli in 1915/1916 in the First World War , before the Ottoman Empire finally collapsed in 1918.
In order to bring the Strait of Gibraltar and thus the sea route from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean under control, Great Britain conquered Gibraltar together with the Dutch in 1704 and made the rock and city a British crown colony in 1830 . It became even more important with the opening of the Suez Canal , as it also secured the sea route to the British colony of India .
- North Sea - Atlantic
Baltic Sea including Kattegat
- Oresund between Zealand and the Swedish Skåne
- Great Belt between the Danish islands of Funen and Zealand
- Little Belt between Funen and Jutland
- Alsensund between Alsen Island and Sundewitt Peninsula
- Fehmarnbelt between Fehmarn and Lolland
- Fehmarnsund between Fehmarn and mainland Germany ( Wagrien )
- Strelasund between Stralsund and Rügen
- Atlantic - European Arctic Ocean
- Sea of Azov - Black Sea
- Black Sea - Sea of Marmara
- Sea of Marmara - Aegean Sea
- Tyrrhenian Sea - Ionian Sea
- Adriatic Sea - Ionian Sea
- Arabian Sea - Persian Gulf
- Red Sea
Indian Ocean - Pacific Ocean
- Strait of Malacca between Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula
- Strait of Johor between the Malay Peninsula and Singapore
- Sunda Strait between Sumatra and Java
- Lombok Road between Bali and Lombok
- Torres Strait between New Guinea and Northern Australia
- Bass Strait between Victoria and Tasmania
- Palk road between Tamil Nadu ( India ) and Sri Lanka
- Sea of Japan - Pacific Ocean
- Coral Sea (Pacific Ocean)
- Pacific Ocean - around Vancouver Island ( Canada )
- Pacific Ocean - San Francisco Bay
- Atlantic Ocean - Pacific Ocean
- Pacific Ocean - Arctic Ocean
- Atlantic-Arctic Ocean:
- Laptev Sea - East Siberian Sea :
- Heinz Fischer: Meerengen: a comparative study , in: Geographica Helvetica , 18 (1963), pp. 212–222 ( digitized version )